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Agricultural Development Corporation
Category Activity Description
Agro-Industry/Agriculture
Performance Testing- Performance Testing is the principal method used to Beef cattle identify high ranking individuals within a breed through the identification of such individuals within a herd. This systematic method will enable an increase in the rate of genetic improvement in the traits being measured. Newly weaned (average 8-10 months) bull calves are placed in a 140-day trial and given equal opportunity to perform through a uniform feeding and management regime. Record of economically important traits, adjusted 210 day weight, average daily gain adjusted 400 day weight and weight per day of age on all animals are systematically maintained. These records when statistically analyzed are used as the objective measures (indices) in selecting replacements and eliminating poor producers.

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Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute
Category Activity Description
Agro-Industry/Agriculture
Animal Production and Sam Motta's Goats and Sheep Demonstration and Marketing Systems Training Centre Animal Production and Hounslow Goats and Sheep Demonstration and Training Marketing Systems Centre Animal Production and Small Ruminant Production and Marketing Systems Marketing Systems Development Crop Production and Marketing Systems Livestock Feeds and Feeding systems Enhanced Hot Pepper Production Feeding Systems development for ruminants

Education/Research
PROCICARIBE PROCICARIBE Caribbean Integrated Pest Management Network Caribbean Small Ruminant Network (CASRUNet) Soil and Water Management Studies in the Rio Minho Valley Project

Environment
Hillside Farming Systems of Jamaica and the OECS Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest and Pesticides Management
Integrated Pest Management of Sweet Potato Biological Control of Coffee Berry Borer IPM systems for Hot Pepper IPM systems for vegetables for callaloo.

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Caribbean Energy and Information System
Category
Energy
Energy Efficiency and A paper outlining policy options for the efficient Energy Conservation: utilization and conservation of energy in the OECS was Policy Options for the presented. The investigation underlying this report OECS Member States confirms that the OECS economies could generate significant economic benefits through investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy. The OECS- Natural Resources Management Unit This Unit was set up to liaise and coordinate with other regional initiatives and programmes involved in energy management.

Activity

Description

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Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute
Category
Food
Compilation of a The Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute is Caribbean Food coordinating a programme for the development of a Composition Database computerized Caribbean Food Composition Database, which will interface with similar databases in other parts of the world. Food composition data are essential for product development, nutrient assessment and education, national and international trade of foods and the development of nutrition and agriculture policies by government agencies. Currently, there are severe limitations to the quality and scope of available food composition data on commonly consumed Caribbean foods. CFNI has spearheaded the formation of a steering committee for development of the database, comprising scientists from several Caribbean countries and including representatives of the Jamaica Bureau of Standards, the Scientific Research Council and the University of the West Indies. The CFNI has been successful in getting support for an international training course in the Production and Use of Food Composition Data in Nutrition to be held in Jamaica , in order to address the training needs of the region.

Activity

Description

Health and Medicine
Comparative Gender In response to the increasing prevalence of obesity in Analysis of Dietary and the region and the need to implement comprehensive Exercise Behavior in health promotion programmes for the prevention and the Caribbean control of nutrition-related chronic diseases, CFNI initiated a study in four countries including Jamaica. The aim of the project is to examine prospects for behavioral interventions for the promotion of healthy diet and exercise behaviours, based on the trans-theoretical model of behaviour change and specific to the Caribbean context. Components of the study are an assessment of health, dietary patterns, physical activity and perceptions of obesity, and comparison of the various stages of readiness among adults in each country for implementing changes to current patterns, and the influence of the media on the public's perceptions and attitudes. The study uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative aspect, a series of focus group studies, completed in the year under review and the quantitative aspect of the study is now being carried out.

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Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute
Category Activity
Worksite Wellness Programme

Description
In the realization that the majority of persons who are affected by the chronic, nutritional diseases are adults, many of whom are employed, CFNI has developed guidelines for the promotion of worksite wellness programmes. The worksite presents an excellent opportunity for health promotion since persons spend a significant number of hours in this environment. Numerous studies have attributed positive changes in lifestyle practices to worksite interventions. The CFNI programme which aims at improving workers' health and morale, and hence their productive capacity, has been initiated in one workplace in Jamaica. The activities of the programme provide workers at all levels witht eh opportunity to learn the relationship between nutrition, lifestyle and health and act on information in improving their own health, in a supportive environment. Findings of this pilot project will guide further development of the programme in the region.

Assessment of the A report on an assessment of the iron supplementation Iron Supplementation programme in antenatal clinics in Jamaica was Programme in completed by CFNI in 2000. In collaboration with the Antenatal Clinics in Ministry of Health, a cross-sectional study was carried Jamaica out among 651 women attending 44 antenatal clinics around the country. Against the background of a persistent problem of anemia in this population group, the study assessed the availability and delivery of supplemetas to pregnant women, instructions given to them and their compliance with taking the tablets. This information will be used to inform nutrition policy, strengthen the iron supplementation program and improve the intervention and education programmes for this target group.

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Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute
Category Activity Description

Multi-disciplinary
Jamaica is one country in which CFNI has undertaken to research the impact of Structural Adjustment Policies on the population of urban and rural communities. The qualitative and quantitative assessments begun in 2000 and include collection of information on health, nutritional status and access to health and agricultural services. By examining the vulnerability, coping strategies, causal factors and the current needs of communities the study will provide poverty reduction and development. The qualitative aspect of the study including focus group studies revealed that there was a greater impact of the policies in rural communities, but also identified a variety of coping mechanisms existing within the communities and documented community based recommendations. Analysis of the quantitative aspect of the study is underway.

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Center for Marine Sciences
Category Activity Description
Marine Resources
Coastal Water Quality Two grant proposals for USAID funds under CWIP have Improvement Program been approved. These grants totaling approximately grants to DBML J$7000000 over two years will support water sample analyses and outreach to Community Based Organizations in the Ocho Rios area. The grants will be administered through DBML

Marine Resources
Four members of the Centre and three graduate students attended this important meeting in Bali, Indonesia. Several Papers on the coral reef work of the Centre were presented and were well received. One function of this symposium was to integrate research and management of reef resources. A clear message of the Symposium was the rapidly degrading state of reefs all over the world. Coastal development, over fishing, global warming and coral diseases are believed to be important agents in coral reef degradation. Attention is being given to all these factors in the research being conducted by CMS at DBML. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA) Four AGGRA survey teams supported by boats and equipment from DBML, studied 57 sites along the North Coast of Jamaica during August. CMS personnel and UWI students were present on all teams. 371 coral reef transects were surveyed in respect of live coral cover and other parameters. Mean percent live coral cover at sites deeper than 5 m was 11.7% and 4.8 % at shallower sites. Fish populations were also assessed and the results showed high proportions of small fish and low numbers of commercially important types such as snappers and groupers. These data confirm the poor and overfished state of Jamaica's coral reefs.

Meeting of the The Director, Dr. Warner attended this annual meeting Association of marine which was at the Caribbean Marine Research Centre Laboratories of the on Lee Stocking Island in the Bahamas and gave a Caribbean (AMLC) report on the recent work and future plans of the Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Program (COMCOMP) Grant to CARICOMP from UNEP CAR-RCU A grant worth a total of US$25 000 for the CARICOMP coral diseases project and the Data Management Center at CMS has been obtained from UNEP. $1, 500 will go to DBML for their part in the coral diseases survey and $10, 000 to the DMC to help support an Assistant Data Manager.

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Center for Marine Sciences
Category Activity
CARICOMP Site Directors Meeting in Costa Rica

Description
Members of the Centre represented the CARICOMP Data Management Centre and DBML at the meeting, funded by NOAA through the Florida Institute of Oceanography. Four CWIP Community Projects for the Ocho Rios area have been approved by USAID and NRCA. These are 1. To develop a community level environmental education package, 2. To develop a management plan for the Ocho Rios Marine Park, 3. To deliver a Community Environmental Animation Training Program and 4. To implement a Solid Waste Management Project for Pimento Walk, Parry Town and environs. All these projects will be administered by DBML through a CWIP sub-grant. Several members of the Centre attended this conference, organized by CWIP at the Jamaica Conference Center. The Honorable Anthony Hylton, Minister of Foreign Trade and Chairman of the Council on Ocean and Coastal Zone Management gave the Welcome Address. Dr. Warner chaired the session on Impacts on the Coastal Zone. The main business of the Conference was to inform and facilitate the development of a Policy Document on the management of Jamaica's coastal zone. CMS is seen as having an important advisory, research and training role in this process. This Caribbean-wide research project aims to achieve a detailed survey of the coral reefs of the Caribbean within a short-time span. 20 Countries have been surveyed in the last 2 years. The project relies on intensive survey work by divers and scientists according to a standard protocol, for which training is provided. The training Workshop was organized through collaboration between the University of Miami and the Centre for Marine Sciences.

Marine Resources

CWIP Projects approved

National Coastal Conference 2000

Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA) Workshop

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Citrus Growers Association Limited
Category Activity Description
Agro-Industry/Agriculture
Nursey Establishment The Association has established a Nursery indoors and outdoors at its office and at other sites comprising four acres and has already supplied over 14 000 certified citrus plants and has an inventory of over 20 000 now available and more than 40 000 in progress. It is expected to produce up to 100 000 plants per year if required. Citrus Growers Association Limited is fully involved with the Jamaica Citrus Protection Agency in all aspects. Provision of Base material The Association has supplied base material involving certified base plants and budwood to five nurseries to permit or enhance their own nursery operations and given technical assistance to those who required it including, Monarch Nursery, Vauxhall Nursery, Montpelier Citrus Farm, Comfort Hall Farms and Good Hope Farms. The Citrus Growers Association Limited constructed a safe screened insect excluding repository of 2900 sq. ft. and one of Three Hundred (300) square feet in which to house and multiply imported certified citrus clonal material for fruit and seed production at a cost of over $3000000 It has established a seven acre grove using the imported certified material laid out in suitable replicates across the imported clones in order to observe performance for information to growers. It is nearing completion of extensive repairs of a building to house the extension component of the replanting requirement that will cost about $300 000. It is nearing completion and branches are being activated for the planting programme.

Construction of safe screened repository

Research

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Coconut Industry Board
Category Activity
Palm Population and Farms

Description
Currently, there are about 4.3 million palms growing on approximately 17 300 ha. The Malayan Dwarf and Maypan are the main varieties of commerce. There are about 8000 families directly involved in the growing of the crop and many more benefit directly from it. It is Production for the year 2000 was estimated at 142.8 million nuts. During the 1900's as the industry recovered from the adverse effects of hurricane Gilbert, production gradually increased. Yield per hectare is about 8000-12000 nuts per year Processing is limited. Copra is produced by private individuals and oil is extracted from it at a factory in Kingston, but many small holders carry out extraction of oil from the fresh endosperm. A small amount of virgin oil is produced by direct expelling. Many small operators produce confectionery, coconut milk and desiccated coconut from mature nuts, and packaged water with limited shelf life from the immature (jelly) nuts. There is one plant which converts coconut husks in to coir and coir dust. Currently, there are about 4.3 million palms growing on approximately 17, 300 ha. The Malayan Dwarf and MayPan are the main varieties of commerce. There are about 8000 families directly involved in the growing of the crop and many more benefit directly from it. It is predominantly a small holder's crop with 96% of coconut farms being smaller than 10 ha. Commercial farms are privately owned and productivity on large farms is generally higher than on small holders' plots.

Agro-Industry/Agriculture

Coconut Production

Coconut processing

Palm Population and Farms

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Coconut Industry Board
Category Activity Description

Education/Research
Research by the Coconut Board The scale and scope of research done by the Coconut Industry Board, because of limited resources, are restricted and confined to those areas which are vital to the survival of the industry and where significant gains can be made. Emphasis is placed more on applied than pure research. Increasingly, research is being collected out on farmers' fields under existing conditions, but this has not prevented the collection of information of a basic nature essential for the improvement of existing practices by modern technology. Efforts are continually being made to formulate and refine plant management systems, being careful to include the experiences of the farmer. The three main areas of research are Botany/Plant Breeding, Agronomy/Crop Physiology and Pathology. The main thrust of the Botanist/Plant Breeder is the search for disease resistance which can be manipulated to produce high yielding, disease resistant varieties. In addition, basic work is done on genetics, taxonomy, pollen handling and pollination. Because of the high cost of agricultural chemicals, the agronomist is working on improving plant management to obtain maximum benefits from the inputs used. Special emphasis is being placed on developing inter-cropping systems and the use of legumes as a crop cover. In the pathology section, special attention is paid to monitoring diseases of economic importance, assessment of yield depression caused by diseases, and the development and implementation of integrated pest management systems. Molecular techniques are used in identifying and classifying pathogens. The advisory section keeps farmers informed of research findings.

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Coconut Industry Board
Category
General
Consumption and Trade - Coconut Most of the crop is used as fresh nuts - the young for drinking and mature for culinary purposes. Only a small percentage of the crop is converted into copra, and oil produced from local copra accounts for only a small percentage of the vegetable oil used locally. No copra has been exported for over 20 years, but seed nuts are exported to Florida and some Central American countries. The local farmer generally sells most of his produce to a local buyer who sells to an urban buyer who, in turn, sells to the final consumer. The whole chain of trading activity rests on a buyer's ability to depress prices, thus, the farmer being the first seller with the least say in price settling, naturally gets the lowest price. In most areas, farm gate prices for nuts range from about $2.00 to $12 depending on size and state of maturity. In the city, prices vary considerably and range from about $20 to as high as $60 per nut. The current copra price is $14, 500 per tonne. There is collaboration with a number of local and foreign institutions engaged in coconut research University of the West Indies, Scientific Research Council, Wye College, University of London, Rothamstead and Long Ashton Research Stations, U.K. University of Florida and Centro de Investigation Cientifica de Yucatan, Mexico.

Activity

Description

Coconut Industry Board- Linkages

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Earthquake Unit
Category Activity
GPS locationing

Description
Joint research with the University of WisconsinMadison. Global Positioning Systems are being used to measure precise locations at about twenty sites across the island repeatedly over the next 4-5 years. The program began in January 1999 and aims to determine differential slip rates along major Jamaican faults as well as relative movement of the faults separating the North American Plate from North Central America The acquisition of six portable 3-component digital seismographs (type GEOSIG GBV-316 used to establish a micro earthquake network along the Crawle RiverRio Minho Fault along central Jamaica in a research project intended to reveal characteristics of this fault relevant to seismic hazard and development The use of a GURALP 3-component Broadband digital seismograph station which will replace the analogue equipment at Stony Hill, the main station of the JSN. This is state of the art in earthquake monitoring for small and large events and due to the bandwidth of the sensor will provide data that will be ideal for advanced research into local seismicity and crustal structure Seven ETNA digital strong motion recorders are placed in centres of population across the island. These all record strong earthquakes in 3-D on scale and allow earthquake forces to be obtained, which are useful as input into building codes and determination of vulnerability. Preparation of annual bulletins for 1990-1999, so that the database of earthquakes recorded at the JSN would be documented and available to the public. Some 30 copies of each volume will be distributed to key organizations for dissemination

Education/Research

Natural Disasters
Seismic Hazard

Upgrading of main station

Motion Recording

Public Education
Public Information

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Food Storage and Prevention of Infestation Division
Category
Chemistry
Coconut Water Shelf-Life Trials Trials were conducted to determine the impact of different packaging materials on the microbial growth in coconut water. The effect of three different plastic bottles were assayed to determine effectiveness in prolonging the shelf life of coconut water at two different storage temperatures measuring variables such as refractive index, pH, coliform and plate count. Laboratory units specifically Entomology, Microbiology/Mycology and Pesticide Residue/Mycotoxins carry out tests on imported and locally-manufactured durable food products. These analyses include moisture content determination, extraneous matter including insects, rodent filth and other contaminants, chemical residues, mycotoxin presence, microbiological sterility, mould presence and other which form as an aid to determine fitness of food for consumption. During the period 800 samples were received and a total of 1660 tests conducted.

Activity

Description

Laboratory Testing Facilities

General
Inspection, Disinfestations, Fumigation Services During 2000, the Inspectorate Unit carried out > 5000 inspections of food commodities, 182 disinfestations activities were carried out, which included fumigation and chemical spraying, 235 statutory notices were issued for non-compliance of food, the amount of food condemned amounted to 261, 000 MT

Integrated Pest and Pesticides Management
Fungicide Efficacy Trials Trials were carried out by the Post harvest Unit under a National Yam Task Force formed by the Ministry of Agriculture, as a result of detection of use of non-permission chemicals to control yam rot on yams exported to the US. Efficacy trials were carried out using three fungicides. Results of trials were submitted to the US authority for approval of usage to treat yams entering the US market.

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Food Storage and Prevention of Infestation Division
Category Activity
Fumigation trials in Hot Peppers

Description
The Food Storage and Prevention of Infestation Division is preparing to conduct fumigations trials on hot peppers to determine the effect of phosphine gas on larval stages of gall midge complex and quality of the fruits, using the magnesium phosphide formulation to develop recommendations for postharvest treatment of the commodity. This following the removal of the gall midge of quarantine importance to the US and the imposition of mandatory fumigation, currently using methyl bromide. The trials are to be conducted under a multi-agency task force which includes CARDI, Ministry of Agriculture, RADA, JEA, USDA, which has developed a National Strategic Plan to combat the problem. Food Storage and Prevention of Infestation Division is looking into alternatives to the use of this fumigant in view of impending restrictions on usage, owing to its ozone depletion potential. Part of a Working Group formed to look into a phasing out under the Montreal Protocol.

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Forensic Science Laboratory
Category
Chemistry
Determination of yield Method Development of Hashish/Hash oil for ganja plants grown in different locations islandwide STRs for use in DNA Development of the National Database using 13 Core analysis STRs. The choice of STRs are compatible internationally to facilitate the exchange of information among territories. Gunshot residue determination Method Development

Activity

Description

Standards
Accreditation Preparation for Inspection

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Institute of Jamaica-Natural History Division
Category Activity
Jamaica Clearing House Mechanism Collections Management

Description
Maintenance and updating of website; disseminating of information Zoological and botanical specimens and library publications Avifauna survey of the Mason River Game Sanctuary; Endemic Trees Project Rural Outreach Programme; Jamaica House Basic School; Greater Portmore Junior Centre; Science Resource Centre; Summer Science Resource Centre; Summer Science Workshop; Exhibitions/Competitions and Presentations including Earth Day, World Wetlands Day, Black History Month, Founders' Month, World Environment Week, International Biodiversity Day; Group Tours

Biodiversity

Education/Research
Research

Public Education
Outreach and Education

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International Centre for Environment and Nuclear Sciences
Category
General
Collaboration among G-15 countries Initiated at the Government of Jamaica's request, a programme for scientific collaboration with the G-15 countries. The first contacts have been established with Egypt, India, Kenya, Mexico and Zimbabwe.

Activity

Description

Hazardous Elements
Hazardous elements in Establishing in collaboration with the Ministry of soils Agriculture, the levels of both essential and hazardous elements in Jamaican soils, with important consequences for urgent future work.

Health and Medicine
Kintyre Lead Project ICENS made significant and continuing contributions in mitigating lead intoxication in children in the Hope River Valley. As a result, the blood lead levels of children from the Kintyre Basic School have fallen from the toxic range to the now internationally accepted limits. Completed an island-wide examination of soils, now followed by very detailed studies on the soils of St. Elizabeth and Manchester, that have lead to important findings. Initiated in collaboration with the Water Resources Authority, the first phase of an investigation into the vulnerability of Jamaica's underground water.

Soils
Soils characterization

Water
Underground water research

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Jamaica Bauxite Institute
Category Activity
Soil Productivity Assessment and Improvement Castor Bean Production/Research

Description
Assessment of the productivity of the selected crops on restored bauxite soils has begun. A pilot castor bean project on reclaimed bauxite lands includes: a. Agronomic and economic assessment of twenty-five local accessions. B. Introduction of new varieties (accessions) from the former Soviet Union, Botswana, Cuba and the USA for production trials and c. Introduction of rapid multiplication system (Tissue culture) To forest and reforest reclaimed and marginal bauxite lands with multi-purpose trees suited for yam sticks and firewood. Project to introduce mini set yam production to farmers on reclaimed lands, in an attempt to decrease the reliance on yam sticks from natural forests around mining areas and increase the production of yams that do not rely on the use of harmful chemicals. Production of fruit trees on reclaimed bauxite soils to include two environmental and production projects. The JBI has a fully operational chemical laboratory which provides analytical services mainly to the bauxite industry, but also to the general public. Areas of research include: boehmite research, quantitative analysis and general services to the industry.

Agro-Industry/Agriculture

Yam sticks and Natural Forest Project-Production Mini Set Yam Project

National Fruit Tree Planting Programme

Chemistry
Analytical Services

Education/Research
Red Mud Pond-Alcan Research Project The first project involves the production of forage on red mud without the addition of soil (Russell Place location). Research is in progress and the first phase is doing well. The second phase will cover the entire pond and is to begin soon at Kirkvine. The second project involves the introduction of new legumes and grasses from Australia as forage (Grove Place location). The evaluation of climate and soil impact on production of the forage will be carried out with a view to utilizing them on restored bauxite soils in Jamaica.

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Jamaica Bauxite Institute
Category Activity Description

Scotch Bonnet Pepper Investigation of the potential of Scotch bonnet pepper Production/Research as a major crop on reclaimed bauxite lands for the export market is being looked at collaboratively with Bodles. Further collaborative work with Hi-Pro will investigate the effect of "Crop Set" on the production of hot pepper. "Crop Set" is a chemical that enhances flowering and pollination of fruits. Pigeon Pea Research This entails the introduction of five (5) short-term determinate varieties from ICRISAT (India) to be evaluated on reclaimed bauxite lands. Production research is being carried out on the restoration potential of cassava. The project will also investigate the acceptance of new technology by farmers. New improved varieties of cassava are to be imported from CIAT, Columbia. The impact of cassava on soil quality and suitability as restoration material will be investigated with a view to utilizing this crop in reclamation practices. To pinpoint cause of iron chlorosis of fruit trees and develop measures to combat it so as to be able to increase planting of fruit trees on reclaimed land. The Jamaica Bauxite Institute has been using Geographic Information Systems and Global Positioning Systems to enhance its capability to investigate and manage the country's bauxite reserves. The GIS is a software-driven system which builds and manages spatial databases by assembling, storing, manipulating and displaying geographically referenced information. The JBI is specifically using the system for the automated production of maps. The result is a digital map, which can be manipulated and used based on specific requirements. For example, maps can be created to display features such as bauxite deposits, to which can be added other layers of information such as location of buildings or roads. A database which gives the attributes of these features is developed concurrently. The GPS is land surveying equipment based on satellite technology which the JBI is using in the survey of bauxite deposits. Both the GIS and GPS increase the accuracy and efficiency of the JBI's land management efforts.

Cassava Research

Iron Chlorosis Research

Geography
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

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Jamaica Bauxite Institute
Category Activity
Exploration

Description
As part of the management of bauxite reserves, the JBI periodically conducts exploration exercise to determine the quantity and chemical composition of bauxite in the various deposits across the island. The first phase of an exploratory project entails surveying the ore bodies to get an accurate map location, and collecting information on the properties within which the ore bodies lie. Next, the drilling programme gets under way, with the drilling holes to basement in the bauxite deposits at pre-determined intervals, usually along a grid. Samples are collected at specific depth intervals, and these are taken into the JBI for chemical analysis of any other analysis which may be required. Finally, maps are produced of each orebody, giving location, depth and assay data for each borehole.

Mineral Resources

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Jamaica Bureau of Standards
Category
Energy
Intercomparison work Jamaica carried out intercomparison work with the National Measurement Institute of Cuba (INIMET) in the areas of mass and resistance measurements. The results showed a favorable comparison, as the levels of uncertainties were acceptable on both sides. More work is being planned with Cuba. Jamaica signed bilateral agreement with Columbia to co-operate in the fields of science, technology and culture. Again Metrology is expected to play a key role in the execution of the agreement. Laboratory accreditation The accreditation of the mass laboratory by the Herman Calibration was maintained. The Quality system to international standards has been developed for the Temperature, AC/DC and Pressure laboratories. Extensive applied research was carried out to determine the need and possible solutions to time measurements in Jamaica. Testing of the software continued in the AC/DC laboratory of the Bureau in preparation for future SIM intercomparison work by the Internet. Jamaica's preparation in this activity has been fairly successful to date.

Activity

Description

Testing of SIMnet software

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Meteorological Service Division
Category
Climate
Doppler Radar Operation The Doppler Weather Surveillance Radar system operated by the Meteorological Service Division was installed in mid-1999 to facilitate 24-hour monitoring of rainfall and wind activity over and around Jamaica within a radius of 500 km. The equipment is capable of detecting rainfall intensity, rain-rate, maximum cloud-tops, wind speed, wind direction, storm movement, rainfall accumulation among other parameters. Training was offered through the instrumentality of the US National Weather Service, to all radar observers, as well as the forecasting staff, on the proper interpretation of radar imagery. This was held near the middle of 2000. The radar was employed in the monitoring of severe weather associated with troughs, fronts and tropical waves and local thunderstorms throughout the year. None of the tropical cyclones of the 2000 Hurricane Season passed within the range of the radar, however, remnants of Tropical Storm Debby were detected as they drifted over the waters to the north of the island. Further application of the features of the Doppler radar is currently being pursued with the aim of bringing as many of them as practicable into the mainstream operations of the Section.

Activity

Description

70

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Meteorological Service Division
Category Activity
Climate Change Monitoring

Description
The Meteorological Service has maintained its position as the country's focal point on climate change issues. In this regard, an active role has been played in matters aligned to the Caribbean: Planning for Adaptation to Global Climate Change (CPACC) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Conferences, conventions and symposia were attended, workshops were organized and conducted and monitoring activities were maintained during 2000. The final draft of the first National Communication to the UNFCCC was presented to Cabinet, received approval and was later officially submitted to the body. Also, consultations continued with respect to the implementation of Articles for the Kyoto Protocol in support of Small Island Developing States (SIDS). Under the CPACC, the Division maintained sea-level monitoring stations at Port Royal and Discovery Bay, as well as the related global positioning system (GPS) base station. Preliminary preparations have begun for Jamaica's Second National Communication to the UNFCCC. This will increase momentum in coming months. Also, Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC will resume in the middle of the current year. A CPACC workshop is planned for March 2001 to review data associated with coral reef monitoring activities.

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Meteorological Service Division
Category Activity Description
Information Technology
WebSite Development The development of a meteorological website on the Internet has been on the table for some time now and further progress was achieved in 2000. The site is intended to provide users with historical and current information pertaining to the Meteorological Service itself as well as its products. Information has already been posted to include portions of the climatological database for Jamaica, astronomical data, information on meteorological instruments and forecasts directed at local and marine interests. The major accomplishments for the past year were the registration of the proposed website and the support given to the project by the US National Weather Service in providing technical assistance with regard to the addition of animated radar imagery. The Division has projected the launch of a fully developed site on the Internet before the start of 2001 Hurricane Season in June. Subsequent to this, further enhancements will be pursued and this will include complete in-house management of the site, further networking of equipment and increased automation of procedures.

Miscellaneous
Climatological Station A network of rainfall and climatological stations is Refurbishment maintained by the Division to build a database of weather patterns experienced across the length and breadth of the island. These include near 175 stations performing routine measurement of rainfall twice daily, and 20 stations measuring additional meteorological elements. Over the past year, all stations were visited for the purpose of conducting maintenance checks and replacing defective or damaged instruments. Stations were refurbished and additional ones established in data-sparse regions. The Division will continue the programme of refurbishment with the aim of managing a comprehensive network of stations totally representative of weather conditions and indicative of climate changes occurring over the island.

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Meteorological Service Division
Category Activity
Numerical Weather Predictions

Description
More attention was given to the us of computer modeling for routine medium-range weather prediction during the year 2000. The PC-based Gridded Display System (PCGRIDDS) has been utilized with its twice daily analysis of atmospheric conditions using the United States developed MRF computer model. This was gradually introduced into the existing products of the Division for planning up to five days in advance. Steps were also taken to intensify the training of operational forecasters in the proper analysis and documentation of the outputs. PCGRIDDS was successful in the accurate prediction of significant synoptic features and sever weather events during the year. A more thorough examination of the performance of the model will be undertaken since the Division intends to pursue the full incorporation of numerical weather prediction into the routine activities of its Forecast centre. A separate unit is being established to complement the work of that section and concentrate efforts at medium to long range forecasting at the local and regional levels.

Natural Disasters

Public Education
Exhibitions and Expositions The Division remains committed to the aspect of its mission that speaks to significantly improving man's present knowledge of weather and climate, through its involvement in educational expositions, informative exhibitions and other interactive forums. During 2000, a number of exhibitions were mounted in schools and other institutions across the island to highlight aspects of the work of the Division as well as to give insight into the science of meteorology. Brochures were designed and produced in-house, particularly relating to climate change and ozone depletion issues. Visits were also entertained from various educational institutions to the National Meteorological Centre, totaling close to 1000 students for the year. This practices will continue in subsequent years.

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Mines and Geology Division
Category Activity Description
Education/Research
Cadmium/Zinc Mines and Geology Division and the International Anomaly, Manchester Center for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences (ICENS) began a project to characterize and explain the occurrence of a Cadmium/Zinc anomaly in Manchester. This project will generate data/information which will aid in the understanding of the role of cadmium in the environment, on health and socio-economic issues.

Geography
Geological Map Production Full compilation of 20 metric 1:50000 scale geological maps of the island which totally replaces the previous 1:50000 Empirical map series. These maps will provide information critical to Natural hazard Mitigation, mineral exploration, engineering applications, land use planning etc. Future plans are to publish all maps within the next 2 years. Mines and geology Division was involved in the development of the Integrated Hope Estate Development Plan. Specifically an Engineering Geology and Geo-technical assessment of the Land Lease 1 and the Highlight View settlements were conducted. The project resulted in relocation areas being identified for residents and the document will be submitted to Cabinet for its consideration. During 2000, GIS was used to (a) analyze Natural Hazard data to produce Hazard Zonation maps for the DIPECO project and (b) incorporate existing geological information on 13 geological maps into a GIS format. Future plans include the creation of hazard Zonation maps for St. Thomas and to incorporate the remaining seven geological sheets into a GIS format. Creation of a database for easy retrieval of all existing geological maps created at the Mines and Geology Division. This is 70% complete and should be finished within 2001.

Engineering Geology

Utilization of Geographical Information Systems (GIS)

Geological Map Database

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Mines and Geology Division
Category Activity
Skid Resistant Aggregate (SRA) Project

Description
The SRA project is an island wide survey designed to identify local deposits of a particularly high grade of aggregate known as Skid Resistant Aggregate. In the past, this aggregate was imported into the island as a raw material use din asphalt to resurface the Norman Manley International Airport. During 2000 one deposit of SRA with approximately 14 million tonnes was identified in St. Mary while work was started and continues at another deposit in Hanover. The project will continue into 2002 at which time a comprehensive document will be produced on the islands SRA resources. This project gathers, analyses and compiles data on areas being considered as Quarry Zones, that is, places which are deemed to have favorable geological, physical, environmental and socio-economic factors for the development of quarries now or in the future. During 2000 a draft report was prepared for the Sunderland QZ and the Rio Minho QZ project was started. The Subderland QZ has as its chief resource one of the few deposits of SRA resources in western Jamaica while the Rio Minho is one of the islands' major resources of sand and gravel. The final report for the Sunderland QZ will be completed in early 2001, a draft report on the Rio Minho will be completed later in the year and work on the Yallahs River QZ will commence during mid-year.

Mineral Resources

Quarry Zone (QZ) Project, Sunderland and Rio Minho

Lakes Pen Sand This project evaluated the sand deposits in the Lakes Evaluation Project, St. Pen area where a number of illegal mining activities Catherine occur. The strategy was designed to determine if the sand deposits there were enough to justify legal mining in the future. A report documenting resources of at least 6 million tonnes in the area was completed in 2000. The aim for the future is that the Mines and Geology Division armed with this resource information will be better able to determine if legal, properly regulated sand mining can be allowed in the area.

76

Mines and Geology Division
Category Activity
Gold Project

Description
Firstly this project involved environmental monitoring and gold characterization at Main Ridge, Clarendon, the site of Jamaica's first Gold Mine. This involved the establishment of baseline information on soil, water and plant quality in areas to be affected in and around the proposed gold mine site. It also involved the characterization of the gold ore and its leachability and the likely environmental impact of the project. Environmental monitoring will continue for the duration of the mining project. Secondly, geochemical gold prospecting in the Hungry Gully area continues as part of an ongoing effort to investigate gold anomalies across the island. The Mines and Geology Division (MGD) and the British Geological Survey are jointly working on this project which was conceptualized during 1999-2000 and started in late 2000 and will run until 2004. The aim is to look at the feasibility of mining along sections of the Rio Minho and Yallahs River and to develop a handbook of "best practices" for use by the current and future River Aggregate Operators which should enhance the sustainability of this activity.

River Mining Project

Sedimentary Basin The Mines and Geology Division and the Geography Resource Assessment and Geology Department (UWI) during and before 2000 (SEBRA) Project have been planning this project to evaluate the sand and gravel resources of the Rio Minho and the Yallahs Rivers. The project will include the identification and characterization of fluvial sand and gravel deposits focusing on locations, drainage basin geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology, sediment compositions and characteristics and alternative resources. The project, which will start in 2001, will be accomplished through a multi-disciplinary approach utilizing topographic and geologic data, aerial and satellite imagery, borehole/well data, geological and sedimentological field studies. This project will look at the Rio Minho and Yallahs Rivers in much more detail thank the aforementioned River Mining Project.

77

Mines and Geology Division
Category Activity Description

Natural Disasters
Landslide Hazard Mapping Project The Mines and Geology Division and the Disaster Preparedness for European Community Humanitarian Office (DIPECO) undertook a Landslide Hazard Mapping Project as part of a Hazard Vulnerability Reduction Project for the Rio Grande Valley, Portland. The project involved the analysis of landslide and other geological information for Development, Mitigation, and Engineering, Planning which will be used to guide the planning and development process. This project is the first of its kind done wholly by Jamaican technical expertise and was the first of a number of similar types of projects that will be conducted islandwide. Currently, there is one such project being conducted in St. Thomas.

78

Ministry of Agriculture, Research and Development
Category Activity Description
Agro-Industry/Agriculture
Control of fungal This project attempted to identify chemicals for disease in Honey dew effective control of diseases in honey dew melon. Leaf melon spot data were collected in initial studies. However severe rainfall confounded the response of the crop to the treatments. The study is being repeated. Investigation into the distribution and economic importance and management of the yam weevil (Paleopus costicollis) The project was established to determine the distribution and economic importance of the yam weevil in Jamaica. A further objective was to refine knowledge of the biology and thereby to develop an integrated management package for control of the pest. This control of the pest is critical as due to its presence in Jamaica, the US$11M worth of yam exported to the USA has to be fumigated. Fungal diseases pose a major challenge to the production of muskmelon locally. The method of irrigation application has been considered as playing a role in the incidence of the problem. Sprinkler and furrow irrigation were used in a trial at Bodles station. In the initial study there was no correlation between irrigation method and disease incidence.

Assessment of fungal disease development of muskmelon using two methods of irrigation.

Breeding/improvement This ongoing project is aimed at ensuring genetic of cattle dairy and improvement of the various cattle breeds and in the beef breeds maintenance of computerized records for the four local breeds of cattle in Jamaica Fungal diseases pose a major challenge to the production of muskmelon locally. The method of irrigation Goat multiplication and The objective of the swine multiplication project is to improvement provide a continuous supply of pure and cross bred animals to farmers thereby injecting and expanding new and improved genetic base into the local pig herds. During the period an average litter size of 8.3 was obtained. Several farmers obtained replacement animals. Testing and maintenance of nucleus herd of Jamaica Hope Dairy cattle The objective of this project is to develop, improve and maintain the Jamaica Hope as a dairy breed including the selection of sires and cows for progeny testing. During the year approximately 30 sires and 35 lactating cows were selected.

79

Ministry of Agriculture, Research and Development
Category Activity
Pepper soil nutrient study

Description
In this project the response of scotch bonnet pepper to varying levels of fertilizer N, P, K, was carried out on three soils at three contrasting sites. Information derived shows that the demand for P is low and that the yield response is obtained by adding N up to 125 kg/ha. It is recommended that N be applied in split doses. Further studies are required for other locations and to assess the interaction with optimum moisture. This project has been established to access the yield and cost of production of selected cassava cultivars at multilocations/producing areas. This is in an effort to provide data for increased production to meet the growing demands from the bammy industry. Over 50 000 stem cuttings were provided to farmers. A paper has been prepared on the findings. This project sets out to develop a program for sustained production and management of certified Scotch Bonnet Pepper seeds. During the initial trials 5 kg. Of quality seeds enough for planting 25 ha. Was obtained. There is an ongoing programme to train research and extension staff as well as farmers in Integrated Pest Management for quality hot pepper seed production.

Yield and cost of production study in cassava

Production of certified/quality hot pepper seeds

Hot pepper production A major objective of this project is the improvement selection/development of Scotch bonnet pepper with horticulturally acceptable traits and which are resistant to tobacco etch virus and Potato Virus. These two viruses currently pose sever limitations on the susceptible Scotch Bonnet cultivar. Several promising lines have been identified but additional work is required. Goat commercialization The focus of this project is the maintenance nucleus of purebred Anglo-Nubian and Boer goats as well as their crosses. This is to assist in improving local stock by supplying pure bred and graded animals to local farmers. During the year 47 additional purebred animals were imported to enhance the numbers at Bodles. The target of a 100 doe unit has been achieved. Staff from this project have assisted the national programme in evaluations, training and field visits on management, housing, health, and nutrition. Staff have also assisted in the formation of goat breeder groups and in the maintenance of breed records.

80

Ministry of Agriculture, Research and Development
Category Activity
Assessment of genetic structure and production traits of polled Brahman cattle Development and maintenance of Jamaica Black beef breed Breeding of pumpkin with desirable traits

Description
The project is evaluating the productive performance of a herd of approximately 120 animals at the Montpelier Research Station The objective of this project is to maintain and characterize herd of Jamaica Black as a suitable beef breed. A herd of 126 animals are being maintained at the Bodles Research Station. There is a demand for pumpkin with a desirable shape and culinary qualities. This project was therefore undertaken to use mass selection to obtain pumpkin cultivars that are high yielding, with uniform shape and possessing desirable culinary qualities. The project has progressed to the point where several cultivars with desirable shapes and culinary traits have been selected for further evaluations at multilocations. In the area of forage assessment several accessions of legume and grass forages have been established in germplasm and forage banks for biomass and nutrient assessments at Bodles. Improved grasses such as Tifton and N69 have been performing satisfactorily at the Bodles site. Dozens of feed nutrient analyses were completed at the Animal Nutrition Laboratory. Samples assessed included legumes and grass forages as well as the butterfat content of milk.

Forage development and animal nutrition

Integrated Pest and Pesticides Management
Investigation into the Within the past two years there has been an outbreak etiology of rhizome rot of a rhizome rot which has decimated the ginger in ginger industry. It is the aim of this project to identify pathogens on ginger and thereby develop control strategies. Several fungi and bacteria have been isolated from rhizomes of affected plants. However, the pathogenicity of specific agents has not been completed. Tissue culture planting material inoculated with root knot nematodes which have been isolated from rhizomes and roots of affected plants. The use of non-traditional products and plant extracts for the control of vorroa Interest in the use of alternatives to synthetic chemicals for organic/ecological farming has increased in recent times. In this project, which has been recently initiated, the efficacy of non-traditional plant products for the control of Vorroa mites will be assessed.

81

Ministry of Agriculture, Research and Development
Category Activity Description
Biological studies of The gall midge complex is of major economic the pepper gall midge importance as due to its presence all hot pepper exported to the USA from Jamaica has to be fumigated. This leads to a deterioration of the quality and adds to the cost of the pepper in the USA. The project forms part of an integrated pest management strategy in which the most susceptible stages of control is to be determined. Data obtained in the study showed that the larvae emerged in 10-13 days after incubation and had a 1:1 sex ratio. Development of a The objective of this study is the development of an spray application guide effective programme for the control of the hot pepper for pest control of pests. Farmers are being trained in different locations hot pepper on the proper application of pesticides. Chemical study for the The incidence of broad mites is an emerging problem control of broad limiting pepper production. In this project several mites chemicals are being evaluated for effectiveness in the IPM programme. To date a number of effective chemicals have been identified. These are to be verified at multi-sites. Response of hot pepper varieties to root knot nematode inoculation Investigations into the effects of organic soil amendments on nematodes Root knot nematodes have been shown to adversely affect hot pepper varieties. In this project the adverse effects of nematodes on peppers will be determined and resistant varieties identified. There is growing evidence that nematodes are involved in the general unthriftiness of many crops. This project has been established to evaluate the efficacy of green manure/amendment from selected plants against nematodes. Success will allow the incorporation of such amendments into a nematode management programme. This project has just been initiated. The project was established to determine the distribution and economic importance of the yam weevil in Jamaica To date a survey of the incidence of the weevil in the main yam growing areas has been completed. The weevil is transported on contaminated yam heads which are moved within and between farms. The biological study has identified the length of each stage in the life cycle of the yam weevil is being refined. An integrated crop/pest management approach is being developed including evaluation of several insecticides.

Investigation into the distribution, biology, economic importance and management of the yam weevil.

82

Ministry of Agriculture, Research and Development
Category Activity
Evaluation of miticides for the control of Vorroa mites in apiaries in Jamaica Assessment of the status of beekeeping pests in Jamaica

Description
The current work is focused on the assessment of the efficacy of Apistan and Apigard in the control of Varroa mites. Both miticides have been found to be effective. Apistan is the more economical. The project was established to assess the distribution of American Foulbrood spore in Jamaica apiaries. Current investigations shows the presence of AFB in defined geographical areas. Inofrmation is being collated for the testing of honey samples for AFB spores.

83

National Commission on Science and Technology
Category Activity
National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

Description
As Party to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) since 1995, Jamaica is obligated to prepare a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan detailing how the country plans to conserve and sustainably use its biodiversity. The NCST Secretariat participated in the Steering Committee which, in collaboration with Team Leaders ad Consultants prepared a draft National Biodiversity Strategy and National Biodiversity Action Plan, projectizing activities outlined in the Strategy.A Cabinet submission is to be prepared by the Ministry of Land and Environment on the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. The revised concept paper of the project proposal "Conserving Biological Diversity: Establishment of a Gene Bank for the Conservation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants" was submitted to the UNDP for consideration for GEF funding. The explosion of biotechnology developments worldwide has served to remind countries of the dynamic nature of S&T and the vital contribution they bring to mankind. The NCST has been coordinating a regional project aimed at building biotechnological competence in regional institutions. In Jamaica he Scientific Research Council, University of the West Indies- Biotechnology Centre, Bodles Agricultural Research Station, have been targeted to lead specific activities. Important strides have been made in improving the productivity of pepper and the "fingerprinting" of important medicinal plants.

Biodiversity

Gene Bank

Biotechnology
Biotechnology

84

National Commission on Science and Technology
Category Activity
National Biosafety Committee

Description
A committee was established some years ago to guide the country on the safe handling of genetically modified organisms (GMOs).This National Biosafety Committee established regulations that enabled the importation of genetically modified plants for experimental purposes and engendered the confidence of Cornell University representatives to release technologically advanced intellectual property to the country. Oversight of field and green house trials conducted on transgenic papaya continued with monthly inspections being carried out by the Plant Quarantine Division on behalf of the Committee. A concept paper " Biosafety - Issues and requirements" is being developed by a small sub-committee of the National Biosafety Committee, in preparation for a national Biosafety Policy. The Committee continued to receive and respond to invitations to speak on the issue of genetically modified food. In conjunction with the International Institute for Communication and Development (IICD) of the Netherlands promoted the application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to increase productivity and efficiency in selected sectors I.e. music, education, agriculture, agro-industry; and collaborated with stakeholders to set up projects in these sectors that demonstrate the utility of information technology. Foresighting is being promoted as a tool to increase innovation worldwide. Arising from discussions between the NCST, the CSC and local consultants, the application of foresighting in Jamaica is receiving further support. The NCST is expected to play a lead role in the innovation thrust within the region.

Information Technology
Projects based on Information and Communication Technologies

Science and Technology
Technology Foresight

Tax Incentives for R&D The NCST developed a programme to provide duty and tax relief for purchases of materials and equipment used in research and development. Several private sector organizations have benefitted from the scheme to date. Review of Project Proposals The Secretariat participated in the review of several country proposals submitted to the OAS for funding.

85

National Commission on Science and Technology
Category Activity
National Foundation for the Development of Science and Technology

Description
The Foundation was established to provide funding for S&T activities in the country. The Foundation has provided funds to the (i) Scientific Research Council for its Annual Conference and for the Essay and Poster Competition; (ii) the Association of Science Teachers of Jamaica, (iii) the University of the West Indies for public education programmes in science and technology (iv) Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Review for Jamaica (v) Biosafety Policy development (vi) staff costs for the NCST Secretariat. This Fund was established to finance commercial investments in the development or acquisition of new technology. Fourteen projects have been awarded grant and/or loan funds to the tune of J$123M. The participating institutions continued to meet to share ideas as well as to highlight the problems faced in the sector. A number of collaborative efforts have arisen from discussions held by the group. The NCST Secretariat sent out questionnaires as part of a survey of the institutions. Requests were also made for the status of activities of the organizations.

Technology Investment Fund

S&T Institutions

Waste Management
Demonstration project This project was conceived following on research on the economic use conducted by Professor George Sidrak at the of wastewater University of the West Indies to determine the economic use of wastewater. The project has sought to use treated wastewater from the WIHCON sewage ponds in Greater Portmore to irrigate land in agriculture. Forty hectares of land was made available to the project. Trials have been carried out on sorghum and have produced significantly higher yields than those found during the research study. The project is operated under the name SIDGRAINS Limited. Funding for the project is a collaborative effort between public and private sector entities.

Agro-industrial Processing
Initiatives in bamboo Following a presentation to the NCST, the Secretariat has been spearheading efforts on initiatives in bamboo. A workshop held in July on the preservation of bamboo aimed to foster the interest in bamboo and sensitize stakeholders to the challenges and solutions involved in utilizing the plant. A demonstration bamboo house was constructed at the Forestry Department. This will help to expose stakeholders in the building industry to available options for low cost housing.

86

National Water Commission
Category Activity
Environmental Audit Programme

Description
An environmental audit of NWC watershed lands and sources was developed in to ascertain the current state of the areas, their environmental quality and to develop strategies for dealing with areas in need of improvement. Research has been done on the history of use for the lands and sources being audited. Over 20% of NWC lands have been audited and the department is to concentrate on more sources. Environmental Assessments are conducted when required. Assessments in the past have conducted for change of land use activities and engineering projects. Research has also been done into the potential impacts of the activities to be undertaken.

Environment

Environmental Assessments

Pear Tree Bottom Well The Pear Tree Bottom area is monitored every other month to establish baseline data for the water bodies in the area as it is the proposed site for a sewage treatment plant. Environmental Monitoring (Wastewater) Wastewater plants in Ocho Rios, Negril and Montego Bay are sampled regularly in conjunction with the Western Lab. The study was conceived to be done on the benefits of North Coast Wastewater District in improving the environmental quality of Jamaica's North Coast environment. This is currently in the planning stage. The lab participates in an inter-lab exercise with the Montego Bay Marine Laboratory and NEPA to monitor the Ocho Rios and Negril coastal waters. This is done every other month. The Two-meetings river is to be sampled once a month to determine the suitability of this river as a source to supplement the Moravia supply. The Greater Portmore area is being monitored for the appearance of black solids in the distribution system. A special Phosphate is applied to prevent the formation of this solid that is caused by the presence of manganese in two wells that supply the area. It has been noted that complaints increase when no Phosphate is applied. This project entails the monitoring of Phosphate levels, a set flushing programme and recording of the effects of the Phosphate.

The Coastal Water Quality Improvement Project

Water
Two-meetings River

SeaQuest

87

National Water Commission
Category Activity
Sample Quality Verification

Description
To compliment the collection of bacteriological samples by the region, the laboratory collects its own samples. Results from this programme are periodically compared with the results of regional sampling and any sampling done by the Ministry of Health. Comparisons are done on a parish by parish basis.

88

Natural Products Institute
Category Activity
Biocontrol Rationale

Description
Develop for mass-rearing of natural enemies of crop pests for cottage industries. Transfer the technology for composting of agricultural and agro=industrial waste for commercial and community based activities. Market driven extraction and export of the products as joint venture Directed at the development of pharmacological, nutraceutical, functional food, cosmetic, aromatic pesticidal, plant hormonal and toxicological profiles of selected plant extracts, commonly used herbal medicines and other natural products. NPI must strive to become self-sufficient NPI may enter into joint venture and partnerships with entrepreneurs for the development and production of products. The expertise of NPI in developing total or selected profiles of natural compound/product, and quality control for standardization of products are offered.

Agro-Industry/Agriculture

Biotechnology
Biofertilizers

Essential Oils and other Nutraceuticals

Education/Research
Research

General
Generate Income

Natural Products
Joint venture Involvement

Standards
Client Services

89

Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management
Category Activity Description
Natural Disasters
Community The Community Vulnerability Reduction Programme was Vulnerability Reduction completed in the Rio Grande Valley of Portland. This Programme included establishment of a community operated flood warning system; production of landslide and flood risk maps, training of community members in operation of the flood warning system, basic search and rescue techniques, disaster management and first-aid. This methodology is now being replicated in Trinidad and Belize. Evacuation Exercise A full-scale evacuation simulation exercise of the Portmore community was successfully undertaken. This was the first exercise in the Caribbean. Nineteen families in the parish of Hanover were relocated because of landslide activity. This was the first relocation of vulnerable families prior to full impact of a hazard. Relocation followed hazard assessment by technical agencies and is in keeping with ODPEM's policy of emphasizing mitigation and prevention activities as important aspects of its disaster management portfolio.

Significant Achievements 2000-ODPEM

National Disaster Plan This includes the Kingston Metropolitan Emergency Traffic Management Plan; National Drought Management Plan; National Plan for Riots and Civil Unrest and National Transportation Plan National Hazard mitigation Policy The draft Policy was developed

90

Pesticides Control Authority
Category
Chemistry
Monitoring quality of pesticides All pesticides manufactured or imported must be tested from time to time to verify that the contents are in keeping with what is written on the label. This serves to reduce the delivery of outdated stocks of pesticides to small developing countries like Jamaica. Food Samples are tested for pesticides residuals to identify pesticide misuse and hot spots where additional training needs to be done. Incidences of poisoning in the public health system is researched and documented. While this system can be strengthened and needs strengthening, it gives some indication of the common types and degrees of poisoning that occur. PCA conducts surveys on users of pesticides as the need arises.

Activity

Description

Monitoring pesticides residues on imported and local foods.

Education/Research
Research data on pesticides poisoning

Surveys

General
Licensing pest control Persons applying pesticides are trained and certified. operators Business persons who own Pest Control Operator businesses are required to have liability insurance. Monitoring importation Through a process of registration, The PCA screens of pesticides pesticides on the basis of their effect on animal health and the environment. A pesticide submitted for registration can be restricted or refused entry. The PCA works closely with Customs to refuse entry of pesticides that are not registered. Customs penalizes persons who try to import a pesticide without first getting a permit to import from the PCA. The process of import regulation provides the PCA with data on all pesticides importation.

Public Education
Public Awareness The PCA informs the public on the safe use of pesticides through working with other agencies such as the Rural Agricultural Development Authority, NRCA and Jamaica Information Service. The use of drama such as "Mine Yu Cide" series on Radio and Television have been very integral to public awareness. The PCA also response to reports of pesticides misuse from the public and interact with international organizations on matters related to pesticides use.

91

Pesticides Control Authority
Category
Standards
Developing standards Standards are established for labels, conditions for for the regulatory storage of pesticides, requirements for registration of processes pesticides and requirements for manufacturing. Standards are usually based on local conditions and in reference to other countries and signed international agreements.

Activity

Description

92

Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica
Category
Energy
PCJ Biomass Project The Fuelwood Project which was launched in 1995 at PCJ's Font Hill Property in St. Elizabeth was intended to generate technical, scientific and economic information on the feasibility of energy forests in Jamaica as a source of renewable energy. The research project now in its sixth year has, since June 2000, begun to produce comprehensive documentation showing that fuelwood forests can be planted for environmental and commercial gains. Fuelwood plantations of sizes greater than 191 hectares are suggested for commercial viability. Hazardous Waste management has only recently become an important environmental and health concern. Formerly, industrial wastes were carelessly disposed of in water or in land without regard for the consequences to employees and the surrounding communities. With regard to these concerns a Hazardous Waste Strategy was prepared for the Petrojam Refinery outlining recommendations to improve their current hazardous waste disposal and wastewater situation. The implementation of Cleaner Production strategies is the main recommendation for improving Petrojam's hazardous waste as it involves minimizing the use of resources and reduces the quantity of wastes discharged to the environment. The pollution prevention techniques involve simple approaches like improving general operating practices such as increased maintenance to improve efficiency of equipment. Also, modification of a process should be employed wherever possible such that the quality or yield of the desired product is not adversely affected. Any necessary changes to the existing technology that will reduce, treat or eliminate generation of hazardous wastes should be considered. Substitution of hazardous chemicals or raw materials in favour of those with a less hazardous nature can also be a cost-effective maneuver. Finally, the time-honoured methods of recycle or reuse of hazardous materials or, their recovery and exchange with other industries is sometimes simple and very popular technique used in the oil industry.

Activity

Description

Hazardous Waste Management in the Petroleum Industry

Environment
Cleaner Production

93

Rural Physical Planning Division
Category
Soils
Investigation into the In Silent River most farms sampled, the rhizomes were soil nutrient status of completely rottened by micro-organisms and in ginger (Zingiber Sanguinetti good yields were observed. The nutrient officinale, Roscoe) in status of the latter was mainly conducive for good Silent Hill, Moravia yields. The basic difference was that farmers in Silent Area, Clarendon and in Hill were using too much of an acid-forming fertilizer Sanguinetti, because it was cheaper. Similar cultural practices Clarendon. were not used in Sanguinetti. The farmers were taken through a discussion on how to make improvement. investigation into the soil nutrient status of vegetable farms that suffered from squash bug infestation in Flagaman, St. Elizabeth. Poor soil fertility makes the plants susceptible to insect attach which often result in disease infestation. The bad use of fertilizers were evident from the analytical reports. The farmers agreed that their use of fertilizers were amateur in nature and became a threat to their livelihood. The farmers were happy for the information as they were now seeking to improve their cultural practices.

Activity

Description

Investigation into the The farmers were unwilling to do anything different not soil nutrient status of even if their yields were low. Of course some of these sweet potato farms in farmers did not want the soil sample to be taken. The Tiverton, Chudleigh, data and recommendation meant little when the Manchester findings were explained to the farmers. "Sick soil" on sugar cane farms Investigation into the soil nutrient status of sugar cane farms where the so-called " Sick Soil" might have an impact. The controversy on "Sick Soil" has led many discussions in the press. This study seeks to highlight the role of soil nutrient to the assumed new phenomenon. A report should be available by June 2001. It was found out that the farmers were plagued with low yields. The cheaper fertilizers were used instead of the proper one. Some farmers lost even the planting material because soil conditions would not support a good yield. The RADA office and the farmers were informed.

Investigation into the soil nutrient status of yellow yam (Dioscorea Cayenensis Lam) farms in South Trelawny

Investigation into the Breadfruit is one of our non-traditional export crops. soil nutrient status of For sustainability in production it is necessary that the Breadfruit in St. farmers, householders and RADA be aware of some Thomas ways of maintaining the trees by way of soil fertility. Report should be available by June 2001.

94

Scientific Research Council
Category Activity Description
Agro-Industry/Agriculture
Investigate several Prepared project proposal for funding local raw materials for incorporation in a fish feed formulation

Biodiversity
Presentation of rare endangered and economically important species Experimental research work was initiated on the in vitro propagation of fruit plants and root crops, somatic embryogenesis of ackee and coffee; growth and development of tissue cultured plantlets from different parts of the banana plant. The other activity was the successful in vitro propagation of peach. To further secure out rich Biodiversity, expansion and maintenance work was done with our Gene Bank which seeks conservation of Jamaican plant species. Work continued in upgrading the facilities. Staff members received technical training in the mutation of plants by Banana Board staff members, quality control; aseptic manipulation and good tissue culture techniques. Tested and implemented a new formulation for in vitro propagation of Musa developed by INIBAP. The unit continued to supply tissue-cultured plantlets to the banana industry under the EU contract. A total of 13 043 plantlets were supplied during the period. A Cuban lab technician joined the plant pathology lab for six months under the Jamaica/Cuba bi-national agreement. A scientific paper on Temporary Immersion System was presented in Thailand. Initiated 13, 763 Musa plantlets. Trained Ministry of Agriculture Group in Tissue Culture Technology Research work was conducted on the propagation of fruit plants and root crops e.g. peach, ackee, coffee and dasheen

Conservation of plant species To increase the competitive edge of the Jamaican agro-industrial sector through the production of high quality disease free planting materials in large quantities and the development /selection of improved cultivars

Propagation of fruit plants

95

Scientific Research Council
Category Activity Description

Biotechnology
Tissue Culture The Tissue Culture Unit continued to engage in activities aimed at increasing the competitive position of the Jamaican agro-industrial sector through the production of high quality disease free planting materials and the development and selection of improved cultivars. The EU advanced funding for the production of 500 000 banana plants by Tissue Culture, for the local industry as part of an overall support programme for global competitiveness. Tissue-cultured plantlets that were produced for small farmers are already showing good results in the field.

Education/Research
Provision of analytical and microbiological services in the areas of water, wastewater and food. Continued with the required documentation for accreditation of the laboratory. Submitted application for accreditation to the Jamaica Bureau of Standards. Provided analytical services to internal and external clients. A total of 252 water/wastewater samples; 148 essential oils samples; 82 food/drink samples; 35 soil samples and 6 animal feed samples were chemically analysed for the period. 659 water/wastewater samples; 182 food samples and environmental plates were analysed in the Microbiology department. Printed proceedings of the 9th, 12th and 13th Annual National Conference on Science and Technology. Completed 3 volumes of FOCUS and 2 volumes of AGROLINK. Also completed the Accasional Paper on S&T Eradicating Poverty the Unfulfilled Promise by A. K. Ventura

Production of S&T related publications

Renewal and Over 269 documents were catalogued and classified. acquisition of journal Documents were received as donations or gifts and subscriptions, 200 journals were recorded and 100 displayed acquisition of print materials and updating of databases and reference documents Exhibitions and Public Two exhibitions were mounted in-house, and the SRC Fora participated in 17 exhibitions. The Council also facilitated visits of students and teachers from 3 institutions Databases use and development Automation of new records using WINISIS for both monograph and journal databases. The services of the Documentation Centre were publicized.

96

Scientific Research Council
Category Activity Description

Training and technical Provided training and technical assistance to over 400 assistance persons in various aspects of food processing such as Solar drying, Juice Making and Meat Processing. Also participated in the Production train activities in collaboration with other agencies. Training in Anaerobic Wastewater Training in Tissue culture The Centre successfully conducted the first Caribbean course on Aerobic Wastewtaer Treatment. Eighteen participants from 8 Caribbean countries participated. Training was given to a group from the Ministry of Agriculture who will provide extension services to farmers working with tissue cultured plants. Prepared and distributed three issues of CEIS Update; Completed #& of the Energy Ministers' Bulletin; Information added to the Directory for Energy Research and Energy Technologies and Information added to the PETSTATS series for more than 6 regional focal points

Energy
Publications

Implementation of the The project is awaiting funding Caribbean Reference Energy Spreadsheet (CRESS) project if funding is received Coordinate implementation of relevant activities under the Clean Development Mechanism project Implementation of project arising out of Caribbean Renewable Energy Development Project (CREDP) Development and maintenance of six energy databases in operation Provided information for regional baselines for the Caribbean Power Sector out of which benchmarks were developed

Made a presentation at the forum on agri-business opportunities in CARICOM. Processed requests from 21 clients

Work continued in updating the databases.

Food
Products for Divestment A vegetable patty is market ready and several formulations are available for starting new businesses

97

Scientific Research Council
Category Activity
Development of the Sorrel Industry

Description
The SRC continued to assist in the development of a local Sorrel Industry which has created benefits to farmers of sorrel and other agricultural materials (sugar, ginger, mango, guava, spices) and service providers such as labourers, truckers, processors, packers, and distributors. Three sorrel products have already been launched and four others are market-ready. The export of sorrel products to the United States, Canada and some Caribbean islands generates valuable foreign exchange. Other overseas markets are being explored. A number of sorrel products are ready for divestment to local entrepreneurs. At least four new staff were hired with existing staff knowledge base upgraded. Two new scheduled processes for low acid canned foods are developed by March 2001. Processes (dehydration/canning) optimized for two Jamaican convenience foods by March 2001. Two new commercially viable, value-added Jamaican food products developed or adapted by March 2001. SRC provided technical assistance and spawn to farmers facilitating the commercial production and sale of local mushroom. The Council also established a composting system, using mushroom and other organic waste generated by the SRC. Compost is now being produced and sold.

Improved processes for existing products

Mushroom

Marine Resources
Solar Salt and Artemia The Technology Investment Fund approved funding for Artemia biomass production in man-made ponds employing 4 persons and starting a new industry. Divestment of the solar salt pond at Portland Cottage in Clarendon to a private sector entity is in progress and will be completed by March 2001. Initial operations will employ 12-15 persons. A modern state-of the art facility will be built to commercially produce salt for the local and export market. A minimum investment of US$3M and the production of 35 000 tons of crude salt are envisaged within 3 years. An Environmental Park established there within 3-5 years will promote ecotourism, create jobs and increase the social and economic life of the community.

98

Scientific Research Council
Category Activity Description

Natural Products
Essential Oils Analyses were conducted on peppermint, lemongrass, ginger and citrus to support the local essential oils industry. Emphasis was placed on evaluation and quality control of the active ingredients in ginger and citrus, peppermint and lemongrass as sources of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Various activities were done to transfer technology, increase public awareness of Science & Technology and increase future national earnings. Activities included: Holding of two summer camps in Bluefields, Westmoreland and May Pen, Clarendon. A total of 6 teachers and 66 students from 16 schools attended. Coordinating the training attachment programme for science teachers held July - August 2000, in which 14 teachers completed their training. This allowed teachers to get hands-on and practical experience in the application of S&T in industry. Launching new Schools Science and Technology Societies in schools island-wide, from primary to secondary level. Provision of advice to community associations in developing local industries. Development of technology packages to facilitate technology transfer and training. Successfully coordinated S&T month 2000 activities under the theme "Genes and their impact". A highlight was the annual National Conference on Science and Technology. Media workshops, public forums, exhibitions and publication of S7T information were used to inform the public and stimulate entrepreneurial spirit.

Quality Control

Public Education
Public Awareness

99

Scientific Research Council
Category Activity
Science and Technology Media Programme

Description
Recognizing the significant role that the mass media can play in disseminating information and educating the population, a Programme was implemented in 2000 which involves scheduled discussions between the media and members of the Science and Technology Community. The objective of the Programme is to provide members of the media with information on emerging trends in Science and Technology with a view to sensitizing the nation to the importance of S&T to everyday living and overall national growth and development. With sensitized media personnel, there was increased coverage by the print and electronic media of the subjects. This has provided better understanding, triggered interest as well as local debates. A number of activities have also resulted such as a workshop on Biotechnology, the focus on "Genes and their Impact: for S&T month and the annual National Conference on Science and Technology as well as policy decisions with respect to viruses such as "swine fever" and "mad cow disease". Sourced information for inventors and made presentation at the National Seminar on Innovation Promotion. Prepared skills profile of members of the Inventors/Innovators Association and examined exhibits of innovators.

Science and Technology
Inventors/Innovators Programme

Outpost establishment Continued to prepare proposals on establishing and servicing electronic linkages between the existing outposts and the SRC. Transfer of technology The SRC staged a successful workshop in meat processing and juice processing. Provided technical advice and engineering support to a community association in Portland (BUBADAC) in development of a label. Techpacks Held discussions with the Food Technology Institute on areas for which technical packages should be prepared. Two technology packages were updated and/or completed.

100

Scientific Research Council
Category Activity Description

Science and Launched schools S&T societies in schools and Technology Education servicing of those already launched. Conducted cluster Programme to workshops in Clarendon, Westmoreland, and Kingston reinforce the formal and St. Andrew. Continued to prepare for summer educational camps in Westmoreland and Clarendon. Camps were programme and to link held in July-August 2000. Also coordinated the training schools within the attachment programme for science teachers in which general S&T 14 teachers completed their training. Participated in community the ASTJ's annual science exhibition and assisted the ASTJ in organizing the annual science quiz. Transfer and adaptation of biomass production technology from Mexico to the Little Salt Pond, Yallahs A proposal was submitted to and approved by the Technology Investment Fund for Artemia biomass production in man-made ponds. Seven of the nine impoundments have been completed. Two scientific papers have been published in Spanish journals on data collected from the Yallahs salt ponds. Mexican consultants provided training to the project team in the construction and management of impoundments for Artemia production at Yallahs. A Training Manual was completed. Seven farm visits were done and the Council participated in the quarterly Mushroom Growers meeting.

Mushroom support

Science and For Jamaica to have a competitive edge in the Technology globalized environment requires the application of Intelligence System cutting-edge technologies. This involves world-wide for Business and Social surveillance of existing and emerging technologies and Development the analysis, acquisition and repackaging of the identified technologies to provide intelligence for various stakeholders. To this end the above-mentioned system will be implemented. This Information System will provide techno-business intelligence to the industrial sector, science and technology community and other concerned individuals and a major support and to our National Industrial Policy. Initially, the system will inform the areas relating to nutraceuticals, extraction of flavours, essential oils and functional foods.

101

Scientific Research Council
Category Activity
Development of environmentally sound wastewater management systems application in the agro-industrial sector and municipal sector. Three wastewater systems resuscitated

Description
A proposal was prepared for upscaling of the treatment system at the Frome Sugar Factory. The proposal was submitted and response is being awaited to formalize the contract.

Waste Management

Continued to monitor two pilot plants in Independence City; Elletson Flats was assessed to establish anaerobic treatment plant; Monitoring of Sidgrains project in which treated effluent is being used for crop irrigation purposes; Monitoring of wastewater generated by the Food Technology Institute One scientific officer obtained a postgraduate degree Sherbourne Heights Community Bio-digester project nearing completion; Completed feasibility reports for construction of bio-digester systems in 11 locations throughout the island; Commissioned bio-digester constructed at Vere Technical High school The school is using the methane gas produced.

Capacity enhanced Establishment of Biodigesters within housing complexes, communities and farms.

Strategic alliances Monitoring work continued at the Negril Treatment formed with Ministry plant. Continued to provide technical advice on the of Water, the local NWC Advisory committee for Negirl and Ocho Rios; educational institutions Provided technical assistance and advice to the NWC and with some and UTECH in anaerobic technology. international universities. Twenty operators A training course was provided to ten members of local trained in operation public and private interests in operation and and maintenance of maintenance of treatment systems from June 5-23, treatment systems 2000. The first Caribbean course on Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment was successfully held Sept. 18-October 6, 2000. 18 Participants from 8 regional states completed the training.

102

Scientific Research Council
Category
Water
Waste Research Management and Training Wastewater management is a special combination of research activities, services, products and training. The SRC is the sole provider of anaerobic technology in Jamaica. The Centre provided technical support to the NWC, communities, schools, farmers and housing developers in building/developing and maintaining waste treatment plants. This replaces importation of the technology and consultants. It continues to monitor the Sidgrains project, in which treated effluent is being used for crop irrigation.

Activity

Description

103

Sugar Industry Research Institute
Category Activity
Sugar Cane Variety Improvement

Description
The Variety development programme continued with some 52 000 seedlings being products of interspecific hybridizations were germinated in the glasshouses in Mandeville and later planted at Monymusk and Frome. Eleven replicated variety trials were planted throughout the industry. At least three experiments contained varieties imported from other sugar producing countries. Three Lattice Propogation Nurseries comprising imported varieties of the BJ93 series were planted at Worthy Park, Frome and St. Thomas Sugar Company. These nurseries of experimental varieties will provide seed cane for the 2001 Experimental Assessment Programme. Eleven variety trials were harvested during the year. The data were statistically analysed and the results sent to the various estates. In the variety import/export programme, 60 varieties were imported as in vitro plants and are currently growing in quarantine, while 30 varieties were exported to the Cane Breeding Station in Barbados to be used as parents in the cross-breeding programme. The Institute released three varieties during the year for growers. These include BJ78100, BJ7938 and BJ8852. Others are at the pre-release propogation stage. Experiments are being conducted to determine the effect of staling on germination as well as collaborative work with the Sugar Company of Jamaica on pre-germination of seed pieces for supplying fields. Monitoring of industry compliance with SIRI's policy and recommendations on the propogation and adaptability of different varieties continue on a routine basis.

Agro-Industry/Agriculture

104

Sugar Industry Research Institute
Category Activity
Nutrition

Description
Nutrient evaluation was made of soil and leaf samples taken on estates and farmers' holdings and fertilizer recommendations made for respective fields. Fields treated with distillery waste at Appleton are being evaluated for their nutrient status, quality of sugar cane, as well as long and short term effects on the chemicals and physical properties of soils treated in this way. Composting of filter cake and bagasse for application as a nutrient source to cane fields and the marketability of the finished compost were undertaken. Field experiments were undertaken to assess the effects of phosphorus, magnesium and varied combinations of inorganic fertilizers, compost and poultry manure on yields. A report has been submitted by the Scientific Research Council (SRC) outlining the requirements for upgrading to a full-scale plant. However, there are no funds presently available for further work to be done.

Chemistry
Anaerobic Treatment Plant at Frome

Wastewater Sampling Sampling and analysis of wastewater from sugar and Analyses factories is a requirement of the NRCA. It is required that this is done three times during the year, at the beginning, ending and out-of-crop period. The results of the analyses, along with other information pertaining to the individual factories were sent to the NRCA to provide an assessment of pollution control. Dextran Tests The Institute has undertaken collaborative studies with Optical Activity of the United Kingdom and the University of Westminster in a project to study a method for the rapid determination of dextran. The method employs NIR polarimetry in conjunction with the enzyme dextranase. Reliable and accurate results were obtained in less than fifteen (15) minutes. Dextranase hydrolyses dextran into sugars with lower optical rotation than the parent molecules. The change in rotational behaviour is calibrated relative to the original dextran concentration and outputted automatically by the polarimeter in a user-friendly The Laboratory completed approximately 35 000 analyses for the year related to routine and research activities. Samples included soil, leaf, water, cane juice, sugar and molasses.

Central Laboratory

105

Sugar Industry Research Institute
Category Activity
Factory Laboratories

Description
An assessment of all factory control laboratories was done; some laboratories which were found to be lacking in some basic equipment were updated to ensure that information required for good processing practices was available. All core laboratories were monitored for consistency and accuracy and their operations were found to be consistent with the manual of procedures. One collaborative test was completed with a very high degree of agreement and the results were well within the statistical norm - standard deviation The use of sugarrex to minimize the effect of dextrans in processing was studied over a five-week period at Frome in 1999. Monitoring of dextran levels in press juice, mixed juice and sugar was undertaken at the start of the crop. Because of significant improvement in operations at Frome compared to previous years, use of sugarex did not become necessary until 10 weeks into the harvesting period. An Industry Environmental committee was formed and the first meeting was held In the sugar industry, lead subacetate has been used as the clarifying agent in pol analysis of cane juice and factory products since the early 1990s. With growing environmental awareness, it has become necessary to find substitutes which are environmentally more friendly and are not toxic. Various studies have been done to find suitable replacements for lead subacetate. Two reagents, ABC reagent and Octopol are being studied as substitute reagents for clarification.

Core Laboratory Monitoring

Education/Research
Use of Sugarex

Environment
Industry Environmental Committees Lead Replacement

106

Sugar Industry Research Institute
Category
General
Machinery and Equipment The Push Pilers on six grab loaders were modified to reduce the inclusion of extraneous matter and to improve the quality of canes delivered to the factory. The new Holland Mud Spreader was modified and tested at Long Pond to improve field application and utilization of filter mud. Elsewhere, two Bunders for fertilizer applications were designed and calibrated to improve fertilizer application. As a cost-effective means of improving inter-row tillage and reducing weed control costs an Inter-row Cultivator was designed and fabricated for use in the Industry. This machine was constructed at the SIRI workshop with approximately 70% of the material derived from existing machines Five factories have submitted diagrams of the layout of the wastewater drains in their respective factories. These include Monymusk, Appleton, Worthy Park and Tropicana (now St. Thomas Sugar Company). A genera Emergency Response Plan (ERP) was put together using documents obtained from SCI and other sources. This document was circulated to all factories for adaptation.

Activity

Description

Drain Layout

Miscellaneous
Emergency Response Plan

107

Tropical Medicine Research Institute
Category Activity
Research Projects

Description
These include: Effects of Low Birth Weight on the Development, Growth and Morbidity of Term Infants; Hypertension in populations of West African Origin; Integration of Early Childhood Psychosocial Stimulation into Primary Health Care; Pathogenesis of Hepatic Steatosis of Malnourished Children; Molecular Genetics of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme; Relative Contributions of Energy Expenditure on Physical Activities; The Genetics of Hypertension in Populations of West African Origin; Prostate Cancer in Nigerians, Jamaicans and US Blacks; The Effects of Zinc Supplementation and Psychosocial Stimulation Community Project in Inner City Kingston to improve the development of Undernourished Children; Prevalence of Hypertension, Diabetes and Obesity and their relationship to food consumption and lifestyle patterns in Jamaica; Visiting Scientist Fellowship Scheme; Identification of NIDDM and obesity susceptibility genes that could serve as targets for drug development; Molecular Genetics of Diabetes and Hypertension; Asthma as a risk factor for acute chest syndrome and chronic Sickle Cell lung disease; Analysis of the Jamaican Cohort Study data; Genetic Modifiers of Sickle Cell disease

Health and Medicine

Research Projects

108

University of Technology
Category Activity
Industrial Cell

Description
The Faculty of Engineering and Computing has launched a special unit, the Industrial Cell, to strengthen the link between Utech and the Jamaican Industrial and Commercial sectors. The cell is ideally suited to research, document and proposes solutions to industrial clients.

Education/Research

Degree in Technical Collaboration of the Vocational Training and and Vocational Development Institute and the Faculty of Education Education and Training and Liberal Studies

Environment
Initiative in Waste Water Management Project is geared to improve Waste Water Management and involves both aerobic and anaerobic treatments. Research in the area of web Usability for E-Commerce sites is being done. Students are involved in projects which will evaluate opportunities for data warehousing and data mining in Government and other Jamaican Enterprises. In the field of Natural Language processing research is being done in exploring areas where Natural Language Processing is common may be applied, such as aiding the physically challenged. The university through its research in virtual reality has developed a cricket-training model, which is useful for all aspects of the game. It is geared towards improving the batting talent of all levels of cricket in Jamaica

Information Technology
Computing and Information Technologies

Virtual Reality and West Indies Cricket

Technology Innovation An incubator for small business with growth potential, Centre the first of its kind in the English-speaking Caribbean. It is being developed to promote the start-up of businesses, primarily in the area of computer technology, but would be prepared to assist other technical enterprises such as agri-businesses and light engineering Bringing Virtual Reality Utech recognizes the vast potential inherent in virtual to Tourism Marketing reality computer technology, which enables real-life simulation. Internet technology has reached a point that 3-D graphics can now be transmitted and the research work in virtual reality is seeking to capitalize on this opportunity to assist the local tourism industry

109

University of Technology
Category Activity
Roof Cooling Technology

Description
Research Efforts focused in finding means of maintaining cool room temperature. Accreditation of the Pharmacy and Health Science Degrees

Science and Technology

Standards
Accreditation

110

Veterinary Division-Ministry of Agriculture
Category Activity
National Screwworm Eradication Programme

Description
By 2002 Jamaica will join the USA and the countries of Central America as been free of the screwworm parasite, a parasite of all warm-blooded animals, including man. In 1998, the Ministry of Agriculture launched the National Screwworm Eradication Programme (NSEP). The aim of the programme is the total eradication of the screwworm fly using the environmentally friendly sterile insect technique or SIT. The major objectives of this particular project is that of establishing a commercially viable Duck/Fish integrated venture for low income families in the Riverton City area using marginalized swamp lands adjoining the municipal dump, while at the same time creating an environmentally friendly and acceptable setting out of a once economically and socially depressed and disease and crime prone area. The major objective of this programme which started in February 1998 was that of resuscitating the existing animal fertility and insemination facilities including laboratory component at the Bodles Agricultural Station and the parish sub-stations aimed at a rapid improvement in the current livestock population, as well as, production and productivity levels.

Agro-Industry/Agriculture

Agro-Industry/Agriculture
Development of an integrated duck/fish production system for small farmers and house holders in Jamaica

Improvement and Maintenance of the National Artificial Insemination and Livestock Fertility Services

Development and The major objectives of this programme is that of Implementation of a establishing an effective residue monitoring system for National Residue products of animal origin in compliance with both Monitoring Programme national and international accepted standards. The for Products of Animal ultimate aim is that of minimizing the potential public Original in Jamaica health risks resulting from undesirable chemical residues in food supplies of animal origin and to enhance export trade potential in animal products from Jamaica. The National Bovine Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Control and Eradication Programme The major objectives of this national eradication programme is the total elimination of Bovine Brucellosis and Tuberculosis from Jamaica and ultimately for Jamaica to be declared officially free by the competent international authority.

Education/Research
A Determination of the To determine the occurrence and toxicity of cadmium Livestock Productivity observed in selected livestock areas suspected to and Public Health have high levels of cadmium and to ascertain whether Implications of residues of this toxic element is in fact accumulates in

111

Veterinary Services Division
Category Activity Description

Livestock Grazing on products from these animals and to further study cadmium Rich their potential health impact in terms of productive Grasslands in Jamaica output of animals involved. Determination of the Occurrence and Incidence levels of antimicrobial residues in locally produced pork and beef products with reference to internationally accepted standards To ascertain the levels and occurrence of these compounds in pork and beef products being placed on the market for public consumption. This information will allow steps to be taken to protect both the animals and the consuming public from veterinary drug toxicity through various advisory approaches and the enforcement of the relevant rules and regulations governing the presence of these contaminants in food supplies. Results from these investigations will also serve as a guide in the current steps being taken to be in compliance with international standards especially where this is in terms of exploiting of potential export niche markets for locally produced animal products.

A Determination of the This project was carried out to ascertain whether Incidence of Copper copper deficiency in goats was widespread. To Deficiency in Goats in conclusively determine the level of deficiency so as to Jamaica implement appropriate preventative measures and to prescribe corrective veterinary clinical intervention and animal husbandry practices where necessary and practical to enhance increased goat production in Jamaica

General
The Jamaica Donkey Shelter Project The main objective of this project is that of protecting the further decline in both population and genetic stock of the native donkey population through breed improvement-type activities. The major objective of this project is that of the immediate updating of Jamaica's animal quarantine and regulatory measures to be in compliance with modern acceptable national and international standards especially in keeping with the directives of the WTO-SPS authority. Similarly, it is aimed at strengthening the protective measures against the entry of devastating animal diseases into Jamaica.

Upgrading of quarantine facilities and the institution of appropriate legislative measures to be in compliance with both international and national standards

112

Veterinary Services Division
Category Activity
Implementation of a National Livestock Identification system for Jamaica

Description
To establish an appropriate and systematic livestock identification system to be in compliance with international requirements. To also foster and strengthen food safety and security measures at the farm level especially as it related to the origin and trace-back of health problems. To strengthen and better organize the delivery of veterinary health care and to enhance international trade in animals and their products. To strengthen the actions being taken to eliminate or at least minimize the national scourge at praedial larceny. The major objective of this programme is to establish an on-going effective and sustainable national control programme aimed at minimizing the national and public health consequences of this major zoonotic disease.

Health and Medicine
Leptospirosis control and eradication programme

113

Water Resources Authority
Category
Chemistry
Water Monitoring Monitoring of Ground and Surface water quality and quantity, this involves the monthly measurement of water levels at over 300 well across the island; stream flow at over 120 sites covering the major river of the island; collection and analysis of water samples at 30 sites to monitor the impact of bauxite/alumina and sugar/rum operations on water resources

Activity

Description

General
Training Training of staff to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century and the ever expanding mandate of the Authority was given priority. Training was done in-house, at local and overseas institutions. The training consisted of short, subject specific courses in GIS computer proficiency in operating systems/programmes, hydraulic analysis, watershed management and degree programmes in water resources management and environmental management. Data is used prepare maps, charts and graphs illustrating status of water resources. Created a GIS database dataset by digitizing information available at WRA. The dataset includes: Rivers of Jamaica, watershed management unit boundaries; hydrologic basin boundaries, cave locations, spring locations, land use, soils, groundwater availability map; major towns and localities. Preparation and printing of a " Hydrostratigraphic Map of Jamaica" which is accompanied by a booklet explaining the geology, drainage, hydrogeology and waste disposal capability of each hydrostratigrahic unit. Preparation of Jamaica's first "National Communication" to the United Nations Framework for Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC). The national report entitled "Vulnerability and Adoption of Water Resources to Climate Change" was prepared by the Authority with the assistance of experts from South Pacific.

Geography
Maps GIS database

Maps

Information Technology

114

Water Resources Authority
Category Activity
Community Flood Warning System

Description
Establishment of a community flood warning in the Upper Rio Grande Valley of Portland. This involve the installation of rainfall and river gauges and the operation of the system to reduce property damage and loss of life. Public education is one area where the Authority has had significant achievements. The public education programme targets the school (at all levels) in increasing awareness of the value of water and how it can be conserved and protected. Lectures were given at 8 schools, field visits were made with another 6. Brochures on water resources, water pollution and water conservation were distributed to over 100 schools. At the tertiary level the Authority assisted 31 students( 11 from UWI and 20 from UTECH) in completing course projects relating to water resources and waste disposal. Expansion and strengthening of interagency linkages to promote integrated and sustainable water resources management. This was achieved through representations at the highest level with the NWC, NIC, NRCA, ODPEM, EHU (Ministry of Health) and WHO/PAHO. The Authority was also named as the focal point/country contact for several international programmes such as the Inter-American Water Resources Network of the OAS. Hydrological assessments to determine water yield potential of a river/well site, threat of flooding from land based activities and potential impact of solid and liquid waste disposal, were completed for over 50 sites. These assessments were done on behalf of the public and private sectors.

Natural Disasters

Public Education
Public education

Science and Technology
Collaborations

Water
Hydrological assessments

115

Water Resources Authority
Category Activity
Water Resources Action Plan

Description
The key accomplishment of the Authority, and indeed the entire water sector, in 2000 was the completion of the National Water Policy. To accompany the policy the Authority has prepared the strategies and an action plan to meet the objectives of the policy. The objective of the Water Resources Strategy was determined as: The management and regulation of the water resources of Jamaica with a view to its sustainable development and optimal use to satisfy all of the water supply needs of the island in an efficient, cost effective and timely manner. The objective will be achieved through the implementation the following strategies: Legal and Institutional Framework, Technical Programme, Financial Sustainability and Organizational Strengthening. The Water Resources Action Plan consists of a series of projects to give effect to each strategy. Water allocation - a total of 34,713 cubic meters/day was allocated through licenses. Domestic uses accounted for 50% industrial uses 38% and irrigation use- 12% of the allocation. Over 99% of the allocation was sourced from groundwater. Compilation of the "National Water Quality Atlas". This project was partially funded by UNESCO and the Atlas is but one output. The Atlas will be a graphical presentation of the status of water quality in the 10 hydrological basins. Completion will be in the early 2001.

Water Allocation

116…...

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