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Accounting Theory

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STANDARISASI, HARMONISASI DAN KONVERGENSI IFRS Oleh : Natalia Titiek Wiyani, S.Pd. Di dalam akuntansi keuangan dikenal adanya standar yang harus dipatuhi dalam pembuatan laporan keuangan. Jika tidak terdapat standar, perusahaan dapat saja menyajikan laporan keuangan yang mereka miliki sesuai dengan kehendak mereka sendiri. Hal ini tentunya akan menjadi masalah bagi para pengguna karena akan menyulitkan untuk memahami laporan keuangan yang ada. Setiap negara tentunya mempunyai aturan akuntansi (standar) yang berbeda-beda. Perbedaan akuntansi tiap negara akan menyulitkan bagi para pengguna laporan keuangan terutama bagi para analis, auditor, investor dan kreditor yang lingkup kerjanya melewati batas negara. Apa itu IFRS? IFRS atau International Financial Reporting Standards and Practices diterbitkan dalam bentuk buku yang memuat standar dan praktik internasional mengenai pelaporan keuangan. IFRS merupakan standar akuntansi internasional yang disusun oleh IASB (International Accounting Standard Board). IASB dahulu bernama Komisi Standar Akuntansi Keuangan (IASC /International Accounting Standards Committee). IASC merupakan lembaga independen untuk menyusun standar akuntansi yang dikenal dengan Standar Akuntansi Internasional (IAS/International Accounting Standards). Organisasi ini memiliki tujuan mengembangkan dan mendorong penggunaan standar akuntansi global yang berkualitas tinggi, namun dapat dipahami dan dapat diperbandingkan (Choi et al, 2005). IFRS diterbitkan sebagai upaya untuk memperkuat arsitektur keuangan global dan mencari solusi jangka panjang terhadap kurangnya transparansi informasi keuangan. Adapun tujuan penerapan IFRS adalah: 1. Memastikan bahwa laporan keuangan internal perusahaan mengandung informasi berkualitas tinggi 2. Transparansi bagi pengguna laporan dan dapat dibandingkan sepanjang periode yang disajikan 3. Dapat dihasilkan dengan biaya yang tidak melebihi manfaat untuk para pengguna 4. Meningkatkan investasi Di Indonesia, saat ini menggunakan Prinsip-prinsip Akuntansi Beberapa tahun yang lalu, sebelum akuntansi kita mengacu pada akuntansi Amerika, Indonesia menerapkan sistem pembukuan Belanda yang dikenal dengan istilah tata buku (book keeping). Dengan adanya standar yang berbeda-beda, maka dirasa perlu munculnya akuntansi internasional yang diharapkan mampu mengatasi perbedaan akuntansi yang ada di banyak negara. Mengapa Akuntansi Internasional? Ada beberapa alasan munculnya akuntansi internasional atau yang dikenal dengan IFRS : 1. Semakin luasnya jangkauan perusahaan multi nasional 2. Adanya investasi dari dan ke luar negeri 3. Fluktuasi keuangan yang menimbulkan perubahan kurs valas

4. Di dalam pasar modal USA yaitu NYSE (New York Stock Exchange), dimana terdapat 1.200 perusahaan asing yang terdaftar. Apakah Akuntansi Internasional itu? Menurut (Choi 2005) akuntansi internasional memiliki tiga pengertian yaitu: 1. Pertama, konsep parent foreign subsidiary accounting. Menganggap bahwa akuntansi internasional hanya proses penyusunan laporan konsolidasi antara perusahaan induk dan cabang yang berada di berbagai Negara 2. Kedua, konsep comparative/international accounting. Menekankan pada upaya mempelajari perbedaan akuntansi di berbagai Negara 3. Ketiga,universal atau world accounting yang berarti kerangka/konsep teori dan prinsip akuntansi yang berlaku di semua negara Akuntansi internasional mencakup semua perbedaan prinsip, metode dan standar akuntansi semua negara. Perbedaan akuntansi antar negara terjadi karena perbedaan geografi, social ekonomi, politik dan hokum, budaya, bahasa, dan lainnya. Untuk mengatasi perbedaan perlakuan akuntansi di tiap negara, ada beberapa usulan untuk mengatasinya : a) Setiap perusahaan menyusun laporan keuangan primer dan sekunder b) Menganut single –domicile reporting, yang artinya laporan keuangan disusun menurut standar dari domisili perusahaan tersebut, atau c) Laporan keuangan disusun menurut standar internasional Standarisasi, Harmonisasi dan Konvergensi Standarisasi berbeda dengan harmonisasi (Choi, 2005). Standarisasi adalah penetapan aturan yang kaku, sempit dan bahkan mungkin penerapan satu standar/aturan tunggal dalam segala situasi. Standarisasi tidak mengakomodasi perbedaan-perbedaan antar negara, oleh karena itu sulit diimplementasikan secara internasional. Harmonisasi jauh lebih fleksibel dan terbuka, tidak menggunakan pendekatan satu untuk semua, tetapi mengakomodasi beberapa perbedaan. Harmonisasi merupakan proses untuk meningkatkan komparabilitas (kesesuaian) praktik akuntansi dengan menentukan batasan-batasan seberapa besar praktik tersebut dapat beragam. Standar harmonisasi bebas dari konflik logika dan dapat meningkatkan daya banding informasi keuangan yang berasal dari berbagai negara. Secara sederhana harmonisasi dapat diartikan bahwa suatu negara tidak mengikuti sepenuhnya standar yang berlaku secara internasional. Negara tersebut hanya membuat standar akuntansi yang mereka miliki tidak bertentangan dengan standar akuntansi internasional. Menurut Media Akuntansi Desember 2005, Harmonisasi akuntansi dimaksudkan agar standar akuntansi yang dikeluarkan oleh badan penyusun standar di setiap negara selaras denga IAS (International Accounting Standards) yang ditetapkan oleh IASC. Tidak perlu sama pengaturannya secara teknis, asalkan tidak saling bertentangan maka standar akuntansi nasional dikatakan harmonis denga IAS. Pada tahun 1990-saat ini, di kalangan profesi akuntan di dunia menggunakan istilah konvergensi. Harmonisasi akuntansi mencakup: 1. Standar akuntansi (yang berkaitan dengan pengukuran dan pengungkapannya) 2. Pengungkapan yang dibuat oleh perusahaan-perusahaan publik terkait dengan penawaran surat berharga dan pencatatan pada bursa efek 3. Standar audit Adapun manfaat harmonisasi internasional adalah :

Secara umum semua laporan keuangan menggunakan bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa induk, karena bahasa Inggris digunakan di seluruh dunia • Kalangan usaha akan mengalami manfaat yang cukup besar dalam perencanaan biaya, biaya sistem dan pelatihan Kerugian yang diperoleh dengan adanya harmonisasi adalah : perpajakan dan jaminan sosial berpengaruh terhadap efisiensi nasional. Persetujuan akan sistem perpajakan akan menjadi pendirian seperti sistem kartel dan akan menghilangkan manfaat yang akan diperoleh dalam persaiangan antar negara. Selanjutnya, bagaimana dengan GAAP global yang terharmonisasi? Tentu saja mempunyai manfaat antara lain : 1. Pasar modal menjadi global dan modal investasi dapat bergerak di seluruh dunia tanpa hambatan berarti. Standar pelaporan keuangan yang berkualitas tinggi yang digunakan secara konsisten di seluruh dunia akan memperbaiki efisiensi alokasi modal 2. Investor dapat membuat keputusan investasi yang lebih baik, portofolio akan lebih beragam dan resiko keuangan berkurang 3. Perusahaan-perusahaan dapat memperbaiki proses pengambilan keputusan strategi dalam bidang merger dan akuisisi 4. Gagasan terbaik yang timbul dari aktivitas pembuatan standar dapat disebarkan dan mengembangkan standar global yang berkualitas tinggi • Bagaimana Komentar atas Internasionalisasi Standar Akuntansi? Beberapa pihak mengatakan bahwa penentuan standar internasional merupakan solusi yang terlalu sederhana atas masalah yang rumit. Hal ini juga dikatakan merupakan sebuah taktik KAP-KAP besar yang menyediakan jasa akuntansi internasional untuk memperluas pasarnya. Adopsi standar internasional akan menimbulkan standar yang berlebihan dan dampaknya, perusahaan harus merespon tekanan nasional, politik, sosial dan ekonomi yang semakin meningkat dan semakin dibuat untuk memenuhi ketentuan internasional yang rumit dan berbiaya besar. Pendapat lain mengatakan, pasar modal internasional telah berkembang baik tanpa adanya GAAP global. Harmonisasi prinsip akuntansi internasional tampaknya tidak akan terwujud, tidak ada pihak dominan, tidak ada badan berwenang yang memiliki kemampuan menetapkan adopsi GAAP global. Bagaimana dengan Konvergensi yang ditawarkan IASB? IASB (International Accounting Standards Board) yang sebelumnya disebut IASC, menginginkan agar standar akuntansi seluruh anggotanya konvergen dengan IFRS. Alasan IASB memilih penerapan konvergensi bukan harmonisasi adalah, karena pengaturan yang konvergen akan meningkatkan daya banding laporan keuangan seluruh dunia serta tidak ada permasalahan time lags. Konvergensi standar akuntansi merupakan istilah umum dalam IASB. Konvergensi standar akuntansi internasional dan nasional mencakup penghapusan perbedaan secara bertahap yang mencari solusi terbaik atas masalah- masalah akuntansi dan pelaporan. Apabila telah diterapkan konvergensi, maka tidka ada lagi perbedaan-perbedaan akuntansi. Konvergensi IFRS 2012 IAI menyatakan bahwa Indonesia akan menerapkan program konvergensi IFRS atau Indonesian GAAP yang akan dikonvergensikan secara penuh pada tanggal 1 Januari

2012. Menurut Jurnal Akuntan Indonesia (Juni, 2009): 1. PSAK 50 (revisi 2006) dan PSAK 55 (revisi 2006) yang semula berlaku efektif untuk periode pada satau setelah 1 Januari 2009 diubah menjadi 1 Januari 2010 2. PSAK 50 mengacu pada IAS 32 (revisi 2005), mengenai Instrumen keuangan: penyajian dn pengungkapan 3. PSAK 55 mengacu pada IAS 39 (revisi 2005), mengenai Instrumen keuangan: pengakuan dan pengukuran Bagaimana IAI Menerapkan Konvergensi? Menurut jurnal IAI 2009, banyak pihak yeng meragukan karena PSAK 50 dan 55 yang ditetapkan tahun 2006, implementasinya masih diundur hingga 2010. Namun sebagai perbandingan, IFRS setebal 2000-an halaman, 600-an halaman diantaranya membahas IAS 32 dan 39. Artinya materi IAS 32 dan 39 (PSAK 50 dan 55) tidaklah sederhana. IAI tetap berpegang pada keputusannya yaitu melakukan konvergensi IFRS. Konvergensi standar akuntansi dapat dilakukan dengan 3 cara yaitu: harmonisasi (membuat standar sendiri yang tidak berkonflik dengan IFRS), adaptasi (membuat standar sendiri yang disesuaikan dengan IFRS), atau adopsi (mengambil langsung dari IFRS). Apabila adopsi penuh IFRS dilakukan, maka laporan keuangan berdasarkan PSAK tidak memerlukan rekonsiliasi signifikan dengan laporan keuangan berdasarkan IFRS. Manfaat Adopsi penuh IFRS: 1. Memudahkan pemahaman atas laporan keuangan dengan menggunakan SAK (Standar Akuntansi Keuangan) yang dikenal secara internasional 2. Meningkatkan arus investasi global melalui transparansi 3. Menurunkan biaya modal dengan membuka peluang fund raising melalui pasar modal global 4. Menciptakan efisiensi laporan keuangan Strategi adopsi ada dua cara, yaitu: a) Big Bang Strategy, adopsi penuh dilakukan sekaligus tanpa masa transisi (strategi ini biasanya digunakan oleh negara-negara maju dan sebagian kecil negara berkembang seperti : Afrika Selatan) b) Gradual Strategy, adopsi secara bertahap, dengan masa transisi Adapun arah pengembangan PSAK: • Untuk PSAK yang sama dengan IFRS, maka dilakukan revisi PSAK dan /atau diterbitkan PSAK yang baru • Untuk PSAK industry khusus, maka dihilangkan dan /atau diterbitkan pedoman akuntansi • Untuk PSAK derivasi UU, maka dipertahankan • Untuk PSAK yang belum/tidak diatur dalam IFRS, amaka dikembangkan Proses Konvergensi PSAK dengan IFRS akan berdampak pula terhadap pendidikan yaitu: - Perubahan mind stream dan rule –based kepada principle based - Banyak menggunakan professional judgment:pemahaman substansi dan prinsip yang diatur serta integritas - Banyak menggunakan fair value accounting :perubahan dari income statement approach ke balance sheet approach

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IFRS selalu berubah dan konsep yang digunakan dalam suatu IFRS dapat berbeda dengan IFRS lain, misalnya lease meggunakan risk and rewardconcept dan pemutakhiran IFRS merupakan suatu keharusan Perubahan textbook dari US GAAP kepada IFRS Bagaimana halnya dengan Indonesia?Cara mana yang ditempuh dalam melakukan konvergensi?

Indonesia memilih untuk melakukan adopsi. Namun bukan adopsi penuh, mengingat adanya perbedaan sifat bisnis dan regulasi di Indonesia. Oleh karena itu, saat ini Standar Akuntansi Keuangan milik Indonesia sebagian besar sudah sama dengan IFRS. Indonesia melakukan konvergensi IFRS ini karena Indonesia sudah memiliki komitmen dalam kesepakatan dengan negara-negara G-20. Tujuan kesepakatan tersebut adalah untuk meningkatkan transparansi dan akuntabilitas dalam pelaporan keuangan. Selain itu, konvergensi IFRS akan meningkatkan arus investasi global melalui keterbandingan laporan keuangan (saat ini sekitar 120 negara sudah berkomitmen untuk melakukan konvergensi IFRS). Konvergensi IFRS seharusnya dicapai Indonesia pada tahun 2008, namun karena beberapa hal, DSAK (Dewan Standar Akuntansi Keuangan) berkomitmen bahwa konvergensi akan dicapai pada 1 Januari 2012. Kegagalan Indonesia untuk mencapai konvergensi pada tahun 2008 ini harus dibayar dengan masih tingginya tingkat suku bunga kredit untuk Indonesia yang ditetapkan oleh World Bank. Hal ini dikarenakan World Bank menganggap investasi Indonesia masih beresiko karena penyajian laporan keuangan masih menggunakan Standar Akuntansi buatan Indonesia (belum IFRS). Di dunai internasional, IFRS telah diadopsi oleh banyak negara, termasuk negara- negara Uni Eropa, Afrika, Asia, Amerika Latin dan Australia. Di kawasan Asia, Hongkong, Filipina dan Singapura pun telah mengadopsinya. Sejak 2008, diperkirakan ada sekitar 80 negara mengharuskan perusahaan yang telah terdaftar dalam bursa efek global menerapkan IFRS dalam mempersiapkan dan mempresentasikan laporan keuangan. Dalam konteks Indonesia, meskipun banyak pro dan kontra Konvergensi IFRS dengan PSAK (Pedoman Standar Akuntansi Keuangan) merupakan hal yang sangat penting untuk menjamin daya saing nasional. Perubahan tata cara pelaporan keuangan dari GAAP, PSAK atau lainnya ke IFRS berdampak sangat luas. IFRS akan menjadi kompetensi wajib baru bagi akuntan publik, penilai (appraiser), akuntan manajemen, regulator dan akuntan pendidik. Mampukah para pekerja accounting menghadapi perubahan yang secara terus-menerus akan dilakukan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pasar global terhadap informasi keuangan? Bagaimana persiapan Indonesia menyambut IFRS ini? Sejak tahun 2004, profesi akuntan di Indonesia telah melakukan harmonisasi antara PSAK/Indonesian GAAP dan IFRS. Konvergensi IFRS diharapkan tercapai pada 2012. Walaupun IFRS masih belum diterapkan secara penuh saat ini, persiapan dan kesiapan untuk menyambutnya akan memberikan daya saing tersendiri untuk entitas bisnis di Indonesia. Tentunya implementasi IFRS ini akan membutuhkan biaya yang sangat besar, energi dan waktu yang tidak ringan, tetapi biaya untuk tidak mengadopsinya akan jauh lebih signifikan. Komitmen manajemen perusahaan Indonesia untuk mengadopsi IFRS merupakan syarat mutlak untuk meningkatkan daya saing perusahaan Indonesia di masa depan.…...

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...From Sheet of Accounting Theory Difficulties in Segment Reporting * Base of Segmentation: in case of complex business, it’s difficult to select a base for organization as well as difficult to compare. * Allocation of Common Costs: Common costs are likely to be allocated, bringing segment information into question * Pricing Inter-segment Transaction: No specific method for inter-segment pricing, different method use for cost, cost plus market price and negotiable price. * Costs of Segment Disclosure: Increased competition may result segmental disclosures where profitable segment may attract competitors, & loss making segment arise the take over situation. Foreign companies are not required to provide segmental reports. * Management Conservatism: Management determination of segments implies that what is useful to management is useful to investors. FASB’s 5 possible objective for interim reporting: 1. To estimate annual earnings 2. To make projections 3. To identify turning points 4. To evaluate Management Performance 5. To supplement the annual Report. Problems in Interim Reporting * Accounting Problems: * Inventory Problems: There are three types of problems; * Determination of Inventory quantities * Valuation of inventories * Adjustment of valuation * Matching principle: Business operations are not similar throughout the year. Resources are acquired & output may be sold & there are......

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... FORMULATION OF ACCOUNTING THEORY: PURPOSE AND APPROACHES A TERM PAPER (2) ON ADVANCED ACCOUNTING THEORY (ACC 821) PRESENTED BY EKERIA, Victor IKYUME, Chiahemba James OGBOLE, Philip Osemudiamen SUBMITTED TO PROFESSOR A.E. OKOYE DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTING COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMEN SUDIES IGBINEDION UNIVERSITY, OKADA MARCH, 2015 Abstract As tasks of accounting became more difficult and focus shifted to users’ needs, a theory became necessary. Existence of a need for information for decision making (decision usefulness) in face of information asymmetry led to development of means, tools and techniques for satisfying decision making needs (formulation of accounting theories) This paper briefly discusses the purpose/importance for accounting theory and various approaches to the formulation of an accounting theory under two headings, namely: (1) traditional approaches, and (2) new approaches. The paper finally highlights the critiques of the accounting theory approaches Table of Content 1.0.0. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………… 1 2.0.0. Meaning of Accounting Theory………………………………………………………… 2 2.1.0. Needs and Purpose for Accounting Theory…………………………………………….. 3 3.0.0. Early Attempts at Accounting Theory……………………………………………………...3 4.0.0. Approaches to the for Formulation of Accounting Theory……………………………….5 4.1.0. 4.1.0. The Traditional Approaches………………………………………………………..5 4.1.1. Non – Theoretical, Practical, or Pragmatic (Informal)......

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Accounting Theory

...ACC307 – Accounting Theory Assignment Name: Chun Ho Hui Student ID: na20150418 Case Study 1 Questions 1. Explain why principles-based standards require a conceptual framework. A: Conceptual framework can be defined as “an attempt to define the nature and purpose of accounting” (Team, 2015). Conceptual framework is essential for principle-based standards because it lays out a fundamental structure for principles-based standards. Setting the standard on and relate to an established body of concepts and objectives, enable FASB and IASB to “issue more useful and consistent standards over time” (Essays, 2013). For any future developments or armaments on the standards, the framework will ensure the changes will be within its fundamental concepts and will not get to a personal or an inconsistent standard. ACCA has mentioned “the availability of a conceptual framework could lead to ‘principles-based’ system whereby accounting standards are developed from an agreed conceptual basis with specific objectives” (Team, 2015), which in other words, a consistency on the principle-based standards and agreed on a common ground. Without a sound conceptual framework, principle-based standards could lead to inconsistency for users internally (accounting practitioners) and externally (report readers); bias on the use of standards and standard settings, which leads to misdirection on financial statements; and the difficulty of future developments on the standard itself (not been...

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Accounting Theory

...How would critical theorists assess research based on the Positive Accounting Theory? Accounting researchers tend to accept current accounting systems. Rather than focusing on why accounting systems favour certain classes of society, research is mainly carried out to such things as what accounting methods are most appropriate in certain circumstances, what motivates managers to use one accounting method over another and disclosure. By looking at accounting with a critical perspective is to recognise the way in which people are in control of capital. The Positive Accounting Theory (PAT) and Legitimacy Theory can be analysed critically for their bias approach of a political and economic perspective disregarding those people without wealth. A critical perspective of accounting is a perspective that critically evaluates the role of accounting in society. It does not consider issues such as what accounting methods should be used in which situations and often views accounting as a major contributor to perceived social problems and inequalities (Deegan, 2001). Critical theorists are those that ignore the whole world of accounting, favouring the interests of those people with wealth of power. However, they focus on the problems in and of society, not debate which methods of accounting should be employed. Accounting to Watts & Zimmerman (1990, page 7) Positive Accounting Theory is concerned with explaining accounting practice. It is designed to explain and predict which firms......

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...Accounting Insights Accounting for leases: Change is coming. By Matthew Rodgers and Peter McElwain, Baker Tilly September 21, 2010 Leasing of equipment, real estate, and other assets has been and continues to be a significant source of financing for businesses in all industries. As a result, the financial reporting rules for the treatment of lease transactions can be significant to the financial statements and the business operations of lessees and lessors alike. The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) have undertaken a joint project on leases to improve the financial reporting for lease transactions. The financial reporting standards in the United States currently provide that all lease transactions will be accounted for in one of two ways depending on facts, circumstances, and to some degree the judgment of the users. The two alternative treatments, referred to as operating leases and capital leases, have dramatically different consequences on the financial statements of both lessees and lessors. There are a number of perceived weaknesses in these rules and the manner in which they are applied, which many believe result in inconsistent and incomplete reporting and presentation of an entity’s leasing activities. In response, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) have undertaken a joint project on leases to improve the financial...

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