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Chapter 3

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4. The implementation of networking technology has created more risk for businesses that useinformation technology because business networks are now connected to the internet andother networks external to the organization. This has made it easier for people to gainunauthorized access to the organizations networks.
5.Information extortion occurs when an attacker steals information from a computer system anddemands compensation for its return or for an agreement not to disclose it. For example, if a hacker gains unauthorized access to a celebrity’s computer and discovers embarrassing photosor videos of the star, he could then blackmail the star into giving him money in exchange forkeeping the photos quiet. This causes not only a monetary loss for the celebrity, but also a loss of privacy .
6. Employees constitute one of the greatest threats to information security because employeemistakes can lead to the revelation of classified data, entry of erroneous data, accidentaldeletion or modification of data, the storage of data in unprotected areas, or they could fail to follow procedures to protect data.
7. The first, most basic step is to set up the computer so that the screen and keyboard are not visible to persons passing by. If you have an LCD monitor, adjust the viewing angle to makew it as difficult as possible for anybody else to read your screen. Also, be aware of all people near the computer; frequently look and verify that no one is watching your screen or keyboard. If someone is watching you, ask that they look away. Also, be aware of the location of any cameras near your computer. Security cameras, in particular, have become so common as to beubiquitous. But those same cameras can be used to record your fingers’movements over your keyboard, and possibly, the contents of your monitor screen. As well, watch out for portable cameras
8. Back in the 1970s and 1980s, the image of a hacker in the popular mind was rather like Robin Hood. In movies and television, hackers were depicted as popular heroes, challenging and defeating the defenses of corporate and government computers, usually in the name of defending the helpless against the powerful. Many movies, such as Hackers,strengthened such an image. Until the 1980s, hacking was a relatively small-scale operation. But as personal computers became more common, the number of hackers grew, and the problem of hacking became more than a nuisance. Soon newspapers and television news began describing hackers as dangerous criminals. It is true, some did use their computer skills to steal information and money, but others simply broke into computer systems to find out if they could, with no further objective in mind. Still, all hackers are included in the class of criminals in reports of the media. Hackers fall into two broad categories. First are the elite hackers, persons of great skill with computers who can break into most computer systems using security shortcomings of computer systems. Today, many elite hackers work to enhance the security of IT systems, and others discover security flaws and report them. Some of the elite hackers who discover security flaws also write programs, or scripts, that exploit these flaws and then publish them on the internet. The other category of hackers are novice hackers, also called script babies or script kiddies. These hackers use the scripts written by elite hackers to attack vulnerable systems, but do not have the skills to design and write such scripts themselves.
9. A skilled hacker is a professional/mercenary a highly skilled programmer gone rogue also an expert in social engineering usually works for the mob and the underworld for the money. The other is what's known as a script kiddy this is a guy who runs automated programs and scripts doesn't have any programming skills or knowledge of social engineering techniques and makes mistakes that professional criminals don't make like bragging he toasted CNN and thousands of websites in DDOS attacks in IRC for attention.
10. Malware - software components designed to damage, destroy or deny service to targeted systems. Types include viruses, worms, Trojan horses, DOS attacks, logic bombs and back doors.Worms differ from viruses in that they do not require a host file to replicate. Worms will usually utilize flaws in a network to spread. Viruses may utilize a Trojan horse as a host to disguise themselves for penetrating s system. The user will generally aid the Trojan/virus by initiating the executable.
11. Polymorphism causes greater concern because the malicious code changes over time, which makes this type of threat harder to detect because commonly used anti-virus software is not programmed to detect the newly changed attack. This makes it harder to protect against.

12. The most common form of violation is the use or duplication of software, commonly called software piracy. Some organizations use digital water marks, intentional placement of bad sectors. Most companies use coptright codes. Also most comapnies file patents, trademarks and or copyrihgts, which enable companies to persue a violator. There are two major organizatiosn the fight IP theft, Software and Infomation Idustry Association, and the Business Software Alliance.
13. Force majeure is an act of god, such as a flood, torando or natural disaster.
14. Due to the rapidly changing world of technology, it seems the minute we turn around our equipment and systems our obsolete. While this may be exaggerated, it is certainly a formidable issue that garners much attention. IS technicians must understand that not only is technology advancing, but the means and methods of the would-be attackers are as well. This means the information security in place now may become quite vulnerable in the future. Both planning and the ability to recognize these needs play a large role in keeping up with the times. There is a fine line between efficient upgrades and wasted money. Balancing the necessary systems and equipment against the overpriced daily-available upgrades is a key to fighting technological obsolescence.
15. Yes, but the extent of the value varies significantly by the type of IP and how many people want it. One fantastic new stapler design may be worth millions in licensing fees, while another may never be produced. The McDonald's logo may bring in a ton of revenue, while the logo for, the Sugar Shack is only ever used by Mike, the owner A hit single is worth millions to the publisher and label, but thousands of songs are never heard in public.
16. The most common type of attack is password guessing. Attackers can guess passwords locally or remotely using either a manual or automated approach. Automated password guessing programs and crackers use several different approaches. The most time consuming and most successful, attack method is the brute-force attack, in which the attacker tries every possible combination of characters for a password, given a character set a maximum password length. Dictionary attacks work on the assumption that most passwords consist of whole words, dates, or numbers taken from a dictionary. Dictionary attack tools require a dictionary input list. You can download varying databases with specific vocabularies free or commercially off the Internet. Hybrid password guessing attacks assume that network administrators push users to make their passwords at least slightly different from a word that appears in a dictionary. Hybrid guessing rules vary from tool to tool, but most mix uppercase and lowercase characters, add numbers at the end of the password, spell the password backward or slightly misspell it, and include characters such as @!# in the mix. Both John the Ripper and Cain & Abel can do hybrid guessing. Password Resetting, attackers often find it much easier to reset passwords than to guess them. Many password cracking programs are actually password resetters. In most cases, the attacker boots from a floppy disk or CD-ROM to get around the typical Windows protections. Most password resetters contain a bootable version of Linux that can mount NTFS volumes and can help you locate and reset the Administrator's password.
Administrators face a tough task in ensuring network security, because of password sniffers such as l0pht, which can sniff an password easily. To solve this, one can use a network sniffer that can detect such password sniffers. The network sniffer could log a user running a password sniffer and also issue an alert. This page provides guidelines which, to the best of our knowledge, will help prevent security attacks on your JIRA installation. Administrators should use Strong Passwords. Do not use passwords that are dictionary words. Use mixed-case letters, numbers and symbols for your administrator passwords and make sure they are sufficiently long (e.g. 14 characters). We encourage you to refer to the Strong Password Generator for guidelines on selecting passwords.
17. A DoS Attack is a Denial of Service attack. This means that one computer and one internet connection is used to flood a server with packets (TCP / UDP). The point of such a denial of service attack is to overload the targeted server’s bandwidth and other resources. This will make the server inaccessible to others, thereby blocking the website or whatever else is hosted there. A DDoS Attack is a Distributed Denial of Service Attack. In most respects it is similar to a DoS attack but the results are much, much different. Instead of one computer and one internet connection the DDoS attack utilises many computers and many connections. The computers behind such an attack are often distributed around the whole world and will be part of what is known as a botnet. The main difference between a DDoS attack vs a DoS attack, therefore, is that the target server will be overload by hundreds or even thousands of requests in the case of the former as opposed to just one attacker in the case of the latter. Therefore it is much, much harder for a server to withstand a DDoS attack as opposed to the simpler DoS incursion.
18. In order for an attack to succeed, the attacker must first identify the vulnerabilities of the systems he wishes to infiltrate. The attacker must select one or more attack vectors to exploit the vulnerabilities. There is more than one way to gain access to use the sniffer system. Because the sniffer is used to monitor data traveling over the network, a back door may work. Back/Trap doors utilize an access mechanism often left in by designers. This is beneficial for the attacker as it does not draw as much attention as brute force or a hoax may. From here the sniffer can operate almost undetected on the network.
19. Social engineer hackers can be smooth operators. They may call looking for advice, offering flattery in the attempt to gain your trust. They use this connection to talk their way into getting information about the security your company has in place and the programs you run. They may also prey on your confidence in the network in order to gain specific details and shortcomings about your system operations. By using social engineering to obtain even small amounts of information about how your system operates and what programs you use, the hackers can run software on their end that will not only give them greater detail on your system, it can show them how to get inside. Suavely manipulating an individual isn't the only social engineering method hackers use. Some hackers are far more direct. They may directly call a business and impersonate an authority in the company. Employees can be easily swayed by a person issuing a direct request in an authoritative tone. Employees have been known to do what the hacker says because they believe they are being asked on behalf of the company. They may change passwords or issue new ones, allowing the hacker access to your system. The hacker may start small and simply ask for access to their email account, which is generally that of a system administrator. Once they have access to this account, they can issue credible commands to gain further access to and control over your business systems.
20. Basically, a buffer overflow is when a program on the computer tries to store more data to a temporary data storage area, or buffer. It is generally used by hackers when the web sever is corrupted due to the program writing outside of the allocated memory area.…...

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