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Cheese in Vietnam

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CHEESE IN VIETNAM
Euromonitor International
October 2015

CHEESE IN VIETNAM

Passport

LIST OF CONTENTS AND TABLES
Headlines ..................................................................................................................................... 1
Trends .......................................................................................................................................... 1
Competitive Landscape ................................................................................................................ 1
Prospects ..................................................................................................................................... 2
Category Data .............................................................................................................................. 3
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4
Table 5
Table 6
Table 7
Table 8
Table 9
Table 10
Table 11
Table 12
Table 13

Sales of Cheese by Category: Volume 2010-2015 ...................................... 3
Sales of Cheese by Category: Value 2010-2015 ......................................... 3
Sales of Cheese by Category: % Volume Growth 2010-2015 ...................... 3
Sales of Cheese by Category: % Value Growth 2010-2015 ......................... 4
Sales of Spreadable Processed Cheese by Type: % Value
Breakdown 2010-2015 ................................................................................. 4
Sales of Unprocessed Cheese by Type: % Value Breakdown 20102015 ............................................................................................................. 4
NBO Company Shares of Cheese: % Value 2011-2015 .............................. 5
LBN Brand Shares of Cheese: % Value 2012-2015 ..................................... 5
Distribution of Cheese by Format: % Value 2010-2015................................ 5
Forecast Sales of Cheese by Category: Volume 2015-2020........................ 6
Forecast Sales of Cheese by Category: Value 2015-2020........................... 6
Forecast Sales of Cheese by Category: % Volume Growth 2015-2020 ....... 7
Forecast Sales of Cheese by Category: % Value Growth 2015-2020 .......... 7

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CHEESE IN VIETNAM

CHEESE IN VIETNAM
HEADLINES
 Cheese registers value growth of 16%, to reach VND1,444 billion in 2015
 Exposure to Western culture boosts demand for cheese
 Spreadable processed cheese witnesses the highest value growth of 16% in 2015
 The average unit price of cheese continues to rise in 2015
 Bel Vietnam Ltd continues to lead cheese with a value share of 78% in 2015
 Cheese is set to register a value CAGR of 7% over the forecast period, to reach sales of
VND1,997 billion in 2020

TRENDS
 Towards the end of the review period, exposure to Western culture had a positive impact on demand for cheese, as Vietnamese consumers tended to cook more Western dishes for their family. In addition, consumers also purchased more cheese for their children, considering it to be an important source of protein that can support healthy growth.
 In 2015, cheese witnessed value growth of 16%, which was slower than the growth seen in
2014. The weak economy had a negative impact on the performance of cheese in 2015, as consumers demonstrated an increased tendency to towards greater frugality due to financial difficulties. Moreover, the cheese category has become more mature and thus could not sustain the high growth seen in most other years of the review period.
 Spreadable processed cheese registered the fastest value growth, with a rise of 16% in 2015.
The key consumers of spreadable processed cheese are children and youngsters. They tend to eat these products alone or with bread. The strong performance of spreadable processed cheese was also attributable to active marketing and promotional activities, as well as the nationwide distribution networks of the key operators.
 The average unit price of cheese continued to rise in 2015 due to rising input costs, notably for labour, fuel, and electricity. In addition, the depreciation of the Vietnamese dong also contributed to the increase in unit price, since many cheese brands were imported into
Vietnam.
 In Vietnam, packaged cheese is much more popular than unpackaged cheese. Cheese consumption in Vietnam remained relatively low and cheese-based cuisine is often cooked on special occasions. Most cheese products are packaged and imported from foreign countries.
 With regard to spreadable processed cheese, reconstituted cheese accounted for 96% of total value sales in 2015, while cream cheese accounted for 4%. Within unprocessed cheese, Brie was the most popular, accounting for 20% of total value sales. Camembert held a 17% value share, followed by Parmesan with 14%. Other variants were Edam and Gouda which accounted for 3% and 4% respectively.

COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE
 Bel Vietnam Ltd dominated cheese in Vietnam, accounting for 78% of value sales in 2015.
The company operates a diversified product portfolio that consists of many brands, including
La Vache Qui Rit, Belcube and Babybel. Its distribution network covers both traditional and modern channels across the country, which gives it a competitive advantage. Bel Vietnam

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1

CHEESE IN VIETNAM

was also active in carrying out marketing and promotional activities and recorded the strongest increase in value share in 2015.
 Vietnam Dairy Products JSC (Vinamilk) saw the biggest increase in value sales in 2015, with a rise of 18%. However, its value share saw only a slight rise to 3%. Its Vinamilk brand is well known for its good price/quality ratio. The company made significant efforts at the end of the review period to expand its distribution network and run occasional discount programmes.
 International brands continued to dominate cheese in Vietnam. The most notable international companies were Bel Vietnam, Groupe Lactalis and Fonterra Brands (Vietnam) Co Ltd.
Vietnam Dairy Products was the only local company active in cheese. However, it faced a considerable challenge in terms of competing with international players.
 A key example of new product developments in 2014 was Susu Pho Mai Tuoi (Susu Fresh
Cheese) of Vietnam Dairy Products JSC (Vinamilk), which tastes slightly like yoghurt and targets children. Along with the new product, television advertisements and other marketing and promotional activities were launched in order to build consumer awareness. Another noteworthy new product development was My Cheese, under the umbrella Président brand, offered in three flavours including My Cheese Smokey Cheddar taste, My Cheese Emmental taste and My Cheese Chilli Cheddar taste. These products were introduced by one of the biggest distributors in cheese – Hoang Lan Commerce Co Ltd.
 In Vietnam, there was no clear classification of premium, standard or economy brands in cheese. There was relatively little variation in product prices in the category. Private label was non-existent in 2015.

PROSPECTS
 Sales of cheese are expected to rise at a value CAGR of 7% at constant 2015 prices over the forecast period. This will represent faster growth than that seen over the review period.
Growth will be fuelled by the increasing westernisation taking place in Vietnamese culture.
Vietnamese consumers increasingly prepare more Western cuisine in their daily meals, as well as on special occasions. The expected rise in the disposable income of many consumers is also having a positive impact on the demand for cheese. In addition, manufacturers are also set to engage in various marketing activities and expand their distribution network.
 Spreadable processed cheese is expected to register the strongest value growth rate at constant 2015 prices, rising at an anticipated CAGR of 7%. Consumers will become increasingly aware of the benefits of spreadable processed cheese and will be more inclined to use this product type on a regular basis. Parents will also encourage their children to eat spreadable processed cheese as part of a healthy diet to support growth and development.
 The average unit price of cheese is expected to decline gradually in terms of constant 2015 prices over the forecast period. Despite commodity price volatility, manufacturers will try to keep prices as low as possible. The decline in price also helped to support demand for cheese.  Modern distribution channels are likely to grow faster than traditional channels in terms of cheese distribution in Vietnam. In addition, the key consumers of cheese will remain those living in urban areas
 As competition becomes more intense, besides expanding distribution, operators in cheese are expected to pay more attention to marketing and promotional activities in order to build up brand equity and stimulate demand.
 New product developments launched in 2014, including Susu Pho Mai Tuoi and My Cheese, are expected to perform positively over the forecast period. Susu Pho Mai Tuoi is likely to

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CHEESE IN VIETNAM

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appeal to children and, being developed and distributed by Vietnam Dairy Products JSC
(Vinamilk), it will be strongly supported by a nationwide distribution network and active marketing and promotional activities. My Cheese is distributed by Hoang Lan Commerce Co
Ltd, which has up to 25 years’ experience in distributing cheese in Vietnam. As a result of these factors, these new product launches are expected to perform well going forward, which in turn will contribute to the intensifying competition in the category. They will also be instrumental in encouraging other players to introduce more new products in order to stay competitive. CATEGORY DATA
Table 1

Sales of Cheese by Category: Volume 2010-2015

tonnes
2010
Processed Cheese
- Spreadable Processed
Cheese
- Other Processed Cheese
Unprocessed Cheese
- Hard Cheese
-- Packaged Hard Cheese
-- Unpackaged Hard Cheese
- Soft Cheese
Cheese
Source:

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

3,431.7
2,935.1

3,868.2
3,332.2

3,600.4
3,026.5

4,599.1
3,969.9

5,218.8
4,530.4

5,814.1
5,074.0

496.6
22.5
8.5
8.5
14.0
3,454.2

536.0
24.4
9.0
9.0
15.4
3,892.6

573.9
26.3
9.6
9.6
16.8
3,626.7

629.2
28.4
10.2
10.2
18.2
4,627.5

688.4
30.6
10.9
10.9
19.7
5,249.3

740.0
32.9
11.6
11.6
21.3
5,847.0

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Table 2

Sales of Cheese by Category: Value 2010-2015

VND billion
2010
Processed Cheese
- Spreadable Processed
Cheese
- Other Processed Cheese
Unprocessed Cheese
- Hard Cheese
-- Packaged Hard Cheese
-- Unpackaged Hard Cheese
- Soft Cheese
Cheese
Source:

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

752.5
640.7

946.2
812.2

831.0
683.9

1,045.8
878.8

1,234.2
1,043.6

1,429.7
1,213.7

111.8
6.8
1.9
1.9
4.9
759.3

134.0
8.1
2.3
2.3
5.8
954.3

147.1
9.8
2.8
2.8
7.0
840.7

167.0
11.1
3.1
3.1
8.0
1,056.9

190.5
12.7
3.5
3.5
9.1
1,246.8

216.0
14.3
4.0
4.0
10.3
1,444.1

Euromonitor International from official statistics, trade associations, trade press, company research, store checks, trade interviews, trade sources

Table 3

Sales of Cheese by Category: % Volume Growth 2010-2015

% volume growth
2014/15
Processed Cheese

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2010-15 CAGR

2010/15 Total

11.4

11.1

69.4

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CHEESE IN VIETNAM

Passport

- Spreadable Processed Cheese
- Other Processed Cheese
Unprocessed Cheese
- Hard Cheese
-- Packaged Hard Cheese
-- Unpackaged Hard Cheese
- Soft Cheese
Cheese
Source:

12.0
7.5
7.6
7.0
7.0
8.0
11.4

11.6
8.3
7.9
6.5
6.5
8.7
11.1

72.9
49.0
46.0
37.0
37.0
51.5
69.3

Euromonitor International from official statistics, trade associations, trade press, company research, store checks, trade interviews, trade sources

Table 4

Sales of Cheese by Category: % Value Growth 2010-2015

% current value growth
2014/15

Source:

2010/15 Total

15.8
16.3
13.4
13.2
12.8
12.8
13.3
15.8

Processed Cheese
- Spreadable Processed Cheese
- Other Processed Cheese
Unprocessed Cheese
- Hard Cheese
-- Packaged Hard Cheese
-- Unpackaged Hard Cheese
- Soft Cheese
Cheese

2010-15 CAGR
13.7
13.6
14.1
16.1
15.7
15.7
16.3
13.7

90.0
89.4
93.2
111.1
107.0
107.0
112.8
90.2

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Table 5

Sales of Spreadable Processed Cheese by Type: % Value Breakdown 20102015

% retail value rsp
2010
Cream Cheese
Reconstituted Cheese
Total
Source:

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

3.8
96.2
100.0

3.6
96.4
100.0

3.5
96.5
100.0

3.5
96.5
100.0

3.5
96.5
100.0

3.6
96.5
100.0

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Table 6

Sales of Unprocessed Cheese by Type: % Value Breakdown 2010-2015

% retail value rsp
2010
Brie
Camembert
Edam
Gouda
Parmesan
Others
Total
Source:

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

19.1
17.1
3.1
3.3
13.0
44.4
100.0

19.2
17.2
3.1
3.4
13.5
43.6
100.0

19.3
17.3
3.1
3.5
13.5
43.3
100.0

19.3
17.3
3.1
3.7
13.6
43.0
100.0

19.4
17.3
3.2
3.8
13.7
42.6
100.0

19.5
17.2
3.3
3.9
13.8
42.3
100.0

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CHEESE IN VIETNAM

Table 7

Passport

NBO Company Shares of Cheese: % Value 2011-2015

% retail value rsp
Company

2011

Source:

2014

2015

74.0
9.4
6.3

77.0
8.8
5.7

78.0
8.7
5.4

78.3
8.6
5.3

4.3

4.2

3.6

3.2

3.3

1.3

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2

-

0.6

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.4
0.3
0.6
2.4
100.0

0.4
0.2
3.3
100.0

3.1
100.0

3.0
100.0

3.0
100.0

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Table 8

LBN Brand Shares of Cheese: % Value 2012-2015

% retail value rsp
Brand

Company

Vinamilk
Bega
Anchor
Babybel
Philadelphia
Nouvelle Vache
Coon Tasty
Party Cube
Philadelphia
Others
Total

2012

2013

2014

2015

Bel Vietnam Ltd
Bel Vietnam Ltd
Lactalis, Groupe
Fonterra Brands
(Vietnam) Co Ltd
Vietnam Dairy Products
JSC (Vinamilk)
Bega Cheese Trading Co
Pty Ltd
Fonterra Brands
(Vietnam) Co Ltd
Bel Vietnam Ltd
Mondelez International Inc
Picon SA
Danone, Groupe
Bel Vietnam Ltd
Kraft Foods Inc

La Vache Qui Rit
Belcube
Président
Chesdale

Source:

2013

79.3
6.8
4.7

Bel Vietnam Ltd
Lactalis, Groupe
Fonterra Brands
(Vietnam) Co Ltd
Vietnam Dairy Products
JSC (Vinamilk)
Bega Cheese Trading Co
Pty Ltd
Mondelez International
Inc
Picon SA
Danone, Groupe
Kraft Foods Inc
Others
Total

2012

65.0
8.2
9.4
5.0

67.7
8.5
8.8
4.6

68.6
8.6
8.7
4.4

68.8
8.7
8.6
4.3

4.2

3.6

3.2

3.3

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2

1.3

1.1

1.0

1.0

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
3.3
100.0

0.8
0.4
3.1
100.0

0.8
0.3
3.0
100.0

0.8
0.3
3.0
100.0

2014

2015

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Table 9

Distribution of Cheese by Format: % Value 2010-2015

% retail value rsp
2010

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2011

2012

2013

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CHEESE IN VIETNAM

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Store-Based Retailing
- Grocery Retailers
-- Modern Grocery
Retailers
--- Convenience Stores
--- Discounters
--- Forecourt Retailers
--- Hypermarkets
--- Supermarkets
-- Traditional Grocery
Retailers
--- Food/drink/tobacco specialists --- Independent Small
Grocers
--- Other Grocery
Retailers
- Non-Grocery Specialists
-- Health and Beauty
Specialist Retailers
-- Other Foods NonGrocery Specialists
- Mixed Retailers
Non-Store Retailing
- Vending
- Homeshopping
- Internet Retailing
- Direct Selling
Total
Source:

100.0
100.0
41.4

100.0
100.0
41.2

100.0
100.0
41.7

100.0
100.0
42.5

100.0
100.0
43.4

100.0
100.0
44.3

1.0
9.6
30.7
58.6

1.0
10.1
30.1
58.8

1.1
10.1
30.5
58.3

1.3
10.5
30.8
57.5

1.5
10.9
31.0
56.6

1.8
11.3
31.2
55.8

-

-

-

-

-

-

58.6

58.8

58.3

57.5

56.6

55.8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

100.0

100.0

100.0

0.0
0.0
100.0

0.0
0.0
100.0

0.0
0.0
100.0

Euromonitor International from official statistics, trade associations, trade press, company research, store checks, trade interviews, trade sources

Table 10

Forecast Sales of Cheese by Category: Volume 2015-2020

tonnes
2015
Processed Cheese
- Spreadable Processed
Cheese
- Other Processed Cheese
Unprocessed Cheese
- Hard Cheese
-- Packaged Hard Cheese
-- Unpackaged Hard Cheese
- Soft Cheese
Cheese
Source:

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

5,814.1
5,074.0

6,344.2
5,555.2

6,864.3
6,026.0

7,388.8
6,501.3

7,939.6
7,001.7

8,530.3
7,539.9

740.0
32.9
11.6
11.6
21.3
5,847.0

789.0
35.2
12.4
12.4
22.8
6,379.4

838.4
37.6
13.2
13.2
24.4
6,901.9

887.5
40.2
14.1
14.1
26.1
7,428.9

938.0
42.9
15.0
15.0
28.0
7,982.6

990.4
46.0
16.0
16.0
30.0
8,576.3

Euromonitor International from trade associations, trade press, company research, trade interviews, trade sources

Table 11

Forecast Sales of Cheese by Category: Value 2015-2020

VND billion
2015
Processed Cheese
- Spreadable Processed

© Euromonitor International

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

1,429.7
1,213.7

1,547.4
1,318.2

1,657.1
1,415.6

1,762.3
1,508.9

1,868.8
1,603.9

1,977.6
1,701.3

6

CHEESE IN VIETNAM

Passport

Cheese
- Other Processed Cheese
Unprocessed Cheese
- Hard Cheese
-- Packaged Hard Cheese
-- Unpackaged Hard Cheese
- Soft Cheese
Cheese
Source:

216.0
14.3
4.0
4.0
10.3
1,444.1

229.2
15.3
4.2
4.2
11.0
1,562.6

241.6
16.2
4.5
4.5
11.7
1,673.3

253.4
17.1
4.7
4.7
12.4
1,779.4

264.9
18.1
5.0
5.0
13.1
1,886.9

276.3
19.2
5.2
5.2
13.9
1,996.8

Euromonitor International from trade associations, trade press, company research, trade interviews, trade sources

Table 12

Forecast Sales of Cheese by Category: % Volume Growth 2015-2020

% volume growth
2015/16
Processed Cheese
- Spreadable Processed Cheese
- Other Processed Cheese
Unprocessed Cheese
- Hard Cheese
-- Packaged Hard Cheese
-- Unpackaged Hard Cheese
- Soft Cheese
Cheese
Source:

Table 13

2015-20 CAGR

2015/20 Total

9.1
9.5
6.6
7.0
6.6
6.6
7.3
9.1

8.0
8.2
6.0
6.9
6.5
6.5
7.1
8.0

46.7
48.6
33.8
39.7
37.3
37.3
41.0
46.7

Euromonitor International from trade associations, trade press, company research, trade interviews, trade sources

Forecast Sales of Cheese by Category: % Value Growth 2015-2020

% constant value growth
2015/2016
Processed Cheese
- Spreadable Processed Cheese
- Other Processed Cheese
Unprocessed Cheese
- Hard Cheese
-- Packaged Hard Cheese
-- Unpackaged Hard Cheese
- Soft Cheese
Cheese
Source:

2015-20 CAGR

2015/20 TOTAL

8.2
8.6
6.1
6.4
6.0
6.0
6.6
8.2

6.7
7.0
5.0
6.0
5.6
5.6
6.1
6.7

38.3
40.2
27.9
33.7
31.1
31.1
34.7
38.3

Euromonitor International from trade associations, trade press, company research, trade interviews, trade sources

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7…...

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...Vietnam has a population of 2,000,000 the population is made up of mainly Vietnamese and Ethnic Chinese. Other minorities include Khmer and Cham descendants that lived in central and southern Vietnam before it was conquered by the Vietnamese. There are a few Tribal groups in Vietnam that make up 7 percent of the population. Their ancestors came from other Asian countries and have settled in in Vietnam. The different ethnic groups get along for the most part, but the Vietnamese have hostility towards the Ethnic Chinese for having dominance in the national economy. 700,000 Vietnamese have entered the United States since 1975. According to the census bureau, 2011, the population for Asians in the United States is estimated at 18.2 million; of that 1.9 million are Vietnamese. States with the largest population of Vietnamese are California, Texas, Florida, Washington, Virginia, New York, and Massachusetts. Together these seven states have 65.7 percent of all Vietnamese born immigrants. California and New York have the largest of the population of Vietnamese; California with 5.8 million and New York with 1.8 million Vietnamese ethnicities. Vietnamese immigrants make up 3 percent of all the immigrants in the United States in 2006 (Census Bureau, 2006). Vietnamese are the fifth largest immigrant group in the United States. Of foreign-born Vietnamese 72.8 percent were naturalized U.S citizens. About two thirds were limited English proficient and 1.4 percent was unauthorized......

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...Exam Vietnam and America 1. Discuss the war under Johnson (1963-68). Why did the Johnson administration expand U.S. military in Vietnam in 1965? How did it do this? Were these actions effective? If not, why were they ineffective? In what ways did the Johnson administration deceive the U.S. Congress and the American people about the reasons for increasing American intervention in Vietnam and the tactics the administration employed to fight the war? Vietnam consumed Johnson’s energy and his presidency. Johnson, who believed in containment and the domino theory, saw Vietnam as a test. His foreign policy advisors, many who remained from the Kennedy administration, shared his views. Johnson had been in Congress when China became Communist, and he vividly recalled the domestic political turmoil that followed as Republicans attacked Democrats for “losing” China. He would not, he said, “be the president who saw Southeast Asia go the way China went.” The war was going poorly in South Vietnam and the political situation in Saigon became uncertain as one unstable government succeeded another. Also, the 1964 Tonkin Gulf crisis was a crucial event in the war’s escalation. Out of frustration, President Johnson, acting on the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, ordered bombings of military targets in North Vietnam. This was known as Operation Rolling Thunder. President Johnson also explained that the reason for being over in Vietnam was to help South Vietnam......

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...Vietnam The Vietnam War or conflict as it was known was complex in its origins and followed France’s failure to suppress nationalist forces in Indochina, better known as Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, as it struggled to restore its colonial dominion after WWII. Led by Ho Chi Minh, a Communist-dominated revolutionary movement, the Viet Minh, waged a political and military struggle for Vietnamese independence that frustrated the efforts of the French and resulted ultimately in their leaving from the territory (Bowman, J. S.). Vietnam The U.S. Army’s first encounters with Ho Chi Minh were brief and generally sympathetic. During World War II, Ho Chi Minh’s anti-Japanese resistance fighters helped to rescue shoot down American pilots and supplied information on Japanese forces in Indochina. United States Army officers stood at Ho Chi Minh’s side in August of 1945 as he celebrated in the brief contentment of proclaiming Vietnam’s independence. Five years later, however, in a worldwide sense overwrought with ideological and military confrontation between Communist and non-Communist powers. Army advisers of the newly formed United States Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG), and Indochina, were assisting France against the Viet Minh. With combat rampant in mainland China and Korea experiencing a recent collapse to the Communists, the war in Indochina now became visible to Americans as......

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...In a matter of weeks, my entire life is going to be flipped upside down. I have enrolled myself in to a very treacherous and horrible class that goes by the simple code of COMM 1320. Public Speaking. Speeches, talking, being sociable, are simply not my things. I become fearful, tense, and nervous when I have to stand in front of an audience and give some type of presentation. For now, I have time, time to devote myself to becoming better, and get out of this closet of being scared. The character of Who Moved My Cheese? that I am most like would definitely have to be Hem and moving beyond fear. I have never been a big fan of talking in front of people. Whether it be explaining a small topic to a group of five or six people, or informing a class of about thirty people about a certain topic, I have never had the confidence to move past my fears and learn to become a good speaker. When it comes to any type of public conversation, my body instantly tightens up and I lose every train of thought in my head due to a lack of composure and mental stability. The smallest type of conversation can make me freeze up and cause me to become speechless. Any encounter with a stranger is definitely a good example. I usually stick with basics if I open the door for somebody or just greeting somebody, and I say “thank you,” or “hello.” Learning to somehow get over this would be not only beneficial to me, but to everybody that I associate myself with. Being like Hem is definitely not something...

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...Research Project Cheese Origins, history and where it is now found in the world In the ancient eras, during the Greeks and Romans’ time, cheese was an important trade product and was mentioned extensively in the literature of the day (including in Homer’s odyssey, whereby Cyclops Polyphemus’s cave have description on cheese’s production). In the first century AD, The Roman writer Apicius states the steps in cheese production when writing. The Roman word for cheese is caseus, which is derived from the word casein, which means milk protein that is curdled to make cheese. The French word for cheese fromage and Italian is formaggio and Italian word, which come from the Greek word formos which stands for form or mould. Essentially, cheese is produce by curdling fermented milk then removing the liquid that forms which is known as the whey. The curds are generally curdled using rennet; a substance extracted from the stomach of animals such as cows, and salt is used to flavor it. It was unclear when exactly rennet was first used, but there is assumption that it was by the Etruscans, during the fifth and sixth century BC. The Romans were the ones who pioneered the method of cooking curds in cheese making, allowing for longer shelf life, enabling harder cheese to be trade and transport conveniently. The combination of bacteria used to ferment the milk, in combination with kind of milk and particular type of cheese-making method used, plus the action of time as cheese is......

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...Jasmine Wright Prof. Riveland ENG 102-078 March 4, 2015 War Experiences: Vietnam Between the 1950-1980’s, soldiers were busy with fighting for our country. The Vietnam War had a huge impact on America. It began in 1954 and more than 3 million people were killed. In class, we read three pieces of literature related to the conflict, Things They Carried by Tim O’Brien, Dulce et Decorum Est by Wilfred Owen, and Vietnam: The Loss of American Innocence by Terry Leonard. Two of the literatures giving a feel of what it was like to fight a war or even be living during the time of the war and the last one telling the events that took place during the time of the war. No one that wasn’t living during the time of the war does not know exactly what it was like, but can give an opinion on what it might have been like. In Things They Carried and Dulce et Decorum Est, two stories that convey the experience during the war. Things They Carried conveyed the way of life. The author, Tim O’Brien, kept emphasis on the things they carried, which symbolized things that meant the most to them. He did not incorporate the bad, ugly and terror of the war, but gave an idea when he included Ted Lavender’s death. Family and loved one’s that the soldiers left back home meant the world to them. Lieutenant Jimmy Cross was a character that showed how their loved ones were missed. He was in love with a girl back home, Martha, he kept her letters with him everywhere he went. When Lavender was......

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...legislations regarding issues of unemployment to putting a stop to segregation, especially in the south. Kennedy tackled unemployment by providing necessary training programs to advance them in their profession. He brought hope to America when it came to the Space Program, an opportunity for the human race explore beyond the stars. Kennedy also launched the Peace Core program on March 1st, 1961. This new program gave Americans a chance to look beyond their world and into new territory in hopes of providing others with education and western medicine. The Vietnam War was the longest war in American History, lasting over 20 years. This war is also the only war in history where western military was defeated. When thinking back to this time one might associate anti-war rally’s and protests but many fail to remember that this war was supported by most in its early years. In fact only two members of Congress voted against war in Vietnam. The slide I found most interesting was the POW slide. I find it hard to believe that the Vietnamese treated any POW humanely. I could very well be wrong in my assumption but after researching more about the atrocities that occurred between the government and their own people, why would they treat the enemy any better? In the Cold War role play I decided to live the life of an African American who attends a segregated university. While finishing up my spring semester I come to the realization that I am destined for something greater, a chance to show......

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...Kaur Mrs. Dibble CP English / 3rd 5/3/12 Vietnam War Vietnam War primarily fought in South Vietnam between government forces aided by the United States and guerrilla forces aided by North Vietnam. The war began soon after the Geneva Conference conditionally divided (1954) Vietnam at 17° N lat. into the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). It escalated from a Vietnamese civil war into a limited international conflict in which the United States was deeply involved, and did not end, despite peace agreements in 1973, until North Vietnam's successful offensive in 1975 resulted in South Vietnam's collapse and the unification of Vietnam by the North. What was it really like to be a soldier in the Vietnam War? The only real way to know was to be there, but the second-best way to find out is to read the stories of men and women who served in the Vietnam War. “On Monday morning, the 15th of November, he died in my arms of tow bullets wounds in the chest. He said, “Ken I can’t breathe.” There was nothing I could do (Bagby, 637).” The author of “Dear Folks”, Kenneth is describing how his best friend died in his long arms, and he could not do anything to save him. “We were crossing………………………………………………….. During the short span of the Vietnamese war, 2.5 million people died, and millions more displaced. The American people wanted nothing to do with the Vietnam War. Having witnessed the unthinkable acts of......

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...American Foreign Policy Leading to the Vietnam War American involvement in the Vietnam War is one of the most controversial issues in our history. However, the United States foreign policies had been dictating our involvement in Vietnam long before the initial deployment of troops into Vietnam. The fear of communism and developments of the policy of containment and the domino theory set the stage for the eventual escalation of the Vietnam Conflict into a war which would claim the lives of thousands of Americans. United States' involvement in Vietnam began as early as World War II, when American forces of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the precursor of the CIA, parachuted into the mountains in the northern region of Vietnam. Led by Major Allison Thomas, their mission, "Deer," was to rendezvous with and train a small group of Vietnamese soldiers that were fighting Japanese occupation troops, and were rescuing downed pilots, this group of Vietnamese were known as the Vietminh. This group of Vietnamese soldiers would soon be the communist leaders of North Vietnam, however, at the time American forces were not concerned that Ho Chi Minh and Vo Nguyen Giap were communists because America was still allied with the Soviet Union, a communist state, at that point during World War II (Westheider 2). The Vietminh under leadership of Ho Chi Minh and with training from American OSS forces were simultaneously fighting the Japanese, while at the same time gaining more political...

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...Cheese I am definably a cheese lover. There are over 600 different kinds of cheese so you can’t get bored from eating cheese. My favorite dishes with cheese are pizza, any kind of Mexican dishes, macaroni and cheese, grill cheese sandwich, process cheese (just unwrap and eat), chucks of cheese for snacks, different pastas with cheese and of course the cheese burger. I love going to the Mexican restaurant and ordering cheese dip, it hot and you dip your chip into the bowl of cheese and it just makes everyone eating feel good. Conversation starts and everyone is laughing and dripping away at the cheese bowl. Americans typically use less than six different types of cheese in their kitchen: cheddar, Swiss, parmesan, mozzarella, Colby, and maybe blue. Cheese lovers should not limit themselves to the status quo; there are hundreds of types of French cheese alone, not to mention Italy, Spain, or America cheeses. Basic types of cheese are categorized as fresh (short shelf-life), soft or semi-soft cheeses (completely edible), blue/bleu (falls into every catalog but fresh), washed-rind (“Stinky” cheese), hard (firm to truly hard), uncooked pressed (“cheddaring” to prolong the shelf like), and cooked pressed (Hard cheese types must be aged for longer). All cheese is made from the milk of cows, goats or sheep. The process to make cheese can last from two weeks to years depending on the cheese that is being made. I want get into how cheese is made because frankly it is a......

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