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Comparative Study on the Prevalence of Cockroaches Between Rural and Urban Households in Kwara State Nigeira

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COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF COCKROACHES BETWEEN RURAL AND URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN KWARA STATE NIGEIRA

By

IBRAHIM, Ismail A.
05/46KA046

SUBMITTED TO DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY, FACULTY OF LIFE SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE (B.SC) IN ZOOLOGY

July 2014
DEDICATION

This project work is dedicated to ALMIGHTY ALLAH

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgments iv

Abstract vi

Table of contents vii

CHAPTER ONE

1. Background of the Study 1 2. Objective of the Study 2 3. Scope of the Study 3
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 5

1. Biology Of Cockroaches 5
2.2 Cockroaches in Rural and Urban Communities

of Kwara State 10

2.3 Predisposing Factors for Cockroach Infestation 17

2.4 Public Health Implications of Cockroach Infestations 17

2.5 Controlling Cockroaches 18

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

1. The Study Area 21 2. The Study Populations 22 3. Method Of Sample Collection 23 4. Method Of Sample Preservation 25 5. Data Collection Technique 25 6. Data Analysis Technique 26
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Introduction 27

4.2 Results 28

4.3 Discussion of Results 44

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 47

5.1 Conclusions 47

5.2 Recommendations 48

References 49

ABSTRACT

The study is a comparative study that examine the population distribution of cockroaches in two separate communities mainly the Rural and the Urban community in Kwara State. It vividly examined some of the predisposing factors that exposes a particular location to cockroach infestation than others. Two hundred (200) questionnaires were administered to collect data for nine different carefully coined questions. At the end of the study it was observed that there is no significant differences between both studied communities except that the presence of predisposing factor in one location differentiate the other. Two separate species of cockroaches identified in the study communities was Periplaneta americana which is the most dominant followed by Blatta orientalis.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Cockroach is one of the most common rural and urban pests found in human dwellings all over the world, with about 4500 species of which about 30 species out of 4,500 total are associated with human habitats and about four species are well known as pests especially in multi-family housing units.(Changlu and Gary, 2010) The presence of cockroaches in both rural and urban community has been observed in all Nigerian states. The differences in terms of populations, extent of damage to household materials and possibility of serving as carrier of pathogens in either Rural or Urban communities depends largely on some number of predisposing factors. Therefore no differences exist in either rural or urban communities in terms of cockroach number as most people speculated. Presence of factors such as: unavailability of Toilet, Inefficient sewage disposal channel, Inappropriate refuse disposal system, Keeping an untidy environment and Locating community dumping heap very close to neighborhood and host of other factors are the major factors which predisposes an area to cockroach infestations than others. However, it should be noted that most rural communities in Nigeria has the above listed factors presence in them. This is why most rural communities in Nigeria are mostly infested heavily as compared to urban communities. Cockroaches are one of the most commonly noted household pest insects that feed on human and pet food and can leave an offensive odor.(Bill, 2010) They can also passively transport microbes on their body surfaces including those that are potentially dangerous to humans, particularly in a multifamily households environments. Cockroaches are linked with allergic reactions in humans most of which are linked with asthma. (Elgderi et al, 2006) Cockroaches eat many kinds of materials. They are especially fond of starches, sweets, beer, and meat products. They also feed on leather, bakery products, flakes of dried skin, dead animals, and plant materials. Cockroaches hide in dark narrow cracks and crevices. They tend to gather in corners (in the back of cabinets or drawers, for example) and generally travel along edges such as baseboards. They are most active during the night.(Changlu and Gary, 2010) They feed indiscriminately on human food and sewage. When cockroaches run over food, they contaminate the food by leaving an oily liquid that has offensive odour or bacteria that can cause food poisoning (Brenner et al., 1987). Some parasites have been found in the external and internal body parts of cockroaches. Findings have also shown that exposure to cockroach antigens may play an important role in Asthma related health problems (Montressor et al., 1998). There have been speculations that there are increase number of cockroaches and other pest in rural communities leading to most people living in the urban communities looking down on villagers. However in recent time, it has been observed that there is no significant difference in terms of cockroach population in either community. Urban dwellers are now placed in dilemma of wether the cause may be due to overpopulation or due to rural to urban drift. This study is therefore very important in serving as an eye opener by highlighting the major factors predisposing an area to infestation thereby possibly encouraging good environmental practices among the rural dwellers and inhabitants in the urban community.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The main aim of the study is to make a comparative study on the prevalence of cockroaches between rural and urban communities in Kwara State Nigeria. The specific objectives are: i. To identify the populations of cockroaches in both studied communities. ii. To determine the predominant cockroaches species in the study area. iii. To identify the major factor(s) which predisposes an area or a household to cockroach infestation. iv. To further examine the possible link between an infested area and possible outbreak of a disease.

1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study will be limited to comparing the prevalence of cockroaches between rural and urban community in Kwara State, Nigeria.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 BIOLOGY OF COCKROACHES Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea. (Valles, et al 1999) Among the best-known pest species are the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, which is about 30 mm (1.2 in) long; the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, about 15 mm (0.59 in) long; the Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai, also about 15 mm (0.59 in) in length; and the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis, about 25 mm (0.98 in). Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger, and extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species.[Schal and Hamilton, 1990]
2.1.1 CLASSIFICATION OF COCKROACHES Cockroaches belong to the Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Arthropoda, Subphylum Hexapoda, Class Insecta and Order Blattodea. The notable families of Cockroaches include; Blaberidae, Blattellidae, Blattidae, Cryptocercidae, Polyphagidae, Nocticolidae, Tryonicidae and Lamproblattidae.

Fig 2.1.1: A PROPOSED PHYLOGENY OF THE FAMILIES OF COCKROACHES

Source: Maekawa and Matsumoto (2000)

COMMON HOUSEHOLD ROACHES
The most common cockroaches in Africa are German cockroach (Blattella germanica, American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana), Australian cockroach (Periplaneta australasiae) and Oriental cockroach (Blatta orientalis)

2.1.2 MORPHOLOGY OF COCKROACHES Cockroaches are generally rather large insects. Most species are about the size of a thumbnail, but several species are bigger. The world's heaviest cockroach is the Australian giant burrowing cockroach, which can reach 9 cm (3.5 in) in length and weigh more than 30g. Comparable in size is the Central American giant cockroach Blaberus giganteus, which grows to a similar length but is not as heavy.(Lemonick, 2007)
Cockroaches have broad, flattened bodies and relatively small heads. They are generalized insects, with few special adaptations, and may be among the most primitive living neopteran insects. The mouthparts are on the underside of the head and include generalised chewing mandibles. They have large compound eyes, two ocelli, and long, flexible, antennae.
The first pair of wings (the tegmina) are tough and protective, lying as a shield on top of the membranous hind wings. All four wings have branching longitudinal veins, and multiple cross-veins. The legs are sturdy, with large coxae and five claws each. The abdomen has ten segments and several cerci.(Hoell et al, 1998) Female cockroaches are sometimes seen carrying egg cases on the end of their abdomens; the egg case of the German cockroach holds about 30 to 40 long, thin eggs in a case called an ootheca. The egg capsule may take more than five hours to lay and is initially bright white in color. The eggs are hatched from the combined pressure of the hatchlings gulping air. The hatchlings are initially bright white nymphs and continue inflating themselves with air, becoming harder and darker within about four hours. Their transient white stage while hatching and later while molting has led many to claim the existence of albino cockroaches.(Lemonick, 2007) A female German cockroach carries an egg capsule containing around 40 eggs. She drops the capsule prior to hatching, though live births do occur in rare instances. Development from eggs to adults takes three to four months. Cockroaches live up to a year. The female may produce up to eight egg cases in a lifetime; in favorable conditions, she can produce 300 to 400 offspring. Other species of cockroaches, however, can produce an extremely high number of eggs in a lifetime; in some cases a female needs to be impregnated only once to be able to lay eggs for the rest of her life. Some cockroaches have been known to live up to three months without food and a month without water. Frequently living outdoors, although preferring warm climates and considered "cold intolerant", they are resilient enough to survive occasional freezing temperatures. This makes them difficult to eradicate once they have infested an area.
Cockroaches has numerous predators but of the numerous parasites and predators of cockroaches, few have proven to be highly effective for biological control of pest species. Wasps in the family Evaniidae are perhaps the most effective insect predators, as they attack the egg cases, and wasps in the family Ampulicidae are predators on adult and nymphal cockroaches (e.g., Ampulex compressa).

2.1.3 LIFE CYCLE OF COCKROACH Cockroaches have three life stages: egg, nymph, and adult. The eggs are packed in an egg capsule and carried by the adult cockroach until hatched. Each capsule contains 30-48 eggs. The nymphs shed their skins 5 to 6 times before they grow into adults. The adults have wings, which distinguish them from nymphs. It takes from 40 to 125 days for an egg to mature into an adult. Each adult female can produce 4 to 8 egg capsules. The adult cockroach can live up to a year.
The figure below shows the life cycle of a cockroach through the three stages of incomplete metamorphosis: (1) egg, (2) nymph and (3) adult. There is no inactive, non-feeding pupal stage.

FIG 2.1.3: DIAGRAM OF THE LIFE CYCLE OF A COCKROACH [pic]
Source: http://www.vtaide.com/png/cockroach.htm

2.2 COCKROACHES IN RURAL AND URBAN COMMUNITIES OF KWARA STATE In Nigeria there are two most commonly found cockroach species these are the American Cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and Oriental Cockroaches (Blatta orientalis). (Bala and Sule, 2012) Cockroaches are among the most common pests in many homes and other buildings. At night they search for food in kitchens, food storage places, rubbish bins, drains and sewers. They are pests because of their filthy habits and bad smell. Cockroaches like to stay in warm, dark and moist environments. They usually hide in crevices and cracks and are active at night. They feed on almost anything that has nutritional values which include food that we human consume. Cockroaches also feed on other stuffs including soap, toothpaste, paper, leather and excrement. Cockroaches can live without food for a month, but will only survive a week without water. Young cockroaches need only a crack as thin as a five cent coin to crawl into. Adult males can squeeze into a space of about the thickness of a fifty cent coin. Pregnant females need the most space to hide. Cockroaches can withstand cold temperatures, but will die if the temperature goes much below 32 degrees. In extreme cold places, they survive by moving in with humans. Cockroaches can climb walls as they have a set of little claws on their feet which are designed for climbing. Female cockroaches produce an odour called pheromone. This attracts males for mating. Some female cockroaches mate once and are pregnant for the rest of their lives. Cockroaches consume human foodstuffs and contaminate them with saliva and excrement. They are also responsible for transmitting diseases such as the bacteria which cause food poisoning and are a significant source of allergies indoors, second only to house dust. Adult house-infesting roaches are medium to large insects (1/2 – 2 inches long, depending on species) that vary in color from a light reddish brown to black. They have a broad, flattened shape, spiny legs and long, whip-like antennae. Roaches are active at night and will scatter quickly when disturbed by light. Immature stages (nymphs) resemble adults, but are smaller and have undeveloped wings.

2.2.1 AMERICAN COCKROACH (Periplaneta americana) The American cockroach is the largest of the house-infesting cockroaches. Despite its name, the American cockroach is not native to North America, but was probably introduced via ships from Africa in the 1600s. (NPMA, 2013)

Description Periplaneta americana has Reddish-brown Colo, with a yellowish pattern on the back of the head. The legs are 6 in number with a pair of antennae. Periplaneta Americana is Oval in shape and are found throughout Nigeria.

Habits

American cockroaches often enter structures through drains and pipes. They are more active when the temperature is 70 degrees or higher, but they can survive lower temperatures with the right conditions.

Habitat

Although American cockroaches can be found in homes, they are also common in larger commercial buildings such grocery stores, food processing plants and hospitals. American roaches are also known to infest basements, yards and alleys.

Threats

American roaches have been reported to spread at least 33 kinds of bacteria, six kinds of parasitic worms and at least seven other kinds of human pathogens. They can pick up germs on the spines of their legs and bodies as they crawl through decaying matter or sewage and then carry these into food or onto food surfaces. Recent medical studies have shown that cockroach allergens cause allergies and exacerbate asthma attacks, especially in children and those living in metro-city areas. As with other species of roaches, American cockroaches can pose a threat to individuals with allergies.

2.2.2 ORIENTAL COCKROACHES (Blatta orientalis) Oriental cockroaches are believed to be of North African origin, despite their name. Oriental roaches are sometimes called “waterbugs” because they come out of drains, and “black beetle cockroaches” because of their smooth, dark bodies. They are known for their strong, unpleasant, “roachy” odor. [NPMA, 2013]

Description

Blatta orientalis are shiny black, oval shape and 1 inch long. The Oriental cockroaches has 6 legs and are also present throughout Nigeria.

Habits

The Oriental cockroach feeds on all kinds of food, especially decaying organic matter and starchy foods. This species of cockroach can survive outdoors in freezing temperatures for long periods of time.

Habitat

Outside, Oriental cockroaches are often found in sewers and under debris, leaves, stones and firewood. They will enter structures through door thresholds, under sliding glass doors, along utility pipes and through floor drains. Once indoors, Oriental cockroaches find harborage in basements and crawl spaces.

Threats

Cockroaches like Oriental roaches have been reported to spread at least 33 kinds of bacteria, six kinds of parasitic worms and at least seven other kinds of human pathogens. Oriental cockroaches’ habit of feeding on filth means that they are likely to pick up germs on the spines of their legs and bodies as they crawl through decaying matter or sewage and then carry these into food or onto food surfaces.

IMAGES OF COCKROACH SPECIES COLLECTED IN KWARA STATE

[pic]

Fig 2.2A: IMAGE OF AMERICAN COCKROACH (Periplaneta americana)

[pic]
Fig 2.2B: IMAGE OF ORIENTAL COCKROACHES (Blatta orientalis)
2.3 PREDISPOSING FACTORS FOR COCKROACH INFESTATION Infestation of cockroach in an area is a very accurate indication that the environment or location lack hygiene. Factors such as unavailability of Toilet, Inefficient sewage disposal channel, Inappropriate refuse disposal system, Keeping an untidy environment and Locating community dumping heap very close to neighborhood encourage infestation of cockroach in a household.

2.4 PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF COCKROACH INFESTATIONS Cockroaches have long been a pest that causes one of the strongest reactions when discovered in a home or place of business, the health threats posed by cockroaches often don't factor into the disgust felt at encountering them. The National Pest Management Association (NPMA) cautions, however, that cockroaches can trigger allergic reactions and asthma attacks, in addition to other serious health hazards. [NPMA, 2013] Some people may become allergic to cockroaches after frequent exposure. Cockroaches can sometimes play a role as carriers of intestinal diseases, such as diarrhoea, dysentery, typhoid fever and cholera. The saliva, droppings and decomposing bodies of cockroaches contain allergen proteins known to trigger allergies and increase the severity of asthma symptoms, especially in children. They are also capable of mechanically transmitting disease organisms, such as the bacteria that cause food poisoning, and are known to spread 33 different kinds of bacteria, six parasitic worms and at least seven other kinds of human pathogens. Missy, (2013) stated that "When people think of cockroaches, they definitely don't have a pleasant association, but they may not fully realize the severity of the effects cockroaches can have on their health". Cockroaches prefer warm, moist places with available food sources, so eliminating those attractive environments can help prevent cockroach infestations.

2.5 CONTROLLING COCKROACHES To effectively get rid of cockroaches, factors that encourage its growth and survival must be removed. The simplest method to monitor cockroaches is to visually inspect cockroach hiding places using a flashlight. Places such as behind the refrigerator, under the sink, crevices in cabinets and shelves, closet door corners, and bathroom cabinets and closets are especially important. Some ways in which cockroach infestations can be prevented in a household include Sealing cracks and crevices on floors or walls; Clearing unwanted boxes, newspapers, cardboards as cockroaches like to hide in these items; Keep food in air-tight containers or store in closed cabinets; Washing dishes and other utensils after your meal; Do NOT leave them overnight; Clear all food debris left in sinks after washing of dishes; Never leave waste foods on tables or in uncovered waste bins and seeking professional help if you suspect your house has got cockroach infestation.

PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE COCKROACH CONTROL The key to effectively eliminating cockroaches is to follow an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach. It includes the an inspection to find where and how serious the infestation is; Identification of contributing factors (such as sanitation problems), and taking corrective measures; Use of various tools to kill cockroaches and continued monitoring and treatment as needed. All of these procedures are essential to maintain a cockroach-free living environment. However, Chemicals (insecticides) are still widely used and often necessary to get rid of cockroaches. When choosing an insecticide, you need to consider its effectiveness, convenience, and safety. Remember that although they are effective, you almost always need to use a combination of different methods to reach complete control.
Community Involvement in Cockroach Management In most multi-family units, cockroach control is performed through contracts with pest control companies. But good control cannot be achieved without cooperation among residents, management staff, and the pest control company. The residents need to Keep apartments in good sanitary condition; Wash dishes regularly or at least cover them with soapy water; Cover garbage cans and tie garbage bags; Report cockroach infestations and maintenance issues to the management; and Reduce clutter and clean out closets, drawers, and cabinets regularly; Fix water leaks in units and common areas; Seal wall and ceiling cracks and holes, especially where kitchen cabinets meet wall/floor surfaces; Seal around electrical and plumbing outlets; and Enforce a minimum standard of sanitation levels in apartments.
CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS 7. THE STUDY AREA The research as a comparative study was carried out in two separate communities located in Kwara State. The two communities are represented as Rural and Urban communities in which the specific locations are as follows:

1. RURAL COMMUNITY The Rural communities used for the study are divided into two separate villages located in Kwara State. These are represented as follows:
RURAL A: Lajolo Village located at Ilorin East Local Government of Kwara State.
RURAL B: Agbede Village located at Moro Local Government of Kwara State.

3.1.2 URBAN COMMUNITY The Urban communities used for the study are divided into two separate Town located in Kwara State. These are represented as follows:
URBAN A: BASIN AREA of Ilorin metropolis located at Ilorin South Local Government of Kwara State.
URBAN B: FATE AREA of Ilorin metropolis located at Ilorin South Local Government of Kwara State.

8. THE STUDY POPULATIONS The study population used for the study comprises of total 200 respondents in a total of 20 different households. The corresponding distribution of the populations to the separate households as linked to the above study areas are as follows:

3.2.1 RURAL COMMUNITY The Rural communities used for the study are divided into two separate villages located in Kwara State. These are represented as follows:
RURAL A: 5 separate households comprising of total 50 individuals were contacted at Lajolo Village located in Ilorin East Local Government of Kwara State.
RURAL B: 5 separate households comprising of total 50 individuals were contacted at Agbede Village located at Moro Local Government of Kwara State.

3.2.2 URBAN COMMUNITY The Urban communities used for the study are divided into two separate Town located in Kwara State. These are represented as follows:
URBAN A: 5 separate households comprising of total 50 individuals were contacted at BASIN AREA of Ilorin metropolis located at Ilorin South Local Government of Kwara State.
URBAN B: 5 separate households comprising of total 50 individuals were contacted at FATE AREA of Ilorin metropolis located at Ilorin South Local Government of Kwara State.

9. METHOD OF SAMPLE COLLECTION
Cockroaches are trapped in all the 20 separate households in both the Rural and Urban communities by using one or all of the following methods: i. JAR TRAP: this is a baby food transparent jar made of Glass. The inside upper portion of the jar is lightly greased with petroleum jelly to prevent the escape of trapped Cockroaches.

ii. GLUE BOARD TRAP: This is similar to the rodent glue-board. They have similar construction parttern except that it a little bit wider as compared with rodent glue-board. The Glue Board Trap is employed in study locations where heavy Cockroach infestation is noticed. iii. SPRAYING OF INSECTICIDE: This method is employed at the last resort especially in households where cockroach populations are unbearably high. The researcher with the permissions of inhabitants and landlord of the household administered small amount of insecticide to targeted locations within the household. [pic] Fig 3.3.1: Glass jar Trap [pic] Fig 3.3.2: Glue Board Trap

10. METHOD OF SAMPLE PRESERVATION The collected samples of cockroaches are rest on a pinning cardboard and the insects are steady by either holding it in place with a forceps. Insect pin are placed into the insect body through the thorax on the right side. Approximately 5/8 inch of the pin are drawn into the insect body while the remaining 3/8 inch are showing above the insect body. This is enough so that one can comfortably hold the pin with little risk of accidentally damaging the specimen. A little ethyl acetate is then sprayed on the pined insect placed on a pinning cardboard. The insect is then removed and placed inside a glass jar for future display and study. 11. DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUE Questionnaire is the data collection instrument employed and is administered to randomly selected members of the 20 households used for the research. Sampling of the opinion has been drawn using simple random sampling method. The questionnaire was developed to contain listed questions typically relevant to the research; these questions were listed with multiple choice answers in which the respondent can pick an answer from by simply ticking the desired option. The development of questionnaire entails posing of open questions that is unbiased such that the respondents will choose a sincere answer to such questions from the listed multiple choice options. The questions are divided into three sections: Section A contain questions regarding the Bio-Data of the respondent, Section B contain questions regarding the predisposing factors that encourage cockroach infestation in a House Hold while Section C contain Cockroach infestation question which indicates the extent of infestation in a particular location. 12. DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE Data obtained are analyzed using statistical tool which are expresses to consider both qualitative and quantitative data evaluations. The analysis entails quantitative statistical analysis of data using Pearson’ chi-square distribution for percentage analysis while Bar charts are also used qualitative representation of the analyzed data.
The formular used for the simple percentage is as shown bellow:

Simple Percentage = Number of Response Total Number of Respondents

Where: Number of Response = ?
Total Number of Respondents = 200
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter deals with the statistical presentation and analysis of data collected through the administered questionnaire. The chapter also discusses the results obtained from the analyzed data in order to vividly examine how the result correlates with the main objective of the research. In analyzing the data collected, the researcher employed Pearson’ chi-square distribution as the statistical tool for testing the various association that exist between the two studied communities. The statistical correlations was done by comparing the p-value with 0.05 level of significance in order to arrive at a very reasonable conclusion.

4.2 RESULTS

Table 1: Distribution of Respondents by age

| |Age |Total |
| | | |
|Residential Location | | |
| |
| |Sex |Total |
|Residential Location | | |
| |Male |Female | |
| |Rural community |Count |57 |53 |
| |% within |42.5% |57.5% |100.0% |

Source: Researcher’s Survey, 2014
[pic]
Fig. 2: Bar chart showing Distribution of Respondents by Sex

Table 2 and Fig.2 above shows that respondents residing at Rural community has higher number of male which constitute a total number of 57 respondents representing 51.8%. on the other hand, respondents residing at the urban community has female as the highest population which constitute a total of 62 respondents representing 68.9% of the total population in the urban community.

Table 3: Distribution of Respondents by the Availability of Toilet in their Household

| |TOILET Availability |Total |
|Residential Location | | |
| |YES |NO | |
| |Rural community |Count |11 |99 |
| |% within |48.0% |52.0% |100.0% |

Source: Researcher’s Survey, 2014
[pic]
Fig. 3: Bar chart showing Distribution of Respondents by the Availability of Toilet in their Household

Table 3 and Fig. 3 above shows that majority of respondents residing at Rural community has no toilet in their house hold. This constitute a total number of 99 respondents representing 90.0% of the total population in the Rural community. On the other hand, majority of the respondents residing at the urban community has Toilet in their household. This constitutes a total of 85 respondents representing 94.4% of the total population in the urban community.

Table 4: Distribution of Respondents by the Type of Toilet present in their Household
| |Type of Toilet |Total |
|Residential Location | | |
| |Bush Defecation |Pit latrine |
| |Throwing into Bush |Use of dust |
| | |bin |
| |Daily basis |Weekly basis |Monthly basis | |
| |Rural community |Count |
| |Very often |Often |
| |Insecticide |Jar trap |
| | |method |

|Very often |often |rarely |very rarely | | | |Rural community |Count |15 |61 |31 |3 |110 | | | |% within |13.6% |55.5% |28.2% |2.7% |100.0% | | |Urban community |Count |2 |31 |50 |7 |90 | | | |% within |2.2% |34.4% |55.6% |7.8% |100.0% | |Total |Count |17 |92 |81 |10 |200 | | |% within |8.5% |46.0% |40.5% |5.0% |100.0% | |Source: Researcher’s Survey, 2014

X= 26.04, P-value < 0.00

[pic]
Fig. 9: Bar chart showing the distribution of respondents by the type of cockroach control method used

Table 9 and Fig.9 show that in the rural community, 40 respondents representing 36.4% of the total respondent get sick very often; 47 respondents representing 42.7% of the total respondent get sick often; 10 respondents representing 9.1% also not often get sick while 13 respondents representing 11.8% of the total respondents doesn’t get sick at all.
Also, in the urban communities, 34 respondents representing 37.8% of the total respondents in the population get sick very often; 39 respondents representing 43.3%, get sick often; 11 respondents representing 12.2%, not often get sick while 6 respondents representing 6.7% of the total population doesn’t get sick at all.

4.2 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Explanation of the results will be based on result presented in each tables.
Table 1: The researcher infers that demographical distribution of working age group are much affected in the rural communities due to rural to urban drift. This is why the older age group are many that the working age. It is also noted that in the urban communities, the youthful age that fall within the age limit of 20-25 years constitute the highest population.

Table 2: The researcher infers from this result that demographical distribution of sex in the rural community is largely due to non-participatory attitude of female on public activities in most rural communities in kwara state. This is why the number of male is higher than female number. In the urban communities, female education awareness is very high, so many female participated in the survey.

Table 3: The researcher infers from this result that lack of availability of Toilet in most of the household located in the Rural community is one of the major factor predisposing the Rural community to cockroach infestation.

Table 4: The researcher infers from this result that unhygienic practice are very rampart in the Rural community, thus this can serve as one of the major factor predisposing the Rural community to cockroach infestation.

Table 5: The researcher infers from this result that unhygienic practice are very rampart in the Rural community, thus this can serve as one of the major factor predisposing the Rural community to cockroach infestation.

Table 6: It can be inferred that daily disposal of refuse by residents of the rural community is a very good practice but the main problem that leads to increased cockroach infestation in the rural community is due largely to the location where such refuse is being disposed.

Table 7: It can be inferred that cockroach egg is often seen in both studied community indicating that both community already suffered cockroach infestation but the extent might be different.

Table 8: It can be inferred from both rural and urban communities that insecticide is the widely accepted method of cockroach control in Kwara State Nigeria. There is still very low awareness on the use of other non-chemical control methods like Integrated Pest Management (IPM) control method.

Table 9: It can be inferred from the results that due to high predisposition to cockroach infestation in the rural community couple with other epidemiological factors, occurrence of diseases has been found to be rampant in the rural community than the Urban community in Kwara State Nigeria.
Also Pearson’ chi-square distribution employed also indicated that there is association between the communities, diseases and prevalence of cockroach. It was discovered that there is significant difference between the two communities and occurrence of illness. Since the p-value is less than the conventional used 0.05 level of significance.

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 CONCLUSIONS Prevalence of cockroaches in one location or community as compared to another is majorly favoured by series of predisposing factors most of which are epidemiological factors. There is no significant differences between the number or populations of cockroach in either rural or urban communities as widely speculated. The presence of predisposing factors in one location is what make the difference. Cockroaches constitute an important reservoir of pathogens; therefore the control of cockroaches is important, since will reduces the spread of pathogens possibly transmitted by cockroaches.(Okon et al, 2013) Control and management of cockroach infestations in Kwara State is therefore very important as this will reduces the risk of possible spread of infections. Factors such as Unavailability of Toilet, Inefficient sewage disposal channel, Inappropriate refuse disposal system, Keeping an untidy environment and Locating community dumping heap very close to neighborhood which predisposes a location to cockroach infestations should also be eliminated.

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS The researcher will like to make the following recommendations to aid the fight cockroach and other pest control: i. Individual inhabitant in a household should keep a clean and tidy environment. ii. House owners should endevour to construct a Toilet during house construction iii. Sewage disposal channel in individual houses should be adequately constructed. iv. Government should provide refuse disposal system in which community refuse can effectively be disposed. v. Community dumping heap should be sited in different locations where they can be effectively incinerated. vi. Government and other stakeholders should enforce regular environmental sanitations. vii. Government should enact and enforce new laws regulating personal and environmental hygiene.

REFERENCES
Bala A.Y. and Sule H. (2012): Vectorial Potential of Cockroaches in Transmitting Parasites of Medical Importance in Arkilla, Sokoto, Nigeria, Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science Available online at http://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/index
Brenner, RJ. Valles, SM; Koehler, PG; (1987): "Comparative insecticide susceptibility and detoxification enzyme activities among pestiferous blattodea" (PDF). Comp Infibous Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol
Changlu Wang and Gary Bennett (2010): A Practical Guide to Cockroach Control In Multi-Family Housing, Purdue University Press, USA available at htp://www.the-education-store.com
Elgderi, RM; Ghenghesh, KS; Berbash, N. (2006): "Carriage by the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) of multiple-antibiotic-resistant bacteria that are potentially pathogenic to humans, in hospitals and households in Tripoli, Libya". Ann Trop Med Parasitology Guide
Hoell, H.V., Doyen, J.T. & Purcell, A.H. (1998). Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press. pp. 362–364.
Lemonick, Michael D. (2007): "Robotic Roaches Do the Trick". Time Magazine.
Maekawa K., Kiyoto; Matsumoto T. (2000): "Molecular phylogeny of cockroaches (Blattaria) based on mitochondrial COII gene sequences". Systematic Entomology 25 (4): 511–519.
Missy Beninati (2013). "Evidence for human long relation with roaches. Molecular Biology and Evolution Journals Mississippi 20 (6): 907–13.

Montressor Hamasaka, Yasutaka; Mohrherr, CJ; Predel, R; Wegener, C (1998): "Chronobiological analysis and mass spectrometric characterization of pigment-dispersing factor in the cockroach Leucophaea maderae". The Journal of Insect Science 5 (43): 43.
NPMA (2013): National Pest Management Authority Official Website, Available at <www.npic.orst.edu/>.
Schal, C; Hamilton, R. L. (1990): "Integrated suppression of synanthropic cockroaches". Annual Review Entomology Jornals 35: 521–551.
Valles, SM; Koehler, PG; Brenner, RJ. (1999): "Comparative insecticide susceptibility in roaches. Comp Infibous Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol 124 (3): 227–232.

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Blattaria

Cryptocercidae

Polyphagidae

Blattellidae

Blattidae

Blaberidae

100…...

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