Free Essay

Birth Trauma: in the Eye of the Beholder Critique

In: Science

Submitted By taogirl555
Words 1381
Pages 6
The phenomenon of interest (birth trauma and what it means to women) was clearly identified in the report. In the introduction the authors stated that women’s perception of birth trauma is quite different from the perception of the same phenomenon by health care providers. She also uses a term “in the eyes of the beholder” to emphasize that for every woman this phenomenon is unique. It is stated that PTSD after childbirth is quite prevalent and several studies support this fact. However, research is regarding the understanding of the birth trauma phenomenon from the woman’s experience lacking. The problem statement was worded clearly and directly and I wasn’t ambivalent about what problem will be discussed in the remainder of the article.
Due to a lack of current literature on the subject and prevalence of PTSD after childbirth one can see the value in conducting such a study and the potential benefit to the profession of nursing. By understanding the perception of birth trauma to women, we as nurses will be able to facilitate better care, improve patients’ experience with childbirth, and prevent PTSD associated with childbirth.
The methods used are not mentioned in the first paragraph but in a separate section following the research question where they are outlined clearly. The method of interviewing participants in focus groups is consistent with the naturalistic paradigm of qualitative research.
The researcher clearly explained the reason behind choosing a qualitative design and the philosophical underpinning of the study. Husserl’s descriptive phenomenology was the philosophical underpinning of this study. Phenomenological research is centered on the investigation of the description of the lived experience (Beck, 2012). It is a process where one learns and constructs meaning of the human experience through the discourse of those that are living the experience. In the current study the goal was to establish the “lived-in” experience of the women that underwent traumatic childbirth and is congruent with design and choice of philosophical underpinning.
Beck clearly described how participants were selected. The aim of the study was for women who had experienced traumatic childbirth. Therefore, all participants were women who experienced this phenomenon. The purposeful sample consisted of 40 mothers who perceived they had experienced birth trauma. In addition, the sample required the mother to be willing to articulate her experiences and ability to read and write English. In this study, Beck (2004) stated that the participants were recruited via Internet primarily from Trauma and Birth Stress, a charitable trust located in New Zealand. This self-help organization supports women who have experienced birth trauma and educates about birth trauma and the resulting PTSD (Beck, 2004).
Although, the researcher does not describe the study’s significance to nursing directly, I believe it is pertinent to nursing practice. This study educates health care providers in birth trauma and because nurses play a crucial role in labor, the results of this study can be used as a foundation for evidence- based practice. In this phenomenological study, it was shown that the mother’s perception of the birth trauma is based not only on the birth event, but also on the unmet expectations of the women during birth. This finding illustrates the need for nurses to play a proactive role in preventing birth trauma by enhancing a woman’s’ sense of control over the birth. It also shows that it’s crucial to establish an empathetic relationship and be with the woman during experience, facilitate interaction between the woman and the members of the team, and provide anticipatory guidance regarding labor experience.
A descriptive phenomenology approach utilized for this is appropriate for its’ purpose. Data analyses in qualitative studies involve examining words obtained throughout the research. The author explicitly explained the procedures for collecting the data. Members of TABS were informed of the study by a pocket with two letter sent to each of them by mail from the chairperson of TABS. One letter informed members of a study. The researchers wrote the second letter explaining the role of the woman in the study and the research program. Several women sent their personal journals chronicling their traumatic birth experiences and the PTSD. Most of the participants chose to participate over the Internet and sent their story as an attachment. In phenomenological studies, in-depth conversations are the main data source. Researchers help informants to describe lived experiences without leading the discussion (Beck, 2012). In my opinion it was fully achieved with the use of personal stories and personal journals.
As was mentioned above, the data collection focused on human experience and I believe the subjects were protected in this study. This study was approved by university’s institutional review board and participants were provided with informed consent.

The author used Colaizzi’s method of data analysis. She did a great job explaining the procedures used to analyze the data. The analysis of the data in this study began with the reading of the stories and journals. The researcher extracted significant statements and formulated the meanings for those statements. The information was then further broken down into cluster of 4 themes. The process of saturation was reached when no further categories could be formed. Then, the findings were integrated into description of phenomenon and validated by nine participants. The rationale for not including all participants for validation was explained in the report and was that some of the women did not want to relive their experiences. All reviewers agreed that the results reflected the essence of their birth trauma experience, which shows the credibility of the study.
After the completion of data analysis and saturation had been reached, a subsequent description of the phenomena was developed. Beck developed a table to aid in the understanding of the research findings. The table also facilitates better understanding of each theme by illustrating each theme with significant statements made by participants. The study supported the findings of numerous prior research studies. However the forth’s theme, the feeling of being raped, has never been mentioned in research before. The research concluded that traumatic birth experience may be caused by poor care, lack of empathy and communication, feeling of powerlessness and loss of control, and feeling raped when physicians disregard woman’s state and concentrate only on the successful outcomes of clinical efficiency and live healthy infant (Beck, 2004).
Many recommendations were made for clinicians to have a proactive role in preventing PTSD after childbirth. In this study, it was revealing some women experienced loss of control. The author recommended that clinicians should strive to enhance a woman’s sense of control by offering her options when possible. This study showed that women often felt that clinicians focused exclusively on a positive outcome for the baby regardless of mother’s emotional and physical experience. The author asserts that obstetric care providers need to discuss with the women the means of delivery, and not just the outcome. Women’s perception of birth trauma can be based not only on the event, but also on their unmet expectation regarding the event. Often times women feel scared and panicky if their anticipated births plan changes. Clinicians need to address the women’s unmet expectations regarding their anticipated labor process. Careful history about particular fears a woman may have about giving birth at the admission. If a woman had a previous delivery, a through history about her previous experience must be taken and questions on whether the previous deliveries were perceived as traumatic. This can help clinicians to identify any possible contributing factors to birth trauma and alert the team to address certain factors with a special care.
Qualitative research studies provide an invaluable perspective that concentrates on participants’ own personal perspectives and experiences. Beck (2004) examined women’s perceptions regarding birth trauma. This critique reviewed the study using several criteria to analyze a qualitative study. Some of the guidelines utilized include assessment of the use of a qualitative approach for the research, the determination of purposive sample, methods used to avoid researcher bias, and the clarity of the study findings. The critique found that all these criteria had been addressed in the study. References
Beck, C. (2004). Birth trauma: in the eye of the beholder. Nursing Research, 53(1), 28-35. Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2012). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (9th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Trauma

...the tsunami. People who encounter a Tsunami event struggle with psychological problems days and weeks after the traumatic event such as depression and different levels of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Survivors constantly experience feelings of anxiousness and stress because of the fear of danger from another tsunami. Murdered Child – Personal Trauma causing Crisis - Effects on the Survivor The murder of a child can be devastating especially when it’s your own. The hurt and pain can be compound when the death is determined by a heartless human being. Parents and the family faces complicated issues such as trying to understand “why” someone would want to kill their child who they love and will miss. Coping with the “miss” is the challenging part. A parent of a murdered child handles grief differently. Some parents try to continue normalcy while others have extreme difficulty coping with the lost such as obsessive thinking, suicide, anger, fears and anxiety. The hard part is grieving; however; everyone grief’s differently must. Effects on First Responders First Responders are vulnerable to stress and trauma as they are exposed to events every day in their work lives or suddenly one day out of the blue. Even though, they are trained and skilled to handle the consequences of traumatic residual effects, first responders may experience repeated thoughts of the event, avoidance of traumatic calls, physical ailments, stress and anxiety. If the first responder is......

Words: 805 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Adolescent Cognitive Development After Trauma

...Adolescent Cognitive Development After Trauma Raquel A. Figueroa Liberty University COUN 620-B02 Abstract In a generation of hopelessness, adolescents seek a purpose for their existence. They seek refugee from violence, abuse and maltreatment. The overwhelming pressure opens the door for instant gratification in drugs, alcohol, sexual activity, and fail to make appropriate adjustments in compromising circumstances. There is a correlation between traumatic experiences and adolescent cognitive development. A traumatic experience can alter an adolescent’s neural system and adversely affect the latter stages of brain development. Working with survivors of traumatic events requires an understanding of maladaptive behaviors, reactions and coping skills. Behavioral patterns emerge and become part of an adolescent’s personality. This paper will highlight the impact of traumatic experiences on adolescent cognitive development and their ability to foster an intrinsic knowledge of self. Maltreatment of adolescents has reached epidemic proportions within the United States. According to Bright (2008), “One in four children/adolescents experience at least one traumatic event before age 16” (p. 11). A study commissioned by Finkelhor, Ormrod, & Turner (2005) concluded the exposure to “physical abuse, sexual abuse, witnessing domestic violence, community violence, and natural disasters is a common occurrence among children in the U.S.” (p. 314). Reports of...

Words: 4747 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Eyes

...MAJOR PARTS OF THE EYE AND THEIR FUNCTIONS Iris * The colored part of the eye that surrounds the pupil. * It contracts and expands opening and closing the pupil, in response to the brightness of surrounding light. * This helps in dilating and making the pupil smaller. Pupil * The dark center of the eye, where light rays enter * The pupil either dilates or contracts with the help of the iris * This controls the amount of light entering the eye so that the retina and lens doesn't get damaged Sclera * Tough fibrous tissue, serves as a protective shield * Provides structure and safety for the inner workings of the eye, but is also flexible so that the eye can move to seek out objects as necessary. * Keeps the eyes shape and protects its delicate internal parts. Retina * Composed of nerve endings responsible for reception and transmission of light impulses. Lens * Transparent body located behind the iris and in front of the vitreous humor, refracts light rays to bring them into focus on the retina * The lens is a converging lens so that it can create a real image on the back wall of the eye.  * This allows us to focus on something close to us and far away. Cornea * The cornea is the outer covering of the eye. * This dome-shaped layer protects your eye from elements that could cause damage to the inner parts of the eye. * The cornea also allows the eye to properly focus on light more......

Words: 438 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Eye of the Beholder

...The Eye of the Beholder “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder” but what if the beholder’s vision is blurred? The media today dictates what is beautiful, and these standards are so high that they are impossible to reach. Both Camille Paglia and Daniel Akst point this out in their essays about the effects these standards have on the general population. Paglia uses an appeal to the emotion of her upper-class middle-aged women audience who may choose plastic surgery as a method to stay beautiful whereas Akst uses all forms of rhetorical devices to appeal to everyone in defining what beauty truly is. Camille Paglia, Yale graduate and professor of humanities and media studies at the University of the Arts in Philadelphia, says in her essay “The Pitfalls of Plastic Surgery” depicts the belief in the beauty of uniformity. Women have a belief that if they don’t look a certain way, then they are not beautiful, so they turn to plastic surgery. In an excerpt from her essay, Paglia shows us this example of a media sex icon “...Amazonian superheroines like Lara Croft: large breasts with a flat midriff and lean hips, a hormonally anomalous profile that few women can attain without surgical intervention or liposuction” (793). What Paglia attempts to accomplish with this essay is to appeal to the emotions of these women, so that they will not lose identity in this sea of uniformity. But woman are constantly having to compete with the young and sexy media icons and turn to things......

Words: 703 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Beauty Is in the Eye of the Beholder

...M**** S******* Engl 1201 – 17 Chapter Four Paper October 11, 2013           Beauty Lies Within The Eyes Of The Beholder The year is now 2010 and as we enter this new decade, we encounter so many new trends, fashion and styles. No matter what your budget might be, it seems like everyone has the same goal in mind. They want to be beautiful and look “beautiful.” Grace Suh’s essay, “Eye of the Beholder,” details her struggle as a Korean girl to conform to a Western ideal of beauty. After her makeover, Suh felt negated and also felt like a stranger was staring back at her when she looked at herself in the mirror. Finally, she realizes that she was content with the way she naturally looked, which causes her to leave the makeup behind her on the commuter train. To me, beauty is not only something that pleases the eyes, but also pleases the other senses and the mind. I think true beauty makes you see beyond the lovely sight. It will give you insight or realization of something interesting beyond just the outward appearance. Think about the word beautiful for a moment, when we talk about beauty in people, we often refer to their physical attractiveness. Of course, a beautiful or handsome face is pleasant to look at. But I find that the most memorable "beautiful people" are the ones who have captivating personalities behind the beautiful faces. In my high school graduating class, there were two girls whose beauty just stood out among the rest, Chelsea and Tressa. ...

Words: 757 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Psychological Trauma

...Psychological Trauma & Post Trauma Therapy: Part 1: Attachment Failures and Dorothy Allison as a Client One of the more significant aspects of social development is the formation of attachment. For many, the first occurrence of attachment is during infancy with a caregiver (typically the mother). For Dorothy Allison, we can assume that from her book she had a positive attachment to her mother beginning at infancy. Granted her mother worked and was a single parent, however it this cannot be discredited because Allison’s needs as an infant were met (e.g. her mother seemed present and did not abandon her baby or harm the baby, baby was fed/clothed). According to the actual story, Allison’s abuse began at a much younger age than in the retelling—regardless, sexually and physically abused at a young age, Allison watched her mother stand by her attacker. For a moment, we have to pause and just consider what torment this child experienced. We can then assume Allison was questioning her own self-worth, blaming herself, and stuck between wanting to love her mother and possibly hating her mother all at the same time. As a young child, Allison’s attachment to her mother was shattered; her primary caregiver failed her. Allison’s other caregivers were present, but the one adult whom she had formed a close bond with passes away, leaving her again without a caregiver or a responsible adult figure. Working with Allison as an adult, I would start by evaluating if she...

Words: 2572 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Trauma and Development

...Complexly traumatized youth frequently suffer from body dysregulation, meaning they over-respond or underrespond to sensory stimuli. For example, they may be hypersensitive to sounds, smells, touch or light, or they may suffer from anesthesia and analgesia, in which they are unaware of pain, touch, or internal physical sensations. As a result they may injure themselves without feeling pain, suffer from physical problems without being aware of them, or, the converse – they may  complain of chronic pain in various body areas for which no physical cause can be found. Effects of Complex Trauma. (2014). Retrieved September 7, 2014. Think of what it is like for young children to be in traumatic situations. They can feel totally helpless and passive. They can cry for help or desperately wish for someone to intervene. They can feel deeply threatened by separation from parents or caretakers. Young children rely on a "protective shield" provided by adults and older siblings to judge the seriousness of danger and to ensure their safety and welfare. They often don't recognize a traumatic danger until it happens, for example, in a near drowning, attack by a dog, or accidental scalding. They can be the target of physical and sexual abuse by the very people they rely on for their own protection and safety. Young children can witness violence within the family or be left helpless after a parent or caretaker is injured, as might occur in a serious automobile accident. They have the most......

Words: 2192 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison

...The Bluest Eye by Toni Morrison Beauty is said to be in the eyes of the beholder, but what if the image of beauty is forced into the minds of many? The beauty of a person could be expressed in many different ways, as far as looks and personality goes, but the novel The Bluest Eye begs to differ. It contradicts the principle, because beauty is no longer just a person’s opinion but beauty has been made into an unwritten rule, a standard made by society for society. The most important rule is that in order to be beautiful, girls have to look just like a white doll, with blue eyes, light pink skin, and have blond hair. And if they’re not, they are not beautiful. Pecola, one of community’s ugly children, lives life each day wanting to be accepted. “The wider community also fails Pecola. Having absorbed the idea that she is ugly and knowing that she is unloved, Pecola desperately wants the blue eyes that she understands will make a child lovable in American society”(Kubitschek 35). In The Bluest Eye, Morrison argues that the black females in society have been forced to accept the blond hair blue eyed image as the only beauty that exists. Little girls in Lorain had it set in their heads that they should all grow up owning a blond haired and blue-eyed doll, also known as Shirley Temple. These images were placed in their minds, making them feel as if they had to live up to the expectations by going with the crowd, and letting their surroundings influence them. “Adults, older girls...

Words: 1894 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Trauma

... TRAUMA AND ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Quinta S. Anderson Liberty University Trauma and the Effects on Human Development Trauma has a way of effecting everyone, but in different ways. The term trauma often described both the traumatic event and the early distress that it could cause. Several researchers describes traumatic events as unexpected events, such as exposure to natural or manmade disaster, or observing violent crimes, events that are more lingering in nature, such as participating in combat or being the victim of physical and or sexual abuse or assault. Another name for traumatic events is called traumas. Traumas can also be classified as the scope that can have a huge impact on an individual (Shaw, 2009). The Effects of Trauma on Neural Development Researchers have found the correlation of trauma and the effects it has on the human brain. The amygdala and hippocampus are parts of the limbic system that helps process the sequence of one’s life story. During the normal course of an individual’s life, the amygdala and hippocampus are able to process both the event and the emotions attached to a traumatic event. The amygdala records the emotions and bodily sensations of an individual. After the emotions and bodily sensations have been recorded, they are retrieved by the hippocampus. The hippocampus role is to add cognitive meaning and place the information that is processed into appropriate context. As soon as the hippocampus has stored the context, the......

Words: 906 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Critique

...Critique of a journal article: The Black Family during Slavery: Addressing Stereotypes Restoring Truth In the article “ The Black Family during Slavery”, the author Verene Shepherd put into context the black family during slavery and tries to lay to rest some of the myths that still exist to this day about the black man and woman of slavery. In doing this she explore two schools of research into enslave people’s family, these are: the structuralist and class theorist. The structuralist believes that the system of slavery constraints cultural expressions including family formation. This means that slaves were unable to maintain proper familial structure base on their very way of life, because they were restricted to what their owners would permit. The class theorist argues that slavery allows those enslave some autonomy in constructing kinship and other forms of culture. It means then that this system allows slave to explore other cultures and choose their own partner and also develop familiar familial structures similar to present day realities. Shepherd posits that the stereotypes that were created about black families during slavery are to be cleared up because these were not the truth. She then tries to present the points that were not considered by the structuralist. To extricate the points that were presented, shepherd present research evidence that contradicts the structuralist arguments about black family’s and how they exist during slavery. These are: *......

Words: 769 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Secondary Trauma

... Secondary Trauma So often, we focus on our clients and not enough on ourselves. The books read remind me to be mindful of self-care. Beginning with Dr. Wicks who is an engaging writer. My perception is that he is very caring, and that is revealed in his work. The seeds of secondary stress and the seeds of true passionate involvement in the fields of counseling, psychology and social work are actually the same seeds.(Wicks, 2008) Secondary trauma or Burn out is a challenge for many individuals the field of counseling. Secondary trauma is commonly referred to as "the stress resulting from helping or wanting to help a traumatized or suffering person. Burnout is a state of emotional, mental, and physical exhaustion caused by excessive and prolonged stress. It occurs when a Clinician feels overwhelmed and unable to meet constant demands. As their stress continues, they may begin to lose the interest or motivation that led them to take on a certain role in the first place. Burnout reduces Clinician productivity and drains their energy, leaving them feeling increasingly helpless, hopeless, suspicious, and resentful. Eventually, they may feel like they have nothing more to give. Most Clinician has days when they feel bored, overloaded, or unappreciated. When the dozen balls they keep in the air are not noticed, let alone rewarded. When dragging themselves out of bed requires the Secondary Trauma determination of Superman. They may feel like this most......

Words: 1101 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Spirituality and Trauma

...The Benefits of Spirituality in providing Emotional Care to Trauma Survivors Nigel E. Lewis California Southern University Abstract Spirituality is widely utilized across cultures as means of dealing with emotional trauma such as tragedy and disasters. Ironically, in academic circles recognition of the value of spirituality as a coping mechanism has been slow. However, in the current post September 11 environment, greater attention has been given to the value of spiritual care in the treatment of victims of emotional trauma particularly in disaster mental health studies. In this paper the value of spirituality in providing emotional care to survivors of trauma is analyzed. Why is the value of spirituality in emotional care important to me? Conventional wisdom has held to the notion that boys are better at math than girls. Perhaps, this age old belief was responsible for Mattel the company that produced “Teen talk Barbie” in 1992 to create a Barbie doll that had among its stored phrases, one phrase that said, “Math class is tough!”. This phrase was stored with 270 other girl talk phrases such as “I love shopping” and “Will we have enough clothes!”. The result was that Mattel was soundly criticized and quickly changed the doll’s offending phrase a few months later. In spite of Mattel’s effort to correct a message that verbalized an inherent cultural bias, one wonders if the is any......

Words: 2415 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Nursing Trauma

... |15 - 16 | Introduction Head injury is refers to trauma to head. Head injuries include both injuries to the brain and those to other parts of the head, such as the scalp and skull. The injuries can range from a minor injury on the skull such as bruises to serious brain injury such as hemorrhages or fracture. According to Olson D.A (2010), head injury can be defined as any alteration in mental or physical functioning related to a blow to the head. Head injury is defined by National Institutes for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) as any trauma to the head, other than superficial injuries to the face. According to Gravell & Johnson (2002), Head injury may be defined as any injury causing traumatic brain injury (TBI), although the two phrases are typically used synonymously. Head injury can be classified as either closed or open (penetrating) head injury. A closed head injury happens when a person received a hard blow to the head from striking an object and there is no break in the tissue (scalp and skull). The other type is an open head injury; where there is break in tissue which separate the intracranial content from the external environment. Head injuries are also commonly referred to as brain injury, or traumatic brain injury (TBI), depending on the extent of the head trauma. Mild head injury is described as a brief period of unconsciousness, (Guerrero et al., 2000). Moderate head injury is......

Words: 4409 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Beauty Lies in the Eye of the Beholder

...There is a saying "beauty is in the eyes of the beholder". What one individual considers beautiful may not be beautiful to another. To me, beauty is not only something that pleases the eyes, but also pleases the other senses and the mind. I think true beauty makes you see beyond the lovely sight. It will give you insight or realization of something interesting beyond just the outward appearance. When we talk about beauty in people, we often refer to their physical attractiveness. Of course, a beautiful or handsome face is pleasant to look at. But I find that the most memorable "beautiful people" are those who have captivating personalities behind the pretty faces. In one of my previous classes, there were two beautiful girls, Sue and Lin. Both had almost flawless faces and trim figures. But Lin was used to getting her way. She felt that her looks could help her get anything she wanted, especially among the boys. Sue, on the other hand, treated her beauty in a matter-of-fact way and she was nice to everyone. She was also a member of the debating team, her personality made her a more outstanding beauty than Lin. There is another kind of beauty in people that attracts me greatly. This is what is known as inner beauty. People who have this kind of beauty have attained inner peace. They care about their fellow-man, and try to right the injustices in this world. Two well-known personalities who exemplify this are Nelson Mandela and Mother Theresa. Mandela was willing to......

Words: 396 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Beauty Lies in the Eyes of Beholder

...Beauty lies in the Eyes of Beholder: How true is this Statement? There is a famous saying that beauty lies in the eyes of beholder. In many instances this statement proves to be true as various people have different tastes. In some instances where we see huge billboards, magazine covers and television advertisements covered with faces of beautiful models we do not agree with the statement ‘Beauty lies in the Eyes of Beholder’ as such instances there are so many people involved having similar tastes. Some men prefer dating chubby women with fair complexion while others prefer skinny women with attractive vital stats. Similarly, some women prefer hairy men and find them strong and attractive while some think of such men as virile and repulsive. The concept of beauty has evolved from era to era. In the modern world men and women have different tastes for beauty while people living in early 60’s and 70’s had different tastes for beauty. In the earlier eras women had to be fat to be considered as beautiful as seen in many of the paintings of the Titian. The concept of beauty is again changing gradually with popular actors like Scarlett Johansson, Angelina Jolie, Salma Hayek and Jennifer Lopez revealing that a beautiful woman is indeed with curves. As a matter of fact, when we are younger and growing up we admire things that appear beautiful from the outside. We are tempted towards beautiful men and women without considering much about their real inner self. But as we grow and......

Words: 359 - Pages: 2