Free Essay

Channel Tunnel Story

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ox518
Words 8229
Pages 33
The extent to which new, or complex, technologies impacted upon the project.

The Channel Tunnel project would have been built two centuries ago if it was technically feasible. In 1802, the idea of a road tunnel was suggested to Napoleon during a brief peace between France and England. French engineer Albert Mathieu Favier gave Napoleon details of a scheme involving two tunnels, one which would be candle-lit for horse-drawn carriages and the second acting as a sort of drain to take away water seeping into it (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). However the scheme existed only on paper due to the absence of appropriate tunneling techniques. Digging a tunnel under ground is not a novel technology; however, the geology is, especially under the sea. Engineers had to check and hoped to find that a suitable rock for tunneling stretched in an unbroken bed across the channel.

Building a tunnel doesn’t require innovative technology, otherwise the government would not approve the project go ahead. However, the actual construction of a 50 km-long Channel Tunnel up to 50 meters below the sea tested the ingenuity and skills of the top minds in the European and American construction industry (Anderson & Roskrow 1994).

There were 11 specialized boring machines have been used in total on both, the British and the French sides, to work their way through the chalk marl stratum, which is between the gray chalk and glauconitic layer. The ground condition on the UK side had caused problem. The machine was designed for working in the dry, the UK side hit the wet ground which almost brought tunneling to a halt (Smith, 1994). The chalk was microfissured, which allowed water to pour through into the machine, which in turn led to the chalk collapsing into the tunnel between the last lining ring and the protective shield of the cutting head. This caused huge disruption and great discomfort to the miners (Smith 1994). TML had to modify the machines in situ, 50 meters below the sea. The modification did successfully make the machines to move forward and through the wet chalk, however, it became one of the reasons the project was ran over the budget and behind schedule.

Unlike the Channel Tunnel project, the HST project used a lot cutting-edge technology to develop the space telescope. It was a challenge back to 1977 as this was the first Large Space Telescope ever been built, hence NASA had no past experience to learn.

The Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), in many respects the heart of the telescope, was to be constructed by Perkin-Elmer. A company had extensive experience of building astronomical telescopes. NASA accepted that a number of demanding technological problems would have to be overcome in order to build the OTA (Smith, 1989). One was the polishing of the Space Telescope’s primary mirror to the required accuracy. The mirror and optical systems of the telescope determine the final performance, and they were designed to exacting specifications. In case their cutting-edge technology ran into difficulties, NASA demanded that Perkin-Elmer sub-contract to Kodak to build a back-up mirror using traditional mirror-polishing techniques. In contrast, Perkin-Elmer would adopt a new approach, with a polisher controlled by a specially devised computer system.

This untried technology finally caused a big trouble to the project. Shortly after the HST was launched a disappointing ‘technical’ performance was discovered: while the pictures wee clearer than those of ground-based telescopes, the telescope seemed to be displaying distorted images. After a few tests were carried out, it was verified that the primary mirror had been ground to the wrong shape, it was too flat by about 2.2 micrometers. This disappointing and unacceptable for such a costly telescope as the LST was designed to orbit outside the distortion of Earth’s atmosphere allows it to take extremely high-resolution images with almost no background light.

The faulty mirror had been manufactured by the Perkin-Elmer, so NASA conducted an investigation on tracing what went wrong in the manufacturing of the optics. The team found that the Reflective Null Corrector (RNC), a testing device used to achieve a properly shaped no-spherical mirror, had been incorrectly assembled. This custom-built RNC was designed explicitly to meet very strict tolerances. Ironically, this device was assembled incorrectly, resulting in a wrong shape mirror. (NASA 2013) Nevertheless, Perkin-Elmer had serious failing in quality control.

A commission headed by Lew Allen, director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was established to determine how the error could have arisen. The commission blamed the failings primarily on Perkin-Elmer. Relations between NASA and the optics company had been severely strained during the telescope construction, due to frequent schedule slippage and cost overruns. NASA found that Perkin-Elmer did not review or supervise the mirror construction adequately, did not assign its best optical scientists to the project (as it had for the prototype), and in particular did not involve the optical designers in the construction and verification of the mirror. While the commission heavily criticized Perkin-Elmer for these managerial failings, NASA was also criticized for not picking up on the quality control shortcomings, such as relying totally on test results from a single instrument.

Political Issue

Large projects involve many stakeholders, with the international complex projects such as the Channel Tunnel and HST projects, there are other players too, including more than one government. Without government support, either project would have started and completed. The Channel Tunnel project was actually started in 1870s, but the British government, as they did 100 years later, called a halt, worried about the security implication (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). The HST project was even more relying on the government, because it was funded by the government.

The Channel Tunnel was built in between British and France, and therefore the project had to get permission from both side’s government support. The British Government was not so keen to build fixed link, they have stopped twice in history due to security issue and fuel crisis. The British politicians were worried about the cost and had other priorities (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). They suggested the Channel Tunnel was not deemed necessary.

On the French side of the Channel, the political environment was quite different. The French were especially enthusiastic. They were developing their high-speed TGV system and believed they could effectively compete with the airlines if they had a high speed London to Paris rail route (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). The French also viewed the project as a direct means to promote development in the economically depressed Nord Pas-de-Calais region. Once, several years later, when the project had hit problems, one of the leading French contractors apparently suggested they should tell their political masters of their difficulties, both to ask advice and because of the possibility of political embarrassment should the scheme fail. He was given a reception with the President Mitterrand within days. His British counterparts complained they had to wait several months, and then only got to see Transport Secretary Cecil Parkinson, rather than Margaret Thatcher (Anderson & Roskrow 1994).

In 1982, two British and three French banks formed the Franco British Channel Link Financing Group. They were responding to the French and British governments’ worries about the likely cost of the project (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). After one and half year, they published a report stated that the project could be funded by private money and proposed two financing methods. The job they have done gave the idea of a fixed link a crucial boost.

In 1984, it became clear that both the British and French governments were committed to pushing the project forward. The French parliamentary elections were due to take place in the spring of 1986. And in 1988 there was due to be a French presidential election plus a British general election. The two leaders might have been poles apart politically, but both recognized the great potential electoral benefits of the Channel link because of its high profile, futuristic image and its job-creating potential (Anderson & Roskrow 1994).

The key political breakthrough came at a regular meeting between Thatcher and Mitterrand in Paris in November 1984. Following their talks they issued a joint announcement saying that both governments regarded the building of a fixed link across the Channel as being in their mutual interests (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). The British were fully committed to private funding, if not to the idea of the fixed link itself. The French were fully committed to the fixed link since 100 years ago, were understandably suspicious of the British, due to the 1975 cancellation and doubting the feasibility of private finance. However, the British had won the financing issue that the successful tender would have to raise all funding from private source without government aid or loan guarantees.

The political support for the idea of the Channel Tunnel, however, was not appreciated by the public later. Writing in the Daily Mail years later, the paper’s City Editor Andrew Alexander summed up the feeling of many skeptics: “The tunnel is not a commercial project. It is a political project – just like the Humber Bridge – to bring votes to the government of the day while leaving the costs and problems to be faced by others later.” (Anderson & Roskrow 1994)

The general election has been a serious issue to both projects due to long life time and complexity. Towards the end of 1986, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher had called an early election. If Labour won, the party had said it would expect the present legislation to lapse while it held a public enquiry or some other detailed investigation into the project (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). This could delay the project for months or even years, and could easily destroy Eurotunnel’s complex financial plans. Eurotunnel’s insurance against these political uncertainties was to create as many jobs as possible before the election, so making it as difficult as possible for an incoming government to stop or delay the project (Anderson & Roskrow 1994).

Politicical issue was far more complicate and serious in HST project because the whole project was funded by the government. After World War II, the federal government became the chief sponsor of the scientific enterprise, and therefore seeking funding approval became the key political issue for HST project. The key political players included: Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the Congress and the White House.

NASA had to bring the project to OMB and convince OMB that federal funding is appropriate. If the project passes OMB and reaches Congress, it is then scrutinized by four subcommittees (two in the House of Representatives and two in the Senate) that deal with NASA funding. (Smith, 1989) If both sides of Congress approved proposal, it goes to the president to sign the bill into law.

In 1974, the funds for the Large Space Telescope (LST) had been denied by the House Appropriations Subcommittee. The subcommittee pointed out that “the LST is not among the top four priority telescope projects selected by the National Academy of Sciences.” (Smith, 1989)

In order to save the LST, NASA needed to lower the cost and a stronger support. One obvious way to cut costs was to reduce the size of the primary mirror and thereby scale down the rest of the spacecraft. (Smith, 1989) Therefore, the 3 meter LST was dead. After a decade as the focus of planning for a large telescope in space, it had become the lamented victim of the struggle to win congressional support, but had been reborn as the revised and repackaged 2.4 meter LST.

As suggested by OMB, NASA had obtained an international participation in, and financial contributions to, the LST. In 1976, NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) had gone far toward reaching an agreement on a cooperative project. The deal was that ESA would pay about 15 percent of the costs. (Smith, 1989) Following on the international cooperation, a nationwide lobbying effort was coordinated among astronomers. Many astronomers met congressmen and senators in person, and large scale letter-writing campaigns were organised.

The Congress has eventually approved the funding to continue LST project, and aiming for a launch date of 1983. NASA, the White House, and Congress in fact gave their approval for the telescope for reasons much more diverse than simply the quality of the science the telescope’s supporters promised – for example, to promote international ties, to strengthen the scientific/technological base of the United States, to help maintain the capability of the MSFC, to provide employment in the districts and states of many congressmen and senators, and as part of a major initiative in the Ford presidency to promote the development of basic research. (Smith, 1989)

Internal political issue was another key obstacle that HST has experienced. Due to the size of the HST project, NASA asked its own two centers Goddard and Marshall to lead the project together. It was, however, not as smooth as NASA thought. That Goddard should manage the development of designs for possible scientific instruments led to an awkward institutional arrangement. It meant that Marshall and Goddard were linked at the same time as they were vying with one another to become the lead center for the telescope program (Smith 1989). Yet Goddard, because of its responsibility for the instruments, was providing information to Marshall on possible scientific instruments for the telescope to help Marshall in the construction of its telescope design. Communication between the two centres, perhaps not surprisingly, was far from good (Smith 1989). It was only in 1983, after James Odom at Marshall and Frank Carr at Goddard headed their respective Space Telescope organisations and strenuously set out to establish good working relations between the centres, which Marshall and Goddard began to work better together (Smith 1989).

The impacts of choice and decision making on the formative stages of the projects

Having a good start to the project makes life much easier. Unfortunately it is not simple, especially for these complex projects. In early stage of the project, funding was an obvious issue that impacted of choice and decision making. The HST’s total cost was roughly estimated at $700 million, making it a tough sell. Hence, in order to win the approval from the government, it was fashioned to a significant degree by extra scientific pressures, pressure that introduced server tensions into the program design (Smith 1989).

There are several changes made on the formative stage of the project, which was between 1973 and 1977. The 1973 design for the HST had a three meter primary mirror; the 1977 telescope had a 2.4 meter mirror. In 1973 there were seven scientific instruments; in 1977, five. In 1973 the Support System Module sat behind the primary mirror; in 1977 it surrounded the primary. In 1973 the telescope was fifty-five feet long; in 1977, just over forty-three feet long. Even the telescope’s name had been changed from Large Space Telescope to Space Telescope of 1977 (Smith 1989).

NASA made these changes for only one reason, lower the telescope’s cost in the shape of the White House and Congress would accept. It was, however, not purely a matter of reducing costs. In fact, the NASA was in a difficult situation, if they cut the program and the telescope’s capability too much, they would lose the interest and support of the astronomers. NASA needed to find a balancing point of the trade off between cost and technical performance. NASA had worked out a bottom line that 2.4 meter telescope was the minimum the astronomers would accept (Smith 1989).

Let’s go back to the Channel Tunnel project to see what happened there on the formative stage of the project. It was a bit different to the HST project as we discussed the HST project was totally funded by the government, hence NASA needed to make some changes of the project to get funding approval. The Channel Tunnel project, however, was a private funding project, as long as it meets following criterias: Anglo-French, private funding, technically feasible and accompanied by an Environmental Impact Assessment (Anderson & Roskrow 1994).

By 1984, two governments had decided that the Channel Tunnel project should go ahead. The only thing they needed to make a final call was the design. By October 1985, ten proposals had been tendered by different companies. Four of which were to be seriously considered:

1. Channel Tunnel Group/France-Manche: a double rail tunnel to accommodate both passenger trains and special car and truck carrying shuttle trains.
2. EuroRoute: Road bridges to an artificial island 8.5 km out to sea, which would be connected by a 21 km long immersed tube tunnel. Alongside the road link was a coast-to-coast rail tunnel.
3. Eurobridge: bridge scheme across the Channel
4. Channel Expressway: twin very large bored tunnels, containing a two-lane expressway for motor vehicles and a train track.

CTG and EuroRoute were clear two front runners because they were low risk compare to the other two proposals. The EuroRoute scheme was the most expensive and ambitious of the serious contenders; however, it also had top-level political support, particularly in the UK. Mrs Thatcher’s preference for a drive-through scheme meant it was her choice (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). The EuroRoute scheme would also create the most jobs; rail-only scheme would present the rail unions with too much power (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). But although the rail link would create fewer jobs than its more ambitious rival, it would directly employ 4,000 construction workers at peak, and CTG claimed that the total number of jobs created on both side of the Channel during construction would exceed 40,000 (Anderson & Roskrow 1994).

After realising the EuroRoute scheme was too expensive, the British government started seriously considers the Channel Expressway scheme. The Channel Expressway scheme was formed by the owner of Sealink, a ferry operator. It is quite understandable that once the Channel Tunnel is built, ferry business will lose all of its customers because of the grate time saving. Sealink boss James Sherwood warned that if his bid for the mandate failed, many of the 2,500 people employed by Sealink on the short sea routes across the Channel would be lose their jobs (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). Certainly, there were very real question marks over Channel Expressway. One was cost. The bidding cost of the Channel Expressway was underestimated. A road tunnel involves a much larger bore than a rail tunnel and this presents serious engineering problems requiring costly solutions said by CTG managing director Michael Gordon (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). There were other worries, too, such as the effect on drivers of going through such a long tunnel. On top of all this, James Sherwood was still lacking the level of French support because this scheme that would create far fewer jobs in France than its rivals (Anderson & Roskrow 1994).

The most important requirement is that whatever link may be chosen, it must be capable of being financed without any support from government funds or government guarantees against commercial or technical risks. And therefore those banks and financial experts had a big say on this project. Those financial experts who had looked in detail at the prospects for a fixed link and the schemes on offer were plumping firmly for a rail tunnel, and they were prepared to back their judgement with hard cash (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). As far as CTG was concerned it had won all the arguments. Its scheme was less of a technical and financial risk than any of others and as well as a smaller impact on the environment.

These tenders were evaluated over a two months period, at the end of which the CTG/France Manche sheme was pronounced the winner. In many ways, the CTG scheme was a compromise solution. However, it was relatively safe, in that it depended on proven technology, looked financially viable, and was a clear extension of projects had been positively appraised by official commissions in the 1960s and 1970s. (Anderson & Roskrow 1994)

The demands imposed by the various stakeholders

A project stakeholder can be defined as a person (or a group of people) who has interest in the success of a project and the environment within which the project operates. The Channel Tunnel and HST are examples of major projects which have various stakeholders. The stakeholders of these two projects had influenced project process from beginning to end.

Space telescopes were proposed as early as 1923. It was finally funded to build in 1970s. Despite of technical reason, the hardest part of initiating the program was politically feasible. However, a strong and broad-range coalition would have to be assembled and mobilized in support of a large space telescope before it could become politically feasible. And the coalition-building process would in the end involve winning favor from astronomers, NASA, industrial contractors, the White House, Congress, the European Space Agency, other groups of scientists, and even sympathetic journalists (Smith 1989).

The history of the HST can be traced back as far as 1946, to the astronomer Lyman Spitzer’s paper “Astronomical advantages of an extraterrestrial observatory,” was a visionary look at the sorts of astronomical questions that could be addressed by a large telescope in space. Spitzer was the chief champion for many years for HST, he believed that HST would provide a totally new capability: Its most important contributions to astronomy most likely would be “not to supplement our present ideas of the universe we live in, but rather to uncover new phenomena not yet imagined, and perhaps modify profoundly our basic concepts of space and time.” (Smith, 1989) It was that belief, rooted in a vision of the history of astronomy and the effect of the introduction of other powerful telescopes, that did much to engage the interest and sustain the efforts of the astronomers. (Smith, 1989)

HST project was not only initiated by astronomers but was also once saved by the astronomers. In 1974, the funds for the HST project had been denied by the Congress. In response to this, a nationwide lobbying effort was coordinated among astronomers. Many astronomers met congressmen and senators in person, and large scale letter-writing campaigns were orgainsed. The National Academy of Sciences published a report emphasizing the need for a space telescope, and eventually the Senate agreed to half of the budget that had originally been approved by Congress (Smith, 1989).

The initiator of mega projects is always the one who is interested and good at it. One of the earliest proposals for a tunnel linking France and England was presented by a French mining engineer named Albert Mathieu to Napoleon in 1802. The engineer, however, did not play the role as astronomer played in HST project. The HST is a scientific instrument which makes a huge contribution in astronomy research, however, which has limited contribution to people live on the earth and economics. This is probably why the HST project was struggling to get support from the government and in contrast government played a key role in the Channel Tunnel project.

The governments on both sides of the Channel were interested in building a fixed link. Such a big project would not only bring benefits to transportation, trading between the nations but also supporting local industry and employment. The two leaders might have been poles apart politically, but both recognized the great potential electoral benefits of the Channel link because of its high profile, futuristic image and its job-creating potential (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). The governments, however, have their own concerns, cost and national security. In the 1870s construction actually started on the British and French coasts with a view to building a railway tunnel between Folkestone and Cap Gris-Nez. But the British, as they did 100 years later, called a halt, worried about the security implications (Anderson & Roskrow 1994).

Cost was not a concern to British government anymore because the project was agreed to be a private funded project. Such a funding scheme was impossible on HST project, no one would like to fund a space telescope except the Government because it would not bring much financial profit. After World War II, U.S. Government became the chief sponsor of the scientific enterprise, that shift brought with it not only more money but also new obligations and a new political framework within which scientists had to work (Smith, 1989).

Hence, because of the need to win government patronage, winning approval for the telescope was an intricate process (Smith 1989). The funding battles of the mid-1970s had led NASA manager to develop a low-cost approach to build the Space Telescope. Given NASA’s pessimistic view of how Congress and the White House would respond to the prospect of funding the Space Telescope, the low cost was regarded by the agency as essential (Smith 1989). Thus, we have a vivid illustration of how the telescope’s dependence on government patronage and the political context in which it was initiated. NASA, the White House, and Congress in fact gave their approval for the telescope for reasons much more than simply the quality of the science the telescope’s supporters promised. For example, to promote international ties, to strengthen the scientific/technological base of the United States, to help maintain the capability of the Marshall Space Flight Center, to provide employment in the districts and states of many congressmen and senators, and as part of a major initiative in the Ford presidency to promote the development of basic research (Smith 1989).

Starting in 1975, with the coming of the Ford presidency, federal funding for basic research, after having declined for a few years, resumed the upward trend that has been characteristic of U.S. science policy since World War II (Smith 1989). That boost in funding sat excellently with NASA’s proposal to build the Space Telescope, and the telescope was seen in the Ford administration as a fine example of the kind of science program that was worthy of support. Therefore, with a different White House and another set of policies, the telescope program might never have gotten into gear (Smith 1989).

The design of the Channel Tunnel is not limited by the government because of its sponsor were all the major banks in two countries. Banks played important role to initiate the Channel Tunnel project. In 1982, two British and three French banks formed the Franco British Channel Link Financing Group. They were responding to the French and British governments’ worries about the likely cost of the project (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). After one and half year, they published a report stated that the project could be funded by private money and proposed two financing methods. The job they have done gave the idea of a fixed link a crucial boost.

The reason that banks gave strong back to the project is obviously, financial return. Dislike the government funding project, the fund of the Channel Tunnel is a loan. The operator Eurotunnel will have to eventually pay back the money to the banks, with more interest. However, like the HST project, the Channel Tunnel project still has done things to make banks happy. Just days before the concession agreement was signed, the Channel Tunnel Group (CTG) announced that Sir Nicholas Henderson’s replacement as chairman would be Lord Pennock. It was a choice designed to please the banks and the City of London (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). But the banks have kept faith. During the difficulty time while Eurotunnel had financial difficulties and huge dispute with its contractor, the banks continued to grant waivers and extensions to Eurotunnel.

Contract Arrangement

The HST project was the most costly and challenging science technology project managed by the United States space agency NASA, with contributions from the European Space Agency. Because of the project’s complexity, thousands of people divided into many interlocking and multidisciplinary teams who would design and construct the Space Telescope. (Smith, 1989) In addition to NASA Headquarters, there were two NASA field centres intimately involved – the Marshall Space Flight Centre (MSFC) and the Goddard Space Flight Centre (GSFC). MSFC was given responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the construction of the telescope, while GSFC was given overall control of the scientific instruments and ground-control centre for the mission.

NASA were to use associate contractors for LST, there were one Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) and one Support Systems Module (SSM) associate contractor. MSFC was selected over GSFC to act as overseer and ensure that all the parts of the telescope fit together correctly. Associate contractors would also mean a more elaborate management structure than with a prime. The major advantage of such arrangement is cost saving than prime contractors as the agency would not have to pay a fee to prime contractor to manage the other contractors. But possible cost savings were not the only benefit from using associate contractors. If a prime contractor were to be used, this role would be played by an aerospace company. If so, an optical company would be subcontracted to the aerospace company to construct the OTA, which means that in the bids for the contracts, two aerospace companies would be paired with the two optical houses. The other aerospace companies that had not been so paired would then be cut out of the competition, hence less competitive for bids.

NASA approved Perkin-Elmer (PE) to build the OTA, including the fabrication of the primary and secondary mirrors. Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) were selected to develop the SSM. NASA later claimed that the biggest factor in Perkin-Elmer’s success was the company’s proposed “Fine Guidance System”, which was essential to LST. On the other hand, LMSC had little expertise on astronomy satellites, both firms were very experienced with military satellites and had worked together on the KH-9 reconnaissance satellite. (Dunar, 1999)

The biggest challenge for NASA/MSFC in such contracting arrangement was how to manage these two major contractors should interact with each other. The contractors had their own particular ways of doing business, and it would take a while for NASA to get to know the contractors working on the telescope and for the contractors to get to know NASA. (Smith, 1989) Furthermore, MSFC had a “cap” on the manpower it could employ on the Space Telescope, with the number of only around 100. It is almost impossible to manage such complex project by limited number of project personnel.

The contracting arrangement used in the Channel Tunnel project was a bit different. The winning bidder, CTG and France-Manche, was a private consortium of 15 British and French construction companies and banks. When the concession agreement was signed, CTG and France-Manche began the process of merging, creating Eurotunnel with Lord Pennock as chairman. The Eurotunnel would be the owner of the Channel Tunnel and hence the holder of the concession (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). Eurotunnel was basically playing a project manager role, which was given the job of raising finance, managing contractors and running the tunnel for a profit after it had been completed.

To build the Tunnel, Eurotunnel would also let a design and build contract for the tunnel to Transmanche Link (TML), TML is a huge partnership that involves five British and five French contractors that originally founded the CTG and France-Manche. All of those independent contractors have the extended experience of tunneling thousands of kilometers. The contract involved not just building the tunnels but designing and installing a complete railway system. The idea was that all that Eurotunnel would have to do would be to take delivery of the completed project in just over seven years’ time and test it ready for the opening a few months later (Anderson & Roskrow 1994).

The project was supervised by the Intergovernmental Commission (IGC), on behalf of both governments to ensure the Eurotunnel’s compliance with the Concession. This party was in charge of the reviewing design, procedures, specifications and in particular issues related to environment, operation and safety of the tunnel.

Project Financing and Cost

The HST project is a government funded project. Since World War II, the federal government became the chief sponsor of the scientific enterprise, however, the government agencies that channel most of the funds to them cannot meet their desires, and the costs of the numerous potential and worthy programs always outstrip the available money. It is a complicate process to get budget approved by the government for such a large space telescope project. Given NASA’s pessimistic view of how Congress and the White House would respond to the prospect of funding the LST, the low cost was regarded by the agency as essential. NASA estimated that $700 million was the cost to build the LST and hence the telescope was projected to be the most costly scientific instrument ever built. (Smith, 1989, P87)

On top of the reasonable budget that has been provided by NASA, scientists had to convince Congress and the White House that large amount of taxpayer’s money is wisely spent. Therefore a massive lobbying campaign was then conducted by astronomers by persuading their patrons of the telescopes’ worth. It has been discussed in Stakeholder part that how the LST’s dependence on government patronage and the political context in which it was initiated, including the existing set of NASA’s own institutional interests, were exceptionally important in shaping the design of the program as well as the telescope itself. For example, if the budget was not a problem, a three meter LST would surely have been built.

The budgeting issue was not only at beginning of the project, but also throughout contracting period. The contracts for the Space Telescope were of a type known as “cost plus fee”. (Smith, 1989, P260) NASA would therefore pay whatever it cost to construct the telescope. Whin a few months of the start of Phase C/D and due to various renegotiations of the contract for the Optical Telescope Assembly, Perkin-Elmer’s contract had already been adjusted by $22.4 million to a total of $91.8 million. (Smith, 1989, P261)

It is clearly that the funding battles of the mid 1970 had led NASA to develop a low-cost approach to get project funding approved by the Congress. This would be one of the causes that impacted on cost increasing. In addition to the low estimated building cost, unrealistic technical expectation had been fostered when the telescope was being sold. The claim by NASA of the mid-1970s that the technology to build the telescope was well understood and was within the state of the art crumbled under the pressure of a taxing design and development effort. (Smith, 1989, P388)

Not surprisingly, because of the complexity of the technology, the contractors’ low bid, the poor project management, NASA faced a series of budgeting issue throughout the project.

The Channel Tunnel project is different to the HST project, it is the largest privately funded project in history. It was clear from the beginning that the two governments would not get involved in the funding of the project as this was the only basis on which Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minster, would approve the project.

Funds have been raised through equity raising in capital markets and loan agreements. The first, called Equity One, would be worth £50 million. This would be initial money and would be put in by the founder shareholders of CTG and Franch-Manche, the ten construction firms and the five banks (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). In October 1986, Equity Two, a private placement of £206 million was arranged. The money is to ensure that the contractor TML had enough to pay its bills (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). Eurotunnel intended Equity Three to raise around £750 million, but its significance was far bigger than the cash it would raise, for if it flopped, the banks had said their loan agreement would automatically fall (Anderson & Roskrow 1994).

Eurotunnel had successfully arranged £5 billion loan from 50 banks worldwide in August 1987. An important clause in the 1987 loan agreement stipulated that the project had to be fully financed to completion. This was to have significant impact later, as subsequent cost overruns made it necessary for Eurotunnel to increase both equity and loan capital beyond the combined £ 6 billion which had been raised by the end of 1987 (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). It was bank which control finance at each stage, by monitoring construction before allowing Eurotunnel to draw on its agreed lines of finance.

With a final cost of around £10 billion, the Channel Tunnel project is over budget for more than 80%. Large construction project in general are notorious for cost and schedule overruns and the Channel Tunnel is no exception. There were different reasons that caused cost increases.

One of the obvious reasons that cost kept increasing was construction initiated before design completion. When the decision was made in 1984 to open the project to bidders, very little time was allowed for detailed design studies in advance of construction. The Channel Tunnel was meant to be open for operation in May 1993. This meant that the project was to move from design consideration to completion in about 8 years. The detail design such as the power, ventilation, cooling and signaling systems had never been pinpointed (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). Without this information the 10 contractors had put a price on the installation of fixed equipment which never had a chance of being close to the correct sum. What is surprising is that the banks missed this point when they began funding the project (Anderson & Roskrow 1994).

Another reason is similar to the cost increase in HST project, which is low bid. That is the competitive pressure that prompts bidders to cut their cost estimates in order to make a successful bid. This is quite common in any of acquisitions. Contract arrangement is one of the reasons as well. Eurotunnel had one contractor from beginning to the end, which was TML. The companies in TML were all experienced contractor, they know their bargain point. Eurotunnel cannot earn a cent on its investment until the Tunnel is operational, which means schedule to Eurotunnel is more demanding than cost overruns. A better approach for contracting arrangement might have been for Eurotunnel to let a series of contracts for separate sections of the work.

The adequacy of dispute resolution

Conflict of interest happens in almost every project, the HST and the Channel Tunnel projects are not exceptions. As identified in contracting section, NASA utilised the associated contract approach with industry for the design, development and construction of the Hubble Space Telescope instead of a prime contractor arrangement. This contracting arrangement allows NASA to act as a prime contractor to maintain oversight and control of the project. However, NASA is a huge organisation which has too many commitments and therefore two NASA centres, Marshall and Goddard were called to manage and develop the project.

Thus, the first project management issue was brought out as conflicting happened within the project team. Marshall and Goddard had worked badly together in Phase B and the relationship was still poor in 1977. (Smith, 1989) The reason behind the issue was that Marshall was selected over Goddard to manage the HST project. Goddard preferred to work directly for NASA headquarters, not for another centre, in this case Marshall. That was because Goddard had numerous professional astronomers and superior experience with astronomy satellites. In contrast, Marshall had less experience in optics and astronomy. (Dunar & Waring 1999) But for Goddard to have reported directly to headquarters would have undermined Marshall’s control over a project for which Marshall was ultimately responsible (Smith 1989).

Nevertheless Marshall had advantages. Goddard had too many commitments and too few people and so its director did not support the new project. Marshall, in contrast, had too many people and too few commitments (Dunar & Waring 1999). Moreover, Marshall leadership had become enthusiastic about the HST.

It was impossible for project to be progressed without solving the conflicting issue. NASA headquarters had rewritten the memorandum of agreement between Marshall and Goddard, whereas Marshall would have overall authority for the telescope, Goddard would be responsible for the scientific instruments and the operations for the Space Telescope – responsibilities constituting a sizable chunk of the whole program. (Smith, 1989)

Another big conflict in HST project was between NASA and the Space Telescope Science Institute. Soon after its establishment in 1981, the Institute and NASA had come to distinctly different positions on the appropriate size and scope of the institute’s activities (Smith 1989). They also had different view regarding the institute’s size and manpower. NASA, Headquarters, whose telescope managers lived every day with the severe financial constraints on the program, was disturbed because it believed the Institute was growing too rapidly (Smith 1989). NASA also concerned that there had been excessive growth of staff and funding at the institute, and appealed to the self-interest of the astronomers by contending that extra money devoted to the institute would have to be siphoned away from NASA space budget.

Another dispute between NASA and the institute was the Science Operations Ground System (SOGS), which was the complex system to enable the institute to plan, schedule, and perform observations with the scientific instruments aboard the telescope. It was argued that NASA to hand management responsibility for SOGS to the institute during the contract period. Hence the institute was assumed responsible for the SOGS functions.

The dispute was solved until the Space Science Board entered in May 1984. The Board emphasised that the Institute should be of sufficient size, in facilities and staff, to carry out its functions, but should not become so large as to absorb an inordinate fraction of the resources devoted to astronomical research (Smith 1989). Then NASA and the institute were able to establish what both sides would come to regard as a reasonable working relationship.

Dispute issue on the Channel Tunnel project is just as complicate as the HST project. Eurotunnel was not happy about the contractor TML because of the project schedule. In the last week of August 1988, Eurotunnel formally notified TML that it was failing to meet the agreed project schedule. The delay meant that TML was liable for substantial financial penalties (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). Though it was not TML’s fault, not 100%, as discussed already, the bad ground condition had not been picked up by the geological surveys, TML had to modify the boring machines to dig through wet chalk. TML had no interest in the project finishing late, any more than Eurotunnel did. But it did know that late completion would hurt Eurotunnel more than it would hurt the TML member contractors. More than anything, Eurotunnel – with banks on its back needed trains running through a completed tunnel and money coming in to start paying off its debts (Anderson & Roskrow 1994).

Moreover, what really bothered Eurotunnel was not just the construction delay but also how TML was being managed (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). It is very difficult doing a job with two contractors joint venturing. It’s nearly impossible with three unless one is appointed the lead contractor. But when there are ten together with equal authority in two different language, it’s very difficult to sort out. One of the key management issues that TML had was safety management.

The safety management issue was brought on the table when Andrew McKenna, the first man to die on the Channel Tunnel. At one point the tunnel was losing a man every two months in tragic circumstances. At this time workers were accusing TML of “push, push, push” to get the project finished at the expense of safety. TML did have safety induction course in place, however, the difficulty was in spreading the awareness of the dangers to every one of the thousands of people who worked on the tunnel (Anderson & Roskrow 1994).

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) began a major audit of the project’s safety procedure, which TML insisted were in order. The problem, which TML recognised, was getting the workers to abide by the rules (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). The HSE soon had an outcome from audit with a report. The report said that more than half the management had not attended the induction course and that the managers were not held individually responsible for health and safety. Management was also criticised for not attending safety meetings or showing positive attitudes towards safety and health. TML scrapped its safety management system and, on the advice of the HSE and under the American influence of Jack Lemley, introduced an American-style safety system to the site (Anderson & Roskrow 1994).

TML also had its own concern and disappointment. The main worry for TML was the lack of design information coming from Eurotunnel on key areas of the mechanical and electrical work. Without this information TML was struggling to plan properly its procurement and site work, and this would eventually lead to inefficiencies on site that would cost money (Anderson & Roskrow 1994). This problem was at the heart of the dispute over costs between Eurotunnel and TML at the end of 1989. TML argued that the cost increase were chiefly due to deficiencies in the initial design and cost estimates. Eurotunnel maintained they were due to TML inefficiencies in following a perfectly satisfactory design.

In January 1990, TML announced it was taking Eurotunnel to court in France because it had not been paid its monthly account ( Anderson & Roskrow 1994). The dispute issue between the client and contractor finally reached its peak point. The greatest civil engineering project in the world was on its knees. Eurotunnel was somewhat in a difficult situation, they need money from bank to pay TML, but without TML’s signature the banks would still not release the money to Eurotunnel. In order to restore the bank syndicate’s confidence, Eurotunnel was forced to revise its contract with TML and seek additional equity and loan capital.

Agreement had been reached between Eurotunnel and TML on most, but not all cost disputes. The new agreement not only greatly exceeded what had previously been thought a maximum financing limit, it was based on a lower Tunnel specification. Eurotunnel had to accept lower speeds through the tunnel for trains and shuttles, open rather than closed truck-shuttles, a less glamorous Tunnel portal on the French side, and so on (Anderson & Roskrow 1994).
Why the selected project are considered to be successful, or otherwise

The Channel Tunnel project has been completed a year later and at more than double the original cost. All in all, that the Channel Tunnel project management was not very effective. However, I still consider the project is successful. What Eurotunnel and TML did – without help from the governments – was build a scheme which will benefit Europe as a whole. The Channel Tunnel was constructed in order to have a cheaper and faster transport connection between UK and France and finally improve the living standards of European people. Therefore, the project is considered as successful.

The project can be considered a failure if we take following aspects: it lost 6 months revenue due to delay in opening; cost more than double the original budget, huge dispute with the contractors and killed 10 men. These project management issues have left a valuable lesson to the future complex projects. 1. Better to have sufficient government support. If it is possible, the government should be involved as a key stakeholder, not only for the money but more importantly the political influence. At least, the project should keep close communication with the government. 2. Detail design before construction. One of the reasons that the project had cost overruns was because there was no detailed design in place before digging into the tunnel. A detailed design would help correctly estimate total cost and a comprehensive risk management plan. 3. Coordinate with key stakeholders and contractors. A clear and frequent communication between contractors and client is necessary. If the communication was effective in the Channel Tunnel project, Eurotunnel would have known the project issue earlier and be prepared with solutions. 4. Risk and Safety management. Safety management is not just about an induction course, it is everyone’s responsibility to ensure the workplace is safe, especially at construction site.

The Hubble Space Telescope project is considered to be successful as well from many aspects. Although not the first space telescope, Hubble is one of the largest and most versatile, and is well known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy. Frankly, it has its own problems through the project life. The problems include: contract arrangement, program design, political issue, quality control. But in the end the HST has made murmurs great astronomy achievements in the history. HST’s successor James Webber Space Telescope is under manufacturing and I believe NASA has learnt valuable lessons from the HST project to build the next generation Space Telescope.


Allen, Lew “The Hubble Space Telescope Optical Systems Failure Report”, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1990, P10-1

Anderson, Graham and Roskrow, Ben “The Channel Tunnel Story”, E&FN SPON, 1994

Dunar, Andrew and Waring, Stephen “Power to Explore: A History of Marshall Space Flight Centre 1960-1990”, 1999

Smith, Rober W “The Space Telescope – A study of NASA, Science, Technology and Politics”, Cambridge University Press, 1989

The Hubble Project accessed on 27 Oct 2013…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Wind Tunnel - Replica of the Wright Brothers' Wind Tunnel.

...Wind tunnel A wind tunnel is a tool used in aerodynamic research to study the effects of air moving past solid objects. A wind tunnel consists of a closed tubular passage with the object under test mounted in the middle. A powerful fan system moves air past the object; the fan must have straightening vanes to smooth the airflow. The test object is instrumented with a sensitive balance to measure the forces generated by airflow; or, the airflow may have smoke or other substances injected to make the flow lines around the object visible. Full-scale aircraft or vehicles are sometimes tested in large wind tunnels, but these facilities are expensive to operate and some of their functions have been taken over by computer modelling. In addition to vehicles, wind tunnels are used to study the airflow around large structures such as bridges or office buildings. The earliest enclosed wind tunnels were invented in 1871; large wind tunnels were built during the Second World War. Contents • 1 Theory of operation • 2 Measurement of aerodynamic forces • 3 History o 3.1 Origins o 3.2 World War Two o 3.3 Post World War Two • 4 How it works o 4.1 Pressure measurements o 4.2 Force and moment measurements • 5 Flow visualization o 5.1 Qualitative methods • 6 Classification o 6.1 Aeronautical wind tunnels  6.1.1 High Reynolds number tunnels  6.1.2 V/STOL tunnels  6.1.3 Spin tunnels o 6.2 Automobile tunnels o 6.3 Aeroacoustic tunnels • 7 List of wind tunnels o 7.1......

Words: 3936 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Tunnel of Love

...Tunnel of Love The water flows both ways through the tunnel of love, depending on which rusty lever I force! Like life, this tacky carnival ride with its soggy boats bobbing in a curving trough is not a circle but a figure-eight, or an eighty-eight, that doubles back and gives us second chances to be noble or to wet the seat of our pants. Where the streams cross, with my over-education I can steer the couples through the wide or the narrow entrances to tapered, covered corridors and either squeeze them together or wedge them apart, depending on their fitness for each other—and all for the minimum wage! Take this gentleman for example and his uncertain girlfriend. If I wobble their boat just slightly as they step into it and he steadies her by the shoulder and elbow, his small but certain gesture will beguile her. I could put myself in his place at that moment and she would want even me! On the other hand, if I collide two boats before the tunnel, I can sunder the pair that responds with annoyance—and at the same time cinch the two who share a laugh about it! The two I denounce will smell the mildew from the trapped water of an aging ride that should be condemned. For the two I affirm, ample to themselves, the tunnel and its weeping walls will fade away like other people’s problems. I should be paid what couples counselors get for my discernment! The uninspiring and the doomed I leave alone for the gears of the drive chain to propel toward their insipid certainties, but......

Words: 306 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Tiger in the Tunnel

...occasionally by the shrill cry of a cicada. Sometimes from far off came the hollow hammering of a woodpecker, carried along on the faint breeze. Or the grunt of a wild boar could be heard as he dug up a favourite root. But these sounds were rare, and the silence of the forest always returned to swallow them up. Baldeo, the watchman, was awake. He stretched himself slowly unwinding the heavy shawl that covered him. It was close on midnight and the chill air made him shiver. The station, a small shack backed by heavy jungle, was a station in name only; for trains only stopped there, if at all, for a few seconds before entering the deep cutting that led to the tunnel. Most trains merely slowed down before taking the sharp curve before cutting. Baldeo was responsible for signalling whether or not the tunnel was clear of obstruction, and his manual signal stood before the entrance. At night it was his duty to see that the lamp was burning, and that the overland mail passed through safely. 'Shall I come too, Father?' asked Tembu sleepily, still lying in a huddle in a corner of the hut. 'No, it is cold tonight. Do not get up.' Tembu, who was twelve, did not always sleep with his father at the station, for he had also to help in the home, where his mother and small sister were usually alone. They lived in a small tribal village on the outskirts of the forest, about three miles from the station. Their small rice fields did not provide them with more than a......

Words: 375 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Pengurusan Projek - the Tunnel

...andaian-andaian bagi membolehkan projek berjalan lancar dan bagaimana pemantauan dilakukan terhadap pencapaian output dan outcome sesebuah projek. Komponen Fasa Analisa dan Perancangan adalah seperti di Gambarajah A3: 1.7 Berdasarkan huraian di atas, penggunaan LFA di peringkat perancangan dalam proses kitaran projek sebenarnya dapat membantu pegawai pembangunan merangka projek fizikal yang menepati sasaran serta bertepatan dengan keperluan sebenar outcome di peringkat Kementerian mahupun di peringkat Nasional. Keberkesanan outcome projek ini adalah bersifat objektif yang boleh diukur dan dibuat perbandingan dengan Bidang Keberhasilan Utama (KRA) menggunakan Indikator Pencapaian (KPI) yang ditetapkan. 2.0 “THE CHANNEL TUNNEL” 2.1 LATAR BELAKANG Projek ini merupakan inisiatif yang diilhamkan bagi menghubungkan dua negara iaitu United Kingdom (UK) dan Perancis menggunakan terowong di bawah laut melalui Selat Inggeris. Usaha awal telah dilakukan semenjak tahun 1880 oleh kedua belah pihak untuk membina laluan tersebut melalui kesan laluan sepanjang 1.8 km di kedua-dua buah Negarayang dijumpai pada tahun 1970. Terowong di bawah laut yang lengkap dengan sistem pengangkutan sepanjang 50.5 km merentasi Bandar Folkstone di UK dan Carlais di Perancis melalui dasar laut perairan Selat Inggeris telah dimulakan perlaksanaanya pada tahun 1987 dan mengambil masa 8 tahun sehingga 1994 untuk siap dengan kos sebanyak £4.6 billion. Gambar......

Words: 1500 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Tunnel Case Study

...Channel Tunnel Project Management Mistakes Bellevue University PMGT335-316S Project Cost 15 February 2012 Channel Tunnel Project Management Mistakes The Channel Tunnel (Chunnel) project was one of the largest privately funded construction projects in history, and one plagued with mistakes. The project created a rail link between England and France spanning over 30 miles with 23.5 of the miles under water. The project melded a difficult mix of numerous contractors and regulatory agencies with bankers and two national governments (Fairweather, 1994). While an overall success the project suffered from many planning and management mistakes that caused it to be grossly over budget and late. One of the key mistakes that befell the project was also one of the costliest. The contract that was entered into between Eurotunnel and Transmache Link (TML) for the terminals and the mechanical and electrical equipment was a lump-sum contract (Fairweather, 1994). This decision was driven by the desire of the bankers involved in the project for a level of certainty on the costs. This error could have been prevented with a few basic project management techniques. The bankers, being a key stakeholder, had the right to have their desires understood by Eurotunnel before any contracts were signed. What failed to happen was effective communications between the engineers at Eurotunnel who had the knowledge to understand the risks involved with this phase of the project and the bankers...

Words: 829 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...The Channel Tunnel (French: le tunnel sous la Manche), widely recognized as one of the world’s greatest civil engineering projects, is a 50.5km underwater rail tunnel connecting Folkestone, Kent in the UK with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais in France under the English Channel. Even though it began construction in 1988 and was opened in 1994, the idea to have a cross-channel tunnel was first mooted more than 200 years ago but did not materialize due to political, national security and cost considerations. However, with the tremendous increase in traffic growth, better and alternative means of communication, convenience and speed was necessary and hence the need for an alternative transport route was clearly evident. The need for such tunnel was further compounded with Britain joining the European Community and the cross-channel traffic doubling in the last 20 years (leading to the project), reflecting improved trading between the Britain and rest of Europe. The Channel Tunnel would also be able to provide an alternative competitive link between the transportation systems of the UK and France, providing both speed and reliability to freight deliveries. With the strong endorsement from the governments of both sovereigns, the decision to build the Channel Tunnel was thus made. In April 1985, the British and French governments issued a formal invitation to potential tenderers for the fixed Channel link and eventually the contract was awarded to the consortium Channel Tunnel Group......

Words: 5274 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay


... After your request to our Marketing personnel, I hereby release the finding of our report that outline the most relative and effective channel structure for Tiffany & Co. This report provides a detailed look at the channel design decision paradigm. This report suggested alternate channel strategies and evaluated each. It also gives some added recommendations from the Marketing Department. Our researches suggest that the best channel design structure follow is Vertical Channel Structure and Multi Channel Structure. Thank you for choosing out marketing team to complete the research. We enjoyed the opportunity that we received from your business. Please do not hesitate to ask any of your concern or questions. Regards, Thi Nguyen Marketing Consultant Prepared For: Charles Tiffany Company: Tiffany & Co. Date Submitted: 11 – 10 – 2013 Student Name: Thi Nguyen Student Number: U1004604 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report has been authorized by Mr. Charles Tiffany from “Tiffany & Co”. The report was commissioned to outline the most effective channel structure for Tiffany & Co. Analysis, study and make recommendations to change to the channel design chose for the company. The finding indicated that a number of changes should occur if Tiffany & Co. wants a more effective and efficient distribution channel. The improvement that need to be made range from setting and coordinating distribution objectives, some distribution objectives given......

Words: 5091 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Casse Underwater Chaos at English Channel

...Management & Organisation October 18, 2014 CASE 1: “Underwater Chaos at English Channel” It would be a claustrophobic’s worst nightmare – trapped subsea in the 31-mile Eurotunnel beneath the English Channel on the Eurostar train that travels between Britain and the European mainland. A series of breakdowns on five London-bound trains from Brussels which began December 18, 2009 left more than 2,000 passengers stranded for up to 16 hours. Many of those passengers trapped in the dark and overheated tunnel endured serious distress. “Parents had to remove their children’s clothes, leaving them in underwear and diapers. Some passengers suffered stress and panic attacks. Others started feeling ill due to the heat.”  Was this just an unfortunate incident for the unlucky passengers who happened to be on those trains or did poor managerial decision making about the operation both the train and the channel tunnel also play a role? An independent review of the incident blamed Eurostar and the operator of the tunnel for being unprepared for severe winter weather. The report said that Eurostar had failed to adequately maintain and winterize its high-speed trains to protect sensitive components from malfunctioning due to excessive snow and moisture buildup. At the time of the Eurostar train breakdowns, severe winter weather had been wreaking havoc on Europe. Airlines, car and truck drivers, and other rail operators across Europe were also suffering from a winter that was on course...

Words: 1537 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Through the Tunnel

...various challenges that we have to overcome. Through the Tunnel is a short story written by a famous author called Doris Lessing. It’s a rite of passage short story about an 11 year boy who is growing up. The main protagonist Jerry in the short story is an 11 year old boy who the author presents to us a ‘loner’ (Lessing,1990). He faces the challenge of swimming through a tunnel in the rock and belonging to a certain clique of friends. He finally manages to swim through the tunnel through persistence and determination. The main theme brought out in the story are; for you to grow up you have broken free by being determined and persistent. By swimming through the tunnel Jerry breaks free from his loneliness and doubt of his potential. Throughout the story Jerry is depicted to us as a loner and makes no mention of friends. He always hangs around his mother who makes her feel accepted; they are very protective over each other since there’s no one else in their lives. He manages to break free from his loneliness and becomes friends with the other boys which make him feel accepted. By passing through the tunnel Jerry builds his confidence and he starts to believe that he can achieve anything as long as he is determined and keeps trying. The conflicts captured in the short story are person verses self, person vs. person and person vs. nature. Jerry had to converse with himself if he was capable of swimming through the tunnel. He also interacted with other people when he tried to......

Words: 1303 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Tiger in the Tunnel

...The Tiger in the Tunnel The Tiger in the Tunnel 13 THE TIGER IN THE TUNNEL Notes The night is dark and silent. A young boy and his father are alone in a hut in the middle of the jungle. Soon the father leaves his son alone and goes out into the jungle. Where does he go and why? OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, you will be able to: • • • • • read and understand a story in English; use homophones correctly; use the to-infinite, gerunds and participles appropriately; edit your writing; and give and take messages. 13.1 SECTION I Tembu, the boy, opened his eyes in the dark and wondered if his father was ready to leave the hut on his nightly errand. There was no moon that night, and the deathly stillness of the surrounding jungle was broken only occasionally by the shrill cry of a cicada. Sometimes from far off came the hollow hammering of a woodpecker, carried along on the faint breeze. Or the grunt of a wild boar could be heard as he dug up a favourite root. But these sounds were rare, and the silence of the forest always returned to swallow them up. ENGLISH 111 The Tiger in the Tunnel The Tiger in the Tunnel Baldeo, the watchman, was awake. He stretched himself slowly unwinding the heavy shawl that covered him. It was close on midnight and the chill air made him shiver. The station, a small shack backed by heavy jungle, was a station in name only; for trains only stopped there, if at all, for a few seconds before entering the deep cutting......

Words: 4628 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Wind Tunnel

...~~~Concept of Wind-tunnel~~~ Wind tunnels date back to the 1870’s. Scientists realized it didn’t matter if an object was stationary and air was blown was over the object or if the object was moving through the air. The resultant forces over the object would be the same. The idea of blowing air over an object and determining the forces lead to the invention of wind tunnel. As the name suggests, a wind-tunnel is a cylindrical tunnel in which air is blown from one side by a huge fan at high speeds. The middle part of the tunnel is called as throat. It is the place where the test model is placed. Various sensors are attached to the test model and the data is collected in the room near it. The data collected issued to reduce the aerodynamic drag and minimize fuel consumption and also increase the speed of the cars, trucks, planes, etc. also aerodynamic properties like lift, drag, forces, moments are measured with the use of wind-tunnel. In wind-tunnel air is blown over the test model which is kept stationary at the throat. This will produce the same effect as it would be produced if the vehicle is moving at high speeds on a road. For more accurate results the tunnel is sometimes equipped with rolling road to prevent the boundary layer forming on the floor which may affect the test results. * What are wind tunnels? Just as its name suggests, a wind tunnel is a tube or tunnel that has man-made windblown through it at a certain speed. Scientists and engineers put...

Words: 7745 - Pages: 31

Free Essay

The Siloam Tunnel Inscription

...Siloam Inscription The Siloam Inscription is a passage of text found in the Siloam tunnel—also known as Hezekiah’s tunnel—which was dug underneath the City of David in ancient Israel. The tunnel brought water from the Gihon Spring into the pool of Siloam in Jerusalem. It was built by Hezekiah of Judah in the late 7th or early 8th centuries as he prepared for an imminent siege by the Assyrians, led by Sennacherib. The tunnel was first discovered in modern times by Franciscus Quaresmius in 1625, however, he was unable to explore the canal and is unable to give information about the canal (Robinson, 337-338). It was then discovered by Edward Robinson in 1838, however, he and a few excavators after him never came across the inscription described above. The inscription itself was found accidentally by a boy in 1880 on the eastern side, about 19 feet from the pool. The inscription dates to 701 BCE and talks about how two groups of workers started from opposite ends of the tunnel and dug until they met in the middle. The inscription itself describes one of these groups heard the sounds of pickaxes that helped lead them through the tunnel when “there was a fissure in the rock.” Most researchers agree that the inscription was commissioned by the [Hezekiah’s] tunnel’s chief engineer toward the completion of the tunnel and was inscribed at the location in the middle where the workers met. It was cut off from the wall in 1891 by thieves and broken into fragments. After......

Words: 1415 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...Because there are so many ways they can communicate with each other. Wal-Mart divided the channels of communication into two categories from the most important to the less important way to communicate. These categories are physical media channel and mechanical media channel (commitment AB, 2008). Physical Media Channel is when the person who is speaking can be heard and seen by their employees. This method of communication is used when the person receiving the message expect to get physical communication especially when dealing with concern messages and the employees want to hear it from their manager face to face. Under this channel there are so many ways for managers to communicate with employees, management team and other organization. These physical media channels that is used for communication is through large meetings, department meeting, video conferences and viral communication (CAB, 2008). Mechanical Media Channel is the second type of communication channel that Wal-Mart uses to communicate with management, employees, and other organizations. This communication channel means there are a lot of electronic and written channels that is used for message or giving a deeper knowledge on how to communicate better with each other. There are so many different ways management can communicate under mechanical media with their management team, employees and organizations. The different channels of communication are email, internet, personal letters, weekly news letters,......

Words: 385 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Com Channels

...what to ask to be charged. Please let me know if you need anything from me. I am thinking this is all due Sunday he did not say so I will let you know if it is before then. Communication Channel Scenarios Resources: Communication Channel Scenarios located on the student website. Read the scenarios located on the student website. Answer the questions after each scenario. Be sure to select the communication channel appropriate for each scenario. Defend your responses. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Scenarios are below: Scenario 1 You are the Marketing Manager for a new beverage that has done remarkably well in the United States after it’s introduction especially in sports arenas such as football and basketball. The Vice President of Operations charged you and your team to develop a strategy for entering this new beverage into the global market. You need to take this task back to your team, provide them with the product details, and get them started as quickly as possible because they only have one week to develop a strategy. Questions: 1. What communication channel will you use? 2. Why is this channel the best choice in this situation? 3. What communication channel will you use to convey your strategy to the VP of Operations? 4. Why is this channel the best choice n this situation? Scenario 2 You are the manager of a large travel agency. You manage 11 employees. This morning, one of your employees notifies you that the company......

Words: 852 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Carpal Tunnel

...Carpal Tunnel Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a common injury among people who work with their hands a lot. Jobs and hobbies such as a heavy duty mechanic and sewing will often lead to this injury and have people asking why does this happen. This injury can prevent the play of many of our favourite sports and can cause pain up through the arm that it affects. Carpal Tunnel can affect a person’s feel which is extremely crucial in sports such as golf, tennis, billiards, and many more. However there are treatments that can be made to combat Carpal Tunnel. These treatments are not absolute guarantees as there have been complications following Carpal Tunnel treatment. Carpal Tunnel is a sport’s injury that can take effect in almost anyone and the signs symptoms and treatments should be known to each person. Carpal Tunnel is defined by the Electronic Text Book of Hand Surgeries (n.d.) as “the effect of pressure on the median nerve, one of the main nerves of the hand. It can result in a variety of problems, including pain, tingling, numbness, swelling, weakness or clumsiness of the thumb, index, middle and ring fingers.” Carpal Tunnel is contracted most commonly through typical daily activities that we do as hobbies, in our work, or just normal everyday life. Pub-Med Health describes these activities as all being possible contributors to Carpal Tunnel Syndrome; driving, sewing, assembly work, painting, writing, use of tools, some sports such as racquetball and handball, and playing......

Words: 1559 - Pages: 7