Premium Essay

Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Waste Material

In: Science

Submitted By bsmebajaro
Words 3390
Pages 14

ME 11L

Alega, Ulysses Jr. H.
Bicaldo, Mark Zedrick L.
Engaño, Moises A.
Sabida, Ricalyn B.

Engr. Manuel E. Europeo

March 10, 2014

Heat conduction (or thermal conduction) is the transfer of internal energy by microscopic diffusion and collisions of particles or quasi-particles within a body due to a temperature gradient. The microscopically diffusing and colliding objects include molecules, electrons, atoms, and phonons. They transfer disorganized microscopic kinetic and potential energy, which are jointly known as internal energy. Conduction can only take place within an object or material, or between two objects that are in direct or indirect contact with each other. Conduction takes place in all forms of ponderable, such as solids, liquids, gases and plasmas.
Whether by conduction or by thermal radiation, heat spontaneously flows from a hotter to a colder body. In the absence of external drivers, temperature differences decay over time, and the bodies approach thermal equilibrium.

In conduction, the heat flow is within and through the body itself. In contrast, in heat transfer by thermal radiation, the transfer is often between bodies, which can be spatially separate. Also possible is transfer of heat by a combination of conduction and thermal radiation. In convection, internal energy is carried between bodies by a material carrier. In solids, conduction is mediated by the combination of vibrations and collisions of molecules, of propagation and collisions of phonons, and of diffusion and collisions of free electrons. In gases and liquids, conduction is due to the collisions and diffusion…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Thermal Power

...lCH1002 Energy Management in Chemical Industries Thermal Power Plants Dr. M. Subramanian Associate Professor Department of Chemical Engineering Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering Kalavakkam – 603 110, Kanchipuram (Dist) Tamil Nadu, India 20-July-2010 Rankine cycle layout 20-July-2010 M Subramanian Rankine cycle 20-July-2010 M Subramanian Rankine cycle with reheat Power plant operation • Rankine cycle with reheat – to reduce the formation of water droplets in turbine, and to increase the efficiency of the cycle. • In order to maximize the efficiency of a steam power plant it is desirable to operate as high a temperature as possible in the super-heater. However, above about 650oC various forms of metal fatigue become significant due to very high temperatures and pressures that the walls of the boiler tubes have to withstand. • A typical 500 MW coal-fired plant consumes around 250 tonnes of coal an hour. Efficiency of Thermal Power Plant • The efficiency of a Rankine cycle is usually limited by the working fluid. Without the pressure reaching super critical levels for the working fluid, the temperature range the cycle can operate over is quite small: turbine entry temperatures are typically 565°C (the creep limit of stainless steel) and condenser temperatures are around 30°C. This gives a theoretical Carnot efficiency of about 63% compared with an actual efficiency of 42% for a modern coal-fired......

Words: 1293 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Thermal Pollution

...------------------------------------------------- Thermal pollution Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. When water used as a coolant is returned to the natural environment at a higher temperature, the change in temperature decreases oxygen supply, and affects ecosystem composition.Urban runoff–stormwater discharged to surface waters from roads and parking lots–can also be a source of elevated water temperatures. When a power plant first opens or shuts down for repair or other causes, fish and other organisms adapted to particular temperature range can be killed by the abrupt change in water temperature known as "thermal shock." ------------------------------------------------- Ecological effects Warm water Elevated temperature typically decreases the level of dissolved oxygen of water. This can harm aquatic animals such as fish, amphibians and other aquatic organisms. Thermal pollution may also increase the metabolic rate of aquatic animals, as enzyme activity, resulting in these organisms consuming more food in a shorter time than if their environment were not changed.[4]:179 An increased metabolic rate may result in fewer resources; the more adapted organisms moving in may have an advantage over organisms that are not used to the warmer temperature. As a result, food chains of the......

Words: 786 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Waste to Building Materials

...Business Plan Topic: Waste to Building Materials Prepared for: Dr. A.K.M. Saiful Majid Professor Course Instructor: Entrepreneurship Course Code: W301 Prepared by: Safa Tasneem (RQ-17) BBA 18th Batch Date of Submission: January 21, 2013 Institute of Business Administration University of Dhaka [pic] 201, 202 TEJGAON INDUSTRIAL AREA DHAKA 1212, BANGLADESH +8801676907083 Partners: The partnership has been formed amongst a group of three close friends and highly aspiring entrepreneurs graduating from the BBA 18th batch of Institute of Business Administration, University of Dhaka. |Name |Address | |Safa Tasneem |House # C-39, Road # 6, Niketan, Gulshan-1, Dhaka-1212 | |Adel Mostaque Ahmed |House # 37, Road # 1, Block– A, Banasree, East Rampura, Dhaka – 1219 | |Ahnaf Zabee |House # 3/6, Block- A, Lalmatia, Mohammadpur, Dhaka | | | | | | ...

Words: 10245 - Pages: 41

Free Essay

Waste to Energy

...ABSTRACT Alternative uses of waste for energy production becomes increasingly interesting both from a waste management perspective - to deal with increasing waste amounts while reducing the amount of waste deposited at landfills and from an energy system perspective to improve the flexibility of the energy system in order to increase the share of renewable energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The object of analysis is waste which is not reused or recycled, but can be used for energy production. Different Waste-to-Energy technologies are analyzed through energy system analysis of the current Danish energy system with 13-14% renewable energy, as well as possible future Danish energy systems with 43% (2025) and 100% renewable energy (2050), respectively. The technologies include combustion, thermal gasification, anaerobic digestion, fermentation, and transesterification technologies producing electricity, heat, or transport fuel. In the USA, according to the US energy recovery council, there are 87 WTE plants producing 2,700 megawatts that results into 17 million of kwh per year which is enough to meet the needs for power for 2 million households. In the EU incineration is more popular. According to the confederation of European Waste to energy plants (CEWEP) the plants in Europe can supply annually about 13 million inhabitants with electricity and 12 million inhabitants with heat. Waste to energy is produced mainly by biological material and thus the energy produced......

Words: 5419 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Thermal Conductivity

...A Study of Thermal Conductivity of Corn Cob Ash Blended Cement Mortar. A.A. Raheem, Ph.D.1* and Prof. D.A. Adesanya2 1 Civil Engineering Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. 2 Building Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. E-mail:* Telephone: 2348033928991 ABSTRACT This study investigated the thermal conductivity of corn cob ash (CCA) blended cement mortar. Nine classes of CCA blended cements were employed with the CCA content ranging from 0% to 25%. The 0% CCA replacement involved the use of normal ordinary Portland cement and it served as the control. The mix proportions of cement: sharp sand used were 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 with water-tobinder ratio ranging between 0.26 and 0.29. Thermal conductivity test was performed using 50 x 50 x 15 mortar cube specimens cast in wooden moulds in pairs. The steady state heating method involving the use of three – blocks of brass was used for conducting the test with a heater made of nichrome wire wound round a ceramic rod. The final temperature difference obtained over a period of continuous heating for eight hours was used in determining the thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of CCA-blended cement specimens decreased steadily as the CCA percentage increased. For 1:1 mix proportion; the 0 thermal conductivity decreases from 1.80W/m C 0 to 0.69W/m C when the CCA percentage replacement increases from 2% to 25% as 0 against the control value of 2...

Words: 2727 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Guidelines for the Classification of Waste

...GUIDELINES FOR THE CLASSIFICATION AND CODING OF INDUSTRIAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTES TEXAS COMMISSION ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY WASTE PERMITS DIVISION RG-022 Revised 2/05 GUIDELINES FOR THE CLASSIFICATION AND CODING OF INDUSTRIAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTES THIS IS A GUIDANCE DOCUMENT AND SHOULD NOT BE INTERPRETED AS A REPLACEMENT TO THE RULES. The rules for classifying and coding industrial wastes and hazardous wastes may be found in 30 Texas Administrative Code (TAC) Sections (§§) 335.501-.521 (Subchapter R). Prepared by: I&HW Permits Section, MC 130 Waste Permits Division Texas Commission on Environmental Quality P.O. Box 13087 Austin, Texas 78711-3087 RG-022 Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Revised February 2005 i Kathleen Hartnett White, Chairman R. B. “Ralph” Marquez, Commissioner Larry R. Soward, Commissioner Glenn Shankle, Executive Director Authorization for use or reproduction of any original material contained in this publication—that is, not obtained from other sources—is freely granted. The commission would appreciate acknowledgment. Copies of this publication are available for public use through the Texas State Library, other state depository libraries, and the TCEQ Library, in compliance with state depository law. For more information on TCEQ publications call 512/239-0028 or visit our Web site at: Published and distributed by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality PO......

Words: 20040 - Pages: 81

Free Essay

Solar Thermal

...SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY Solar thermal is a type of technology that is used for utilizing solar energy to get thermal energy. Solar thermal energy is a form of energy in which the sun is used to produce heat that can be used in a variety of ways. This technology has been used for generations and has been constantly improved by modern technology to expand it’s applications. SOLAR THERMAL GENERATION Solar thermal energy is a renewable energy source that converts the heat from solar rays into electricity by indirect means, using steam cycles. Several types of technologies can be used to generate solar thermal energy. Different designs are used as described below; Parabolic trough designs This design uses a curved mirrored trough that reflects the solar radiation directly to a glass tube containing the fluid which runs along the length of the trough. The trough is made to tilt in an east to west direction in order to maintain direct focus of the radiation on the pipe. To reduce convective heat loss, the receiver may be enclosed in a glass vacuum chamber. This design is suitable for operation within an average temperature range from 125º C to 400º C. Power tower designs In this design, flat mirrors are used to concentrate the light on top of a tower. This method is also called the Rankine cycle and it has the advantage of achieving higher temperatures. Dish designs In this design, a solar dish is used to concentrate the sun’s rays on the heating element that is placed......

Words: 1079 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...reactor, diazotized with sulfanilamide and is coupled to N-(1-Napthyl)-ethylenediamine dihydrochloride to form an azochromophore (red-purple in color) measured spectrophotometrically at 520 nm. The method is readily adapted to manual or automated techniques. The procedure follows that of Keeney and Nelson (1982) for determining nitrate nitrogen with a modification in which 25 mL of KCl and 5.0 g of soil are used instead of 100 mL and 10 g soil. Extending the shaking period to thirty minutes with 2.0 M KCl (Bremner and Keeney, 1965) permits the simultaneous extraction of ammonium and nitrate. Care must be taken to avoid contamination from filter paper and operator handling. Since cadmium is a hazardous material, follow manufacturer’s recommendations to properly handle this material. Soil NO3-N is available to plant uptake, therefore, it can be credited when determining crop nitrogen needs. The method detection limit is approximately 0.5 mg kg-1 (on a dry soil basis) and is generally reproducible ± 6%. Equipment 1. Analytical balance, 100.0 g capacity, resolution ± 0.01 g 2. Repipette dispenser, calibrated to 25.0 ± 0.2 mL 3. Reciprocating horizontal mechanical shaker, capable of 180 oscillations per minute (opm) 4. Extraction vessels and associated filtration vessel 5. Whatman No. 42 or equivalent highly retentive filter paper 6. Spectrophotometer, autoanalyzer, or flow injection analyzer (FIA)......

Words: 1051 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Cogon Grass as Thermal Insulator

...COGON GRASS AS THERMAL INSULATING MATERIAL KRISELLE ANNE A. GERPACIO A Thesis Outline Submitted to the Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering and Computing, University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, Cotabato in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING DECEMBER 2014 INTRODUCTION Significance of the Study Cogon grass known as Imperata cylindrical is considered as the one of the worst weed because it destroys the land where it grows. It deteriorates the nutrients of the soil thus creating problems to farmers. Hence, the researcher would like to study if this grass can be a substitute as thermal insulating material. If it can be an alternative, this research would really give great help to many farmers. Objectives of the Study The main objective of this study is determine whether Cogon grass can be a substitute as thermal insulator as compared to other traditional thermal insulating materials. Specifically, this study aims to: 1. determine the thermal resistance (R) of Cogon grass as thermal insulating material; 2. determine the thermal conductivity (k) of Cogon grass as thermal insulating material; 3. determine how much heat (Q) trasmit to the layer of the Cogon grass per second; and, 4. determine how much is the temperature gradient or temperature difference per unit thickness of piled Cogon grass. Scope and Limitation of the Study The study will be...

Words: 3964 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Thermal Heat a measure of kinetic energy of the molecules in an object. Now the three types of heat transfer and first up is Conduction which is the transfer of energy in the form of heat by direct contact through excitement of molecules with driven by a temperature difference. Energy travels from a high to a low and the same thing happens with heat. When the high temperature molecules collide with the low temperature molecules, a transfer of energy occurs from the hot, more energetic molecules to the colder, less energetic molecules and this is recognized as conduction. Conduction is most prevalent in solids but it can also be found in liquids and gases. The rate at which heat is transmitted through a material by conduction depends on thermal conductivity which is a characteristic of a material and its mass. The easiest way to think of conduction is to hold a metal rod by one end and put the other over a fire. Eventually the hot energetic molecules from the fire will transfer to the cold, less energetic molecules of the metal rod and slowly creep up the rod to the cold end where it is being held and then move to the hand and cause burns. The second method of heat transfer is convection which is the transfer of energy through a circulating gas or liquid to or from a solid object. An example of convection is a pot on the hot stove to the water inside which then heats up the pot and the that heats up the water. Convection consists of two energy transfer mechanisms.......

Words: 353 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

An Analysis for Thermal Management of Electrical Powered Battery for Electrical Automobiles

...An Analysis for Thermal Management of Lithium-Ion Powered Battery for Electrical Automobile Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction 2.1 Motivation of Developing Electrical Automobile 2.2 Thermal Issues of Powered Battery 2.3 Application of Thermal Management 2.0 Comparative Analysis of Conventional and PCMs Thermal Management 3.4 Conventional air or liquid based Thermal Management 3.5 PCMs Thermal Management 3.6 Effectiveness comparison 3.7 Cost efficiency comparison 3.0 Background Information on PCMs 4.8 Description of Organic and Non-organic PCMs 4.9 Standard of Selecting PCMs for Thermal Management 4.10 The chemical and thermal characteristics of paraffin wax (Organic) 4.11 The chemical and thermal characteristics of stearic acid (Non-organic) 4.0 Thermal Conductivity Improvement of PCMs Using Expanded Graphite (EG) 5.12 Microstructures of Composite PCMs 5.13 Thermal Characteristic of Composite PCMs 5.14.1 Paraffin Wax with EG composite 5.14.2 Stearic Acid with EG Composite 5.14 Comparison on Thermal Storage Performance of paraffin/EG with stearic acid/EG 5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation 6.0 Bibliography Table of Figures Figure 1 - Power Battery Pack Figure 2 – Thermal Management Using Air Figure 3 – Thermal Management Using Liquid Figure 4 – Thermal Management Using PCM Figure 5 - Thermophysical Properties of PCMs Figure...

Words: 6831 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Thermal Conductivity

...should be related to engineering materials. 2. At the end of this paper, I provide several topics for your term paper. You do not need any approval if you select one of these topics for your paper. However, you need approval if you want to work on a specific subject that is not included in the list. For approval, send me an email with the title of your paper. I will reply and approve or disapprove your subject. 3. The length of the paper should be 7-10 pages double spaced (12-point font), including the charts/ graphs. 4. Flow the SAE format for your paper. A copy of the format provided in BeachBoard. 5. Due Date: See the schedule in BeachBoard 6. Suggested topics: A) Adhesives B) Aluminum alloys C) Arc welding D) Case hardening E) Cast iron F) Casting G) Catholic protection H) Cements I) Cold working J) Carbon fiber Composite materials K) Glass reinforced plastics L) Reinforced concrete M) Galvanic corrosion N) Corrosion Protection O) Dye penetrant (NDI) P) Eddy current (NDI) Q) Elastomers R) Jominy and hardenability S) Polymers T) Thermoplastics U) Thermosets V) Superplasticity W) Nano materials X) Meta materials Y) Single crystal......

Words: 316 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Determination of Cod in Water and Effluents

...ENVIRONMENT AGENCY The determination of chemical oxygen demand in waters and effluents (2007) Methods for the Examination of Waters and Associated Materials 2 The determination of chemical oxygen demand in waters and effluents (2007) Methods for the Examination of Waters and Associated Materials This booklet contains guidance on methods for the determination of chemical oxygen demand using potassium dichromate solution, and notes for the disposal and recovery of selected reagents. This document revises the document published in 1986. Five methods are described and these include: A A reference large scale (10 ml) flask digestion procedure with mercury suppression. B A small scale (2 ml) flask digestion procedure with mercury suppression and spectrophotometric determination. C A mercury-free large scale (10 ml) flask digestion procedure using chromium(III) potassium sulphate and silver nitrate solutions. D A mercury-free small scale (2 ml) flask digestion procedure using chromium(III) potassium sulphate and silver nitrate solutions. E A mercury-free small scale (2.5 ml) flask digestion procedure using chromium(III) potassium sulphate and silver nitrate solutions. Throughout the booklet, the term chemical oxygen demand (COD) is used to express the amount of oxygen consumed during oxidation of a sample with hot acid dichromate solution under defined conditions; the test provides an estimate of the oxidisable matter present in the......

Words: 21599 - Pages: 87

Premium Essay

Thermal Conductivity

...Abstract Our objective in this experiment was to measure the conductivity of a poor conductor, in this case, a thin piece of cardboard. By working out how much heat energy was allowed to pass from one block that had heat added to it and another block of which they were separated by a thin piece of cardboard. Our value for K, the thermal conductivity constant was 0.157 W.m-1.K-1 which was quite close to that of 0.21W.m-1.K-1 with a percentage error of 25.2%. Reference: Introduction & Theory The concept of conduction involves the transferring of energy through a material that can be either a poor or weak conductor, in this case, heat through a poor cardboard conductor. We expect cardboard as a poor conductor to not effectively transport heat from one disc to another, as seen in Fig. 1. Fig. 1 The formula in which we work out the value of k for the cardboard is as such: dQ/dt = -k.A.dT/dx (1) In the above equation, dQ/dt is the rate of heat transfer and is worked out using the formula (2) as below. A is the area of the cardboard disc. dT is the difference in temperature between the two discs at the steady state temperature which is explained further in the experimental method. Finally dx is the thickness of the cardboard disc. Having taken all of our measurements we will plot a graph of the temperature against the time passed as seen in Fig. 3 we then were able to get dQ/dt using the formula: ......

Words: 876 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Waste Managment

...Waste Management What is waste management? “Waste management is an industry which revolves collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials.” The materials that are produced by human activity and the process are generally to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. “Waste management is the practice from resource recovery which focuses on delaying the rate of consumption of natural resources. The management of all wastes materials, whether solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, and tried to reduce the harmful environmental impacts of each through different methods.” “Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management for non-hazardous waste residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator.” What is a landfill? “A land fill is the disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste, and which remains a common practice in most countries. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly designed or poorly managed......

Words: 1308 - Pages: 6