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A. Dominant : Cheek Freckles Recessive:

In: Science

Submitted By Bright1
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Registration Number: E156/Ol/8000/2013
Unit Code: ISC 300
Lecture’s Name: MR. NAMANDE
Student’s Signature: _______________________________________
Coordinator’s Signature: ____________________________________

Rubber Stamp: _________________________ Date: _________________________________

REG. NO.: E 156/OC/8000/2013
TEL: 0721573204/0735902001
In Kenya, information centers population known as registry was established by an act of parliament Cap.19 of 1965 and Cap.14 Laws of Kenya. There are also other circulars and general letters that govern registries and records or documents in Public offices. These rules and regulations range from creation, accumulation, destruction of valueless records to permanent preservation of records with enduring value.
These information centers (registries) have been cascaded up to divisional level, currently known as sub-ward; administratively headed by Assistant County Commissioners formerly known as District Officers. The information centres (registries) at that level were manned by sub ward clerks formerly known as divisional clerks.
Makindu Deputy Commissioner’s (DCC’s) registry was established in 20…. With Mr….as the District Commissioner and Mr.Nzioka as the Executive Officer (EO) Registry supervisor otherwise known as District Clerk(D/Clerk).At present the officers manning public main/central registries are called Sub County Records Management Officers(SCRMO) while those manning personnel registries within the sub-county are known as sub county Human Resource Management Officers (SCHRMO). Initially, the registry was manned by 5 officers. At the time of the researcher, main registry was being manned by two officers.
Records and information are vital resources that need to be properly managed if organizations have to achieve meaningful development. They are not only key to the preservation of organizations’ and societies’ memory, but also contribute to the realization of good governance and the development of a national identity.
Records and information can be defined as a set of interrelated components that collect, retrieve, process, store and distribute information to support decision making, coordination and control in an organization.
Records and information management directly impact on efficiency and effectiveness in service delivery. Proper records management hastens the pace of decision making, hence improving on service delivery. Poor records management on the other hand delays the decision making process leading to poor service delivery and frustrations among clients hence opening opportunities for corruption.
However, since the formation of information centres (registries) in 1956 in Kenya, studies have been scanty, so far, on pilot study or a task force was constituted under the on-going Civil Service Reform Programme (CSRP) to critically examine the current records management systems and practices in Government registries and make appropriate recommendations to enhance the quality of service delivery in 2004.
The other concerns about information centres and the records held in those centres were only through various legislation on records management reports on records management, circulars and conferences. Some of these circulars and conferences are as enumerated here below: 1. Circulars on record materials. The Head of public Service circular letter no. OP/1/48A/66 dated 28th Novemner, 1985 and circular letter no. OP/1/48A/11/10 dated 7th July, 1989 on the procedures to be followed on destruction of non-current government records. 2. Circular issued by the Permanent Secretary, Director of Personnel General letter No.7 o 29th August, 1991 regarding destruction of personnel records. 3. Office of the president circular letter reference No.OP.30/2A dated 14th April, 199 addressed the prevalent incidences of missing/lost files and documents. Office of the president circular Ref. No.OP.40/1/1A of 6th June, 2003 on improvement of records management for good governance. 4. The Public Archives and Documentation Service Act (Cap.19) laws of Kenya which empowers the Director of Kenya National Archives and Documentation service on, creation, use and disposal of records. The act further empowers the Director to acquire, house and preserve all public archives and records which are of historical value. 5. The Records Disposal Act (Cap.14) Laws of Kenya empowers the Chief Justice ,the Attorney General and the Register General in consultation with the Director of Kenya National Archives and Documentation service, subject to the Public Archives Act, dispose of the Judicial records and those under the jurisdiction of the registrar General.

6. Government Financial Regulations and Procedures Chapter 23 provide guidelines on preservation and destruction of accountable documents, books and records. Government ministries/Departments effort to correct and improve the poor state registries and records management. 7. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology report dated August,2001 on the “Inspection and Appraisal of closed Records”. 8. Ministry of Finance and Planning report dated 25th April, 2002 on the “survey of management of records. 9. A paper prepared for a world Bank Regional workshop, Abuja,….25th to 26th August,2003 on “Records management and good governance.
This study is a step towards determination of solutions to challenges/factors faced in information centre (registries) at DCC’s office in preservation and conservation of information materials. The results achieved cause the information centre to act as the best example to all other information centres in Kenya.

Government ministries and departments had made efforts to correct and improve the sorry state of information centres and records management; through various reports. Some of those ministries were like Ministry of Education in its report dated August, 2001 on the “Inspection and Appraisal of closed records” and Ministry of Finance vides its report dated 25th April, 2002 on “Survey of management of records” among others.
Despite all those efforts made by the government to put in place legislations and circulars to correct and improve records management has continued to worsen leading to poor service delivery and disappointment to members of the public.
This appalling state is characterized by misfiling, cumbersome retrieved procedures, insufficient storage facilities, cases of missing or lost files and records resulting to delays in decision making and increased opportunities for corruption. In view of the aforesaid, transfer from manual records to electronic mode of record keeping in those information centres has been difficult to implement.

The main objectives of the study to carry out a survey on Makindu Sub-County information centre (Main Registry) and meet the under listed objectives:- * To develop an action plan to implement the recommendations. * To identify the constraints that under service delivery. * To develop mechanisms for monitoring an evaluating the performance in that information centre. * To recommend actionable solutions to address to constraints identified.
The researcher was expected to identify problems experienced in Makindu sub-county information centre. Prepare an action plan detailing the implementations of recommendations made in the study for improved service delivery. This will be achieved through various ways, such as:
Assessing the level of computerization and making appropriate recommendations for networking of information centre and training of information service personnel in computer applications in records management.
Reviewing and re-examining the current records management systems. * Assessing training need and recommending appropriate training programmes for capacity building. * Making recommendations on how to improve performance of information centre, for instant mandatory recording of incoming and outgoing mail/files at any point, ways and means of improving work environment assessing and recommending faster methods of disposal of files to ease congestion f registries. * Finally come up with an action plan with a time frame detailing the implementation of recommendations as well as examine other matters pertaining to performance improvement of the information centre. * To establish the classification system used in the information centre. * To find out the tools used for location and retrieval of information materials. * To determine the problems experienced by the information centre in the management of the information material. * To find out the source of funds fro running the information centre.

Aims of the study
The purpose of undertaking this study on challenges faced by information centre in conservation and preservation of information material was to: * Assess the suitability of the work environment. * Identify the factors affecting mail and the management. * Assess the level of computerization and computer literacy of information centre human resource. * Assess the adequacy of office recommendation and storage facilities for active, semi-active and non-active files/records. * Assess the use of relevant computer packages in records management in information centre. * Identify and determine the optimal staffing levels in the information service. * Identify training needs and develop a training programme. * Develop an action plan detailing the implementation of recommendations.

The main purpose of the study was to identify challenges/factors affecting preservation and conservation of information materials in information centre. Come up with a brief that spelt out the nature and scope of the study, objectives and expected output aimed at improving service delivery in information centre and proper records management.
During the briefing the information service personnel were advised to feel free in volunteering the information and that any information gathered will be highly guarded.

Sampled data was collected from a population of 130 people and this was inclusive of the Makindu sub-county information service personnel. The rest were clients found seeking services from the information centre who were also interviewed and completed the questionnaires.
Data collection methods
While undertaking the exercise, secondary and primary data collection methods were used.

Secondary data
To get secondary data, the study involved carrying out a literature review of circulars and legislations on records management emanating from, office of the president, National treasury (Ministry of Finance). Various reports on information services and records management from other government ministries were also very resourceful.

Primary Data
The study used questionnaire interview, observation and photography methods to collect the primary data.
When designing the questionnaire the following variables were taken into consideration; Cadre of staff manning the information centre, academic and professional qualifications, headship, length of service in the information centre, staffing level, workload analysis and staff training needs. Storage facilities and security measures put in place, mail and file management, state of work environment and disposal of files/records were also considered.
The overall job satisfaction mechanism, the level of computerization and computer literacy were assessed in the questionnaire.
The researcher designed three types of questionnaires for those categories of respondents the study targeted. The categories were information service supervisors information service human resource and information centre clients.
A total of 130 questionnaires were administered to information service supervisor, human resource and clients out of which 18 questionnaires were not returned. Out of 12 questionnaires returned, 6 were from the supervisors, 30 were from personnel working within that sub county and 94 questionnaires were from information centre clients.

Pictorial images were taken to capture the actual situation in the information service centre.

The researcher used the above method to assess the physical state of files/records, storage facilities, state of work environment and security measures in place.

Interviews were normally conducted through meetings between the departmental head and deputy and sectional heads; information service supervisors and human resource personnel to gather in depth information on the kind of service offered by the information centre including the general constraints experienced. Also interviewed were clients found seeking services in the information centre.


The study was guided by the following 15 research questions.
Professionally preserved and conserved records and information management directly impact on efficiency and effectiveness in service delivery. That is, proper records management hastens the pace of decision making, hence improving on service delivery. On the other hand poor records management delays the decision making process leading to poor service delivery and frustrations among clients, circumstance that opens opportunities for corruption. To address the poor state of record management in the information centre and ensure that records, as an institution’s life blood, are effectively utilized in the decision making process, it is imperative that the government develops clear strategies for improvement of records and information management. It is against this background that the researcher critically examined the current records management practices in Makindu sub-county information centre and made appropriate recommendations.

I thank you in advance for your co-operation, commitment and assistance in this task.

Q 1. Academic/ Professional Qualification
(a)Kindly indicate your academic/ professional qualifications in the table below

Present Designation | Educational Qualifications | Professional Qualifications | Others | Training Requirements | | | | | |

(b)Have you ever attended any courses/ workshops/ seminars in records/ information service (registry) management? Yes No (c) Have you ever undergone a security vetting training? Yes No

2(a) In which of the listed information services do you work?

(i) Main/ Central registry (ii) Human resource registry (iii) Confidential/ Secret registry

(b)For how long have you worked in this information centre? (i) Less than one year? (ii)One to two years? (iii)Two to three years? (iv)Three years and above

(c)What are the main activities performed in your information centre? ...................................
(d)What are your duties and responsibilities in the information centre? ......................................

3 Staffing (a) What is the current staffing position in your registry?

Designation | No. | Job Group | Duties Allocated | | | | | | | | | Total | | | |

(b)In your opinion, are the staffing levels adequate? Yes No

4. Workload analysis
(a)On average, how many files is each officer assigned? 1-150 151-250 251-350 351-450

651 and above

5. Mail Management
(a) Incoming Mail
(i) Do you have one central point where mail is received? Yes No

(ii)How do you distribute mail to action officers?

Within an hour

Within a day

More than a day

(b)Outgoing Mail
(i) Is mail dispatched in your information centre?

Yes No

(ii) Normally how long does it take to dispatch mail?

Within one hour?

Within a day

More than a day

(iii)What constraint do you experience in mail management?

Lack of stationery

Inadequate tools or equipment

Lack of transport Shortage of staff

(b) Filing classification/ Index
(i)Which filing classification/ system do you use?



Geographical Alpha-Numeric (ii)What constraints do you experience in file classification/ Indexing?

Lack of awareness

Lack of file indexes

Lack of clear instructions

6. Openig of files

(a)Who authorizes when a new file should be: (specify rank)
(i)Opened ……………………………………………………………………………………….
(ii)Closed …………………………………………………………………………………………
(iii)Titled …………………………………………………………………………………………

7. File movement
(a)Do you assign folio numbers to incoming correspondence?

Yes No
(i)What time do you conduct file census?

Before 9.00 am

After work

During office hours
(ii)Do you frequently experience incidences of missing/ lost file in your information centre?

Yes No

(iii)What measures do you put in place to ensure continuity of service after a file has been declared missing/ lost ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(b)What constraints do you experience in the file movement process?

Lack of cooperation from other officers

Inadequate staff

Lack of stationery

8. Maintenance of active files/ records
Do you carry out maintenance/ repair of active files/ records/ documents?

Yes No.

If yes, how often do you do it?

(i)After 2 years

(ii)After 4 years

(iii)When need arises
(iv) Not at all

9. Closing process of records/ files

(a) What factors determine the closing of files?
(i)Number of folios

(ii)Scheduled period

(iii)Size of file

(b)What constraints do you experience in the process of closing files?
(i)Lack of storage space

(ii)Closing of file before action is finalized

(iii)Lack of stationery
Any other (specify) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

10. Storage of records/ files
(a) Current records/ files
What is the state of physical facilities for storage of active records/ files in your registry? (Tick one or more as appropriate)

In good in poor Adequate Inadequate Condition

(i)Files cabinets



(b)Semi-current records/ files
How are physical facilities provided for storage of semi-current records/ files? In good In Poor Adequate Inadequate

Condition (i)

Cupboards (ii)

Filing cabinets (iii) Shelves

11. Disposal of records/ files

(i)Are there clear procedures/ guidelines of transferring to National Archives or destroying of records/ files? Yes No.

(ii)For how long do you dispose of records/ files?

(a)After 2 years

(b)After 5 years

(c)Not aware

(d)Not at all

(iii)What constraints do you experience in the disposal of records/ files?

(a)Shortage of manpower

(b)Lack of space

(c)Lack of awareness

12. Working Environment/ Facilities in the information centre Give an assessment of the working environment/ facilities in your information centre. (Tick one or more as appropriate)

In good in poor Adequate Inadequate



(ii)Fire extinguishers

(iii) Cleaning equipment



(vi)Reception counter


13. Feedback Mechanism
Does your information centre receive any positive/ negative comments from clients/ officers on the services provided?

Yes No

14. Security of records/ files
(a)Please state the security classification levels used in your information centre.




(b)Indicate the precautionary measures put in place to ensure security of records/ files in your information centre? (Tick one or more as appropriate) Yes No.

(i)Secure door, windows, ceiling and grills

(ii)Frequent fumigation

(iii)Ban on eating/ drinking/ cooking

(iv)Ban on smoking
(v)Fire alarms
15. Information and communication Technology (ICT)
(a) If you have computers in your information centre, for what purpose are they for?

(i)Records/ Data retrieval

(ii)E-Mail/ Internet

(iii)Typing letters

(iv)Data/ records storage

(c) As you use computers in the information centre, what constraints do you experience? Yes No.

(i)Lack of toners

(i)Lack of trained personnel

(iii)Frequent black outs/ fluctuation

(iv) Obsolete printers/ computers

(v)Shortage of stationery

(vi) Lack of computer maintenance services

Thank you for your co-ordination in this exercise.
The study was to determine the challenges faced by Makindu sub-county information centre in preservation and conservation of information materials.

It is to assess constraints experienced by Makindu sub-county information centre and suggest solutions to the recommendations.

Evidence has shown that if information/ data collected is accurate, it plays an in the national development. This information is normally processed in information service centres, such as documentation, registries and archives. For an information centre to perform to its optimum, it should be well funded and run by well trained, qualified and competent personnel.

It is with this notion/ knowledge in mind that if information centres could have good policies, adequate funding, adequate qualified and competent personnel and access to accurate information, then well informed decisions could be made and users served satisfactorily.


The researcher analyzed the data collected through interviews, questionnaires, Observations and Photographs from Makindu Sub- County Information centre.

The data analysis contains both quantitative and qualitative findings and appropriate recommendations that will assist in streamlining the operations of the information centre and improve service delivery as well as proper preservation and conservation of information materials in Makindu sub- County.


1. Musembi M (2002). A manual of records management: Nairobi, Kenya National Archives and Documentation Service.

2. Khamadi S.I.D (1993). Using the library and writing Research Proposals, Reports and Papers. Eldoret, Moi University.

3. Office of the President Circular: OP. /1/48A/ II// 10 on “Depositing of reports and other generally circulated documents in the Kenya National Archives” dated 7th July, 1989.
4. Office of the President Circular: OP. 40/ 1/ 1A on “Improvement of Records Management for Good Governance “dated 6th June, 2003.
5. Office of the President Circular: OP. 1/ 48A/ 66 on Destruction of Non- Current Government Records dated 28th November, 1985.
6. Kombo D K and Tromp D. L. A (2006). Proposal and Thesis Writing, Don Bosco Printing Press: Nairobi.…...

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