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Basis of English Grammar

In: English and Literature

Submitted By effiom
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ENGLISH GRAMMAR
ADJECTIVE
1. An Adjective qualifies a noun or a pronoun. 2. Adjectives are divided into six different kinds : --- a. Proper Adjectives Proper Adjectives are derived from proper nouns. eg :
a. Chinese soldiers fought bravely.
b. We are studying the English language.
In ( a ) the word " Chinese " is a proper adjective because it is derived from the proper noun " China "
In ( b ) the word " English " is a proper adjective because it is derived from the proper noun " England ".
Note -- Every proper adjective should begin with a capital letter

b. Descriptive Adjectives
Descriptive Adjectives qualify a noun by adding some quality or state to it. eg : a. A brave soldier killed the enemy. ( quality ) b. There are some sick soldiers in the hospital ( state )

c. Quantitative Adjectives
Quantitative Adjectives indicate how much of a thing is meant.
He has much rice.
He has little rice.
He has no rice.
He has some rice.
He has not any rice.
He has enough rice.
He has sufficient rice.
He sold all the rice.

d. Numeral Adjectives
Numeral Adjectives express number.
Numeral Adjectives are subdivided into (a) Definite and (b) Indefinite
a) Definite Numeral Adjectives denote some exact number. Those which show how many things there are are called Cardinals; Those which show in what order things stand are called Ordinals.
Cardinals : one, two three, etc.
Ordinals : first, second, third, etc.
b) Indefinite Numeral Adjectives do not denote any exact number.
Examples : --
All men are mortal.
Some men died young
No men were present.
Many men are poor.
Few men are rich.
More men came today than yesterday.
Most men must work for their living.
Several men came.
Sunday men went away.

e. Demonstrative Adjectives
Demonstrative Adjectives show which thing is meant.
This house is mine.
That house is yours.
These adjectives are also subdivided into Definite and Indefinite.
a) Definite demonstrative Adjectives point out some particular objects.
He is in the house.
This book is mine.
That pen is yours.
These books are mine.
Those pens are yours.
I cannot do such a thing as that.
This is the same story as I heard the other day.
b) Indefinite Demonstrative Adjectives do not point out any particular object.
He has a horse.
He has not any brother.
He saw me one day in the theatre.
A certain man came here.
Some man came here.
Give me any other box.
I have another box.
Other men would not do so.
f. Distributive Adjectives
Distributive Adjectives point out that the objects named are to be taken separately.
There are only four distributive adjectives.
Examples : --
I will give a book to each scholar in this class.
Every person in the room was astonished.
You may have either book.
You may have neither book
Verbs

1. A Verb says something about a person or thing.
2. Verbs are divided into three different kinds:--
a. Transitive Verbs
A Transitive Verb requires an object to complete its meaning.
Examples : --
a. The hunter killed a bear.
b. The scholar learned his lesson.
In ( a ) " bear " is the object of " killed ".
In ( b ) " lesson " is the object of " learned ".
Transitive Verb has two voice : -- a The Active voice
b. The Passive voice
Note : - An Intransitive verb from its nature cannot have voices.
b. Intransitive Verbs
An Intransitive Verb does not require an object to complete its meaning.
Examples : --
( a ) He sleeps
( b ) We go.
No object can come after such verbs as " sleep ", " go " etc
c. Auxiliary Verbs
An Auxiliary Verb is used to help another verb.
( a ) I shall go.
( b ) We have come.
Note : A verb that is helped by an auxiliary verb is called a Principal verb
In a " shall " is an auxilizry verb used to help the verb " go " to form a future time.
In b. " have " is an auxiliary verb used to help the verb " come " to express a time partly past and partly present. Nouns
1. A noun is the name of a person, place, or thing.
2. Nouns are divided into five different kinds : --
Proper Nouns
Common Nouns
Collective nouns
Material Nouns
Abstract Nouns
A Proper Noun is the name of a particular person, place, or thing. eg : John ( person ) ; Palm Beach County ( place ) ; The Chinese
( people );
Books ( thing )
A Common Noun is a name that can be given to any person or thing of the same kind. eg : Man, boy, table, dog
A Collective Noun is singular in form though denoting more than one. eg : Herd, army, flock.
A Material Noun is the name of a substance eg : Milk, iron, wood.
An Abstract noun is the name of a quality. eg : Love, truth, color

Number of Nouns
1. Number shows whether one is meant, or more than one. 2. There are two Numbers : --
The Singular Number
The Plural Number
The Singular number denotes only one object. boy, girl The Plural number denotes more than one object. boys, girls. The Plural is generally formed by adding s to the Singular : pen pens chair chairs book books garden gardens

When the noun ends in s, x, ch, or sh, the Plural is formed by adding es to the Singular : - glass glasses watch watches box boxes dish dishes

If the noun ends in y, and the y has consonant going before it, the Plural is formed by changing y into ies : - duty duties army armies fly flies lady ladies

But if the y has vowel going before it, the Plural is formed by simply adding s : -- day days key keys boy boys monkey monkeys
Most nouns ending in f or fe form the Plural by changing f or fe into ves calf calves life lives knife knives wife wives leaf leaves thief thieves

If the noun ends in o, and the o is preceded by a consonant, the Plural is generally ( not always ) formed by adding es to the Singular : --

cargo cargoes negro negroes hero heroes potato potatoes
But if the o is preceded by a vowel, the Plural is formed by simply adding s to the singular : -- bamboo bamboos curio curios cuckoo cuckoos studio studios
Some nouns from their Plurals irregularly : man men tooth teeth woman women mouse mice foot feet ox oxen goose geese child children
Some Nouns have the same from in the Plural as in the Singular : - deer deer fish fish ( fishes ) sheep sheep dozen dozen ( dozens )
Preposition
A Preposition is placed before a noun or pronoun to show the relation between this noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence.
Examples : --
Put his book on the table.
Give this book to him.
Note - The noun or prooun placed after the preposition is called its Object
In the above sentences, the noun " table " is the object of the preposition " on " ; and the pronoun " him " is the object of the preposition " to ".
The following list contains some other examples of the preposition : --
( a ) A lamp is hung above my head.
( b ) He sailed across the sea.
( c ) He returned after many days
( d ) He is not at home just now.
( e ) He stands before the door
( f ) The dog ran behind its master.
( g ) He stood below me in the class
( h ) I sat beside him.
( i ) There is nothing in the room besides a table.
( j ) You must be back by four o'clock.
( k ) He does this sum for his calssmate.
( l ) He came from school.
( m ) Go into the garden.
( n ) He sent me a box of books
( p ) He sat under the tree.
( q ) He killed the bird with a stone.

Adverb
1. An Adverb qualifies any part of speech except a noun or pronoun, but it usually qualifies a verb, and adjective, or another adverb.
Examples : --
( a ) He runs fast
( b ) He runs very fast
( c ) He is quite happy. In ( a ) the adverb " fast " qualifies the verb " run " ; in ( b ) the adverb " very " qualifies the adverb " fast " ; and in ( c ) the adverb " quite " qualifies the adjective " happy ".
Pronouns
The kinds of Pronouns
1. Pronouns is a word used instead of a noun.
2. Pronouns are divided into :--
a) Personal Pronouns
Personal Pronouns
The Personal Pronouns are used to distinguish the three persons.
a. The First Person denotes the person speaking .
I we me us myself ourselves
The second Person denoted the person spoken to you you yourself yourselves
The third Person denotes the person or thing spoken of he she it they him her it them himself herself itself themselve
b) Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative Pronouns
1. Interrogative Pronouns ask questions.
2. The interrogative pronouns are : -- who, whose, whom which and what.
a) Who, whose, and whom refer to person.
Examples : -
Who said so ?
Whose book is this ?
Whom do you love ?
b) Which refers to persons or things
Examples :-
Which of these boys will win the prize? prize ?
Which of these books do you like best ?
c) What refers to lower animals and things.
Examples :-
Q : What have you seen in the mountain?
A : I have seen a tiger.
Q : What did he buy ?
A : He bought a house.
Note -- All interrogative pronouns have the same form for the plural as for the singular
c) Relative Pronouns
Relative Pronouns
A Relative Pronouns represents a preceding word.
This preceding word is called the Antecedent. eg : The man who is in the garden is my uncle.
In this sentence, the word " who " is a relative pronoun, because it represents the preceding word " man ". Therefore, " man " is the Antecedent of " who ".
The relative Pronouns are : -- who , whose, whom , which that, and what.
Who and whom refer persons.
The man who came is a doctor.
The man whom you love is kind.

Whose refers both to persons and things.
The lady whose box is lost is her daughter.
The book whose cover is red is mine.
Which refers to lower animals and thing. That is often used for " who, " " whom " or " which " but never for ' whose. "
The boy that ( or who ) won the prize is clever.
The man that ( or whom ) you saw is my brother.
This is the house that ( or which ) Chang bought. What is equal to " that which " or " the thing which " . It contains the meaning of both the relative pronoun and its antecedent.
I do not know what ( that which ) he bought.
I do not know what ( the thing which ) he bought.
Note : - All relative pronouns have the singular and plural alike.…...

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Grammar

...Collins W ith CD English for Exams Grammar for IELTS Fiona Aish & Jo Tomlinson \ ■L& 11 * . ; P O W E R E D BY C O B U I L D ■ t; j ju B P H Contents Unit 1 O 2 Topic Grammar focus Holidays and travel Free time Exam Page number Grammar practice Sub-skill Simple tenses Present sim ple, past sim ple and present perfect Speaking Part 1 W riting Task 2 6 Continuous tenses Past continuous, present continuous, present perfect W riting Task 1 Reading 10 continuous 3 Fame Past N arrative tenses: past perfect and used to/would Reading Listening Section 2 14 Education Future 1 Witt and going to Listening Section 1 Speaking Part 3 18 The Internet Future 2 Present continuous fo r future and future perfect Listening Section 2 Reading 22 The family Word order and punctuation Subject + verb + object and punctuation W riting Task 2 Speaking Part 2 26 7 The environment Subject/verb agreem ent S ingular + p lu ra l nouns/verbs and determ iners Reading W riting Task 1 30 8 Food Countable/ uncountable nouns Countable and uncountable nouns Speaking Part 2 Listening Section 1 34 9 Employment and finance A rticles Using a, the or no article W riting Task 1 Reading 38 10 Youth Linking words and signposting Giving...

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