Premium Essay

Discuss the Effects of Age on Eye Witness Testimony

In: Other Topics

Submitted By segman97
Words 493
Pages 2
Discuss the effects of age on eye witness testimony

Yarmey et al found little difference in accuracy of age-related recall but a difference in confidence of recall. He got a young woman to stop people in the street and chat to them for 15 seconds. She did this with 651 participants of varying age the youngest group was 18-29, the second group was 30-44 whilst the eldest group was aged 45-65. Two minutes later the participants were stopped again and asked to recall the physical characteristics of the woman. All age groups performed similarly but younger age groups were significantly more confident in their recall.

Memon et al conducted an experiment with two age groups (16-33) and (60 to 82). When questioned 35 minutes after an event, age had little effect on accuracy of recall, however, a week later the older age group had declined significantly in their accuracy. This is because an elderly person has a deteriorated memory therefore suggesting that when interviewing elderly people after a certain period of time the information is distorted.

Parker and Carranza et al created a study to study this as well, this study aimed to compare primary and college students ability to correctly identify a certain individual after a sequence of a mock crime. In the photo identification test, children had the highest rate of choosing the photos however, they were most likely to make mistakes of identification than college students. This shows that children are not the most accurate eye witness’s.

The reasoning behind all of this is, is explained by the research of Anastasi and Rhodes. Anastasi and Rhodes performed an experiment in 2006 to see if recall is better when identifying people from the same age range (own age bias). They showed 24 photos to 3 age groups and then later they were shown 48 photos and had to identify the original 24. They found that generally the…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Critically Discuss the Psychological Evidence That Helps to Explain the Use of Evidence Given in Court by Children Under the Age of 11

...Critically discuss the psychological evidence that helps to explain the use of evidence given in court by children under the age of 11, (usually described as ‘child witnesses’)          In the past 20 years the number of psychological studies on child witnesses and the competency of them being interviewed as well as the evidence being given by them has grown from very few quality studies to several thousand. Issues such as suggestibility, the effects of individual differences and the effects of long delays on their recall have been brought up and discussed in these studies. (Memon, Vrij & Bull, 2006) Traditionally, most Criminal Justice Systems have been reluctant to accept the testimony of young children, believing that they make less reliable witnesses than adults do. Although in recent years the balance has shifted and the evidence of children is now much more likely to be accepted. (Ainsworth, 1998) All witnesses defined as a child at the date of the trial, and irrespective of the nature of the offence, are automatically classified as vulnerable and this eligible for a range of protective special measures to enable them to give a testimony in court. There special measures include in-court screens, live TV link, removal of wigs and gowns and provision of any necessary aids to communication. (Raitt, 2007)     The issue of children’s competency to testify in court has changed from the presumption that no minor is competent to the belief that all children are......

Words: 2498 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Latin and Its Effects in the Middle Ages

...How Latin Effected the Medieval times Lisa J. Schneider AIU Online Abstract Latin had a great effect on the world as it is today, but it all started around the twelfth century. Latin was a language that was used among people that were educated and throughout literature. It was the language used around the time of the Roman Empire, but started to fade after the Empire fell in 1200 A.D. How Latin Effected the Medieval times After the fall of the Roman Empire in 1200 A.D. the Latin language began to fade, and most of the other countries at this time went back to their vernacular language. At this time only the educated people and people throughout literature used this language. However soon after the fall of the Roman Empire the Latin language faded away slowly. Because of the fall of the Roman Empire along with the fade of the Latin Language, vernacular language became its replacement. French After Latin faded away as a language because of the Roman Empire falling, France became the first country to take on the vernacular language and roughly around the fourteenth century, vernacular works spread throughout Europe. The changes that arose presented an important change in the interest of courtly literature. This gave people a greater freedom of expression. This is seen in the poems of troubadours about courtly love. Christianity Christianity was easily spread using vernacular language, as the bible was already translated into the vernacular language in......

Words: 549 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Eye Witness Testimony Case Study Essay

...There are many weaknesses and problems with the EWT used in this trial: firstly, at the first interview there was some inconsistency in the group’s descriptions of the robber (2 said he had brown hair and 2 said he had blonde hair), this shows a problem with the EWT used in the trial as clearly straight after the event (the eye witnesses memories of the event would have been the clearest as it had just happened), however as they were interviewed in a group all 4 members of the group heard what the others had to say about the event- subsequently two of the witnesses changed what they said and thus all four claimed he had blonde hair. This is a clear problem with the testimony used in the trial as as all the witnesses were interviewed at the event in a group and due to social desirability and conformity they changed their remembrance of the event- therefore what they said in court may have not been an accurate account of what they think they actually saw. Weapon focus may also have had an effect in this case and this would have also caused a problem with the EWT used as the criminal used a weapon, and as that weapon is a threat to these people’s lives then they would have focussed on that weapon, and as a result this would have distorted what they remembered about the rest of the event (i.e. what the criminal looked like) which makes the EWT used invalid. The police in the investigation did also lead the witnesses to a desired answer as in the third interview they showed......

Words: 781 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Eye Witness Lab: Results and Discussion Section

...Results The mean number of correct responses as a function of time-delay and type of questions are presented in Table 1. A 2 ([time delay: 0 min. v. 5 min]) x 2 ([type of questions: leading v. non-leading]) between-subjects ANOVA was performed to evaluate the effect of time-delay and type of questions on recall accuracy. The analysis showed a marginally significant main effect of leading questions, (F(1, 47) = 3.44, p = .07), and no main effect of type of questions (F(1,47) = 1.08, p > .050), and a no significant (time delay x type of questions) interaction (F(1, 47) = .085, p > .05) . Discussion The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of leading questions on eyewitness accuracy. We predicted that if participants were presented with leading questions, number of correct responses on the recall test following the leading questions would decrease. The results of this study did not replicate the findings in earlier work by Loftus (1975), in showing that leading questions did not significantly decrease accuracy on the recall test in both a time-delay and no time delay conditions. There was little difference in recall of the existing object and the difference was not statistically significant. A factor which may have influenced our finding is that the staged-event witnessed in the experiment was not exactly the same for all conditions. Because this experiment used the real-life event instead of a video tape, it was difficult to......

Words: 327 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Witness Misidentification

...Witness Misidentification Freddricka Harris CCJ 4360-001 Monekka Munroe Misidentification can be defined as making a falsely or inaccurate identification. Witness can be defined as one who can give a firsthand account of something seen, heard, or experienced. (American Heritage Dictionary) When you put these two words together, you get witness misidentification which has been referred to as the single greatest cause of wrongful convictions nationwide, with nearly 75% of the convictions overturned through DNA testing. There have been 260 exonerations across the country based on forensic DNA testing with 3 out of 4 involving cases of eyewitness misidentification. (Innocence Project 1999) In 1907 or 1908, Hugo Munsterberg published “On the Witness Stand”; he questioned the reliability of eyewitness identification. As recent as 30 or 40 years ago, the Supreme Court acknowledged that eyewitness identification is problematic and can lead to wrongful convictions. The Supreme Court instructed lower courts to determine the validity of eyewitness testimony based on irrelevant factors, like the certainty of the witness, the certainty you express in court during the trial has nothing to do with how certain you feel two days after the event when you pick a photograph out of a set or pick the suspect out of a lineup. It has been said that you become more certain over time. (The Confidential Resource September 15, 2010) An eyewitness viewing a simultaneous......

Words: 2970 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Eye Witness Testimony Can It Be Trusted?

...“The testimony of an eyewitness is so flawed that it can never be trusted” To what extent is eyewitness testimony as flawed as the quote suggests? The eyewitness testimony can be inaccurate and distorted: Eyewitness testimony (EWT) is the evidence provided by people who witnesses a particular event or crime. It relies on recall from memory. EWT includes, for example, descriptions or criminals (e.g. hair colour, height) and crime scenes (e.g. time, date, location). Witnesses are often inaccurate in their recollection of events and the people involved. As you can probably imagine, this has important implications when it comes to police interviews. Many cognitive psychologists focus on working out what factors affect the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, and how accuracy can be improved in interviews. Loftus and palmer (1974) studied eyewitness testimony and investigated how EWT can be distorted. Loftus and Zanni (1975) also looked at leading questions. Loftus and Zanni (1975) showed participants a film of a car accident, then asked them either ‘did you see the broken headlight?’ or ‘did you see a broken headlight?’ there was no broken headlight, but 7% of those asked about ‘a’ broken headlight claimed they saw one, compared to 17% in the group asked about the accuracy of people’s memories of an event. The accuracy of eyewitness testimony is affected by many factors as well as leading questions, there are other factors that can affect the accuracy of......

Words: 625 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Discuss the Social Psychology of the Bystander Effect

...Discuss the Social Psychology of the Bystander Effect Name Grade Course Tutor’s Name Date Introduction The bystander effect is a social psychological sensation that alludes to cases in which people don't offer any method for help to a victimized person when other individuals are available. The likelihood of assistance is contrarily identified with the amount of bystanders. At the end of the day, the more noteworthy the amount of bystanders, the more improbable it is that any of them will offer assistance. A few variables help to clarify why the bystander effect happens. These variables include: ambiguity, cohesiveness and diffusion of responsibility. The bystander effect was initially showed in the laboratory by John Darley and Bibb Latané in 1968 after they got to be intrigued by the subject after the homicide of Kitty Genovese in 1964. These researchers dispatched an arrangement of experiments that brought about one of the strongest and most replicable impacts in social brain science, Bibb Latané and Judith Rodin (1969). In a common examination, the member is either alone or among a gathering of different members or confederates. A crisis circumstance is arranged and researchers measure to what extent it takes the members to mediate, in the event that they intercede. These experiments have discovered that the vicinity of others restrains helping, often by an extensive edge. Case in point, Bibb Latané and Judith Rodin......

Words: 3264 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Outline and Evaluate Research Into the Effects of Age on Eyewitness Testimony

...a lot of research into what effects eyewitness testimony (EWT), one of these being age. In 2001, Poole and Lindsay conducted an experiment to find out whether children could source monitor. They got children (aged 3-8) to watch a science demonstration and then listen to a story afterwards. When questioned later on, they found that the younger children got the information sources mixed up and so they wouldn’t make effective eyewitnesses. However, the younger children would lack schemas and the vocabulary needed to describe the science experiment. This means that they wouldn’t have been able to describe the experiment when asked to recall it, and therefore would make this experiment less valid. Anastasi and Rhodes performed an experiment in 2006 to see if recall is better when identifying people from the same age range (own age bias). They showed 24 photos to 3 age groups and then later they were shown 48 photos and had to identify the original 24. They found that generally the younger age groups were better at recall, but all age groups were better at recognising their own age group. They concluded that it’s easier to recall people in your own age range. This experiment was conducted in a lab, so lacks mundane realism and so would have affected the results. Also, individual differences would have affected the results because some of the photos may look like people you know, so recall would be better. Yarmey conducted an experiment to see if age affects recall ability......

Words: 391 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Age and Its Effects in a Clean, Well-Lighted Place

...Age and its Effects Ernest Hemingway’s “A Clean, Well-lighted Place” deals with the correlation between youth and age. Throughout the story, the symbolism and characterization prove that it’s not out of the ordinary to feel isolated and lonely with age. This is shown through the book by examining the two older men and the young waiter. The older men are represented as lonely, isolated humans; they feel no purpose in their lives. The two older characters share a sense of despair and it makes perfect sense for them to pursue a life in a direction where there is a clean well-lighted place. That clean well-lit place may be exactly what the two men need to have a meaning in their life. The younger waiter is a tad bit different in the sense that he is excited and impatient to move on with his life. The waiter being ready to move on shows no sympathy for the old man. Since the mindsets of the two characters are completely opposite, the waiter doesn’t respect the old man because he doesn’t understand his point of view. The only one who somewhat understands the old man is the older waiter. He provides the same mindset as the old man and can sympathize with him since he understands what his mind is going through. It is evident that the older men have a different approach to appreciating and comprehending the importance of life. Hemingway incorporates symbolism of the light and darkness to help understand the life of the characters in the story. The well-lit café has a deep value......

Words: 1228 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

False Eye Witness Testimony

...details of the event (Evidence Act of 2008). Witnesses rely on their memories to testify as to what they believe is a true account of the event. However, memories have been found to be fallible with no guarantee of corresponding with objective reality (Johnson, 2001). Research has found that false memories (FM), where a person recalls an event that did not occur and mistakes it to be a true representation of that event (Gleaves & Smith, 2004; Johnson, 2001) exists within the realm of eyewitness testimony (ET) (Loftus, Miller & Burns, 1978). This raises the issue of how well does ET reflect reality. Some theories that explain FM include the source monitoring failure theory (Johnson, Hastroudi & Lindsay, 1993), activation monitoring theory (Roediger, Balota &Watson, 2001) and fuzzy trace theory (Brianerd & Reyna, 1998; Reyna & Brainerd, 1995). Due to word count limitations, this paper will explore the concept of FM using fuzzy trace theory, source monitoring errors and the misinformation effect to explain how FM occurs in the context of ET and why ET can never the representation of the complete truth. The FTT proposes that there are two parallel memory traces, the verbatim trace and the gist trace (Brianerd & Reyna, 1998; Reyna & Brainerd, 1995). The verbatim trace stores information item-by-item and is a verdicial representation of an event. The gist trace stores a generalised meaning based representation of an event. The FTT proposes that verbatim trace decays quickly......

Words: 1529 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Outline and Evaluate Research Into the Affect of Anxiety on the Accuracy of Eye Witness Testimony

...Outline and Evaluate Research Into the Affect of Anxiety On the Accuracy of Eye Witness Testimony (6+6) Eyewitness Testimony refers to witnesses who are asked to give testimonies in court or police interviews to particular crimes. Eyewitness Testimony consists of : the eyewitness encoding the information they have witnessed the very second it happened, making sure they are describing the order of the events and the people involved. It also consists of the witness retaining information for a period of time (this can be a very long time) and finally it consists of the witness retrieving the information whilst they are in court. Eyewitness Testimony does have real life applicability as many people through DNA and false witnesses are sent to prison for crimes they did not commit therefore it is important to fully understand EWT to avoid innocent people being wrongfully punished. Eye witness testimonies are affected by a number of factors, but the one that I am going to focus on is anxiety. Many different laboratory studies and some ‘real life’ studies have generally shown recall is less accurate in people who have witnessed particularly distressing or anxiety filled situations. The weapon focus effect was created by Loftus (1979), she asked participants to sit outside a laboratory where they thought they were waiting to participate in an experiment, but they were actually already in it. As they were 'waiting', they heard a discussion between two people inside the laboratory...

Words: 1021 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Relative Age Effects

...When Peers Are Not Equals: The Relative Age Effect in the Classroom Abstract Relative age effects are differentiated experiences amongst children in the earliest years of primary school resulting from both a single, yearly cut-off date and an escalation of curriculum replacing socialization with skill acquisition activities as early as kindergarten before maturity differences by age have evened out. Implementation of three cut-off dates per class and the creation of individual student developmental planning reduces the potentially long lasting effects associated with relative age differences. This study aims to determine the existence of, and potential long lasting effects associated with, relative age differences. A background on the evolving framework of early elementary curriculum to that of a factory model emphasizing the development of the whole over the individual is included to underscore the ripe conditions for relative age effects to manifest themselves. If nothing is done, relatively younger students will continue to score noticeably lower in reading, math, and science testing throughout elementary and middle school. Pre-university program participation in high school and college enrollment will remain lower, on average, among the relative youngest. Lastly, implications for educational policy, administrations, parents, and teachers are evaluated. What if the date of someone’s birthday was a gift in it of itself? Suppose this gift was......

Words: 3549 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

The Effects of Age on Reaction Time

...Reaction Time v Age The aim of my investigation is to find out how age affects reaction time IV- The independent variable will be aged (10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35-40) DV- The dependent variable will be the reaction time of the participant Control Variables What I will control | How I will control it | Why you need to control it | Ruler | Use the same ruler every time | Different rulers may have different weights | Temperature | Do the experiment in a temperature controlled room | Different temperatures will affect reaction time. | Amount of stimulants | Tell participants to not consume any stimulants such as caffeine on the day of the experiment | If a participant consumes any stimulants it will lead to an increased reaction time due to the synaptic cleft getting smaller | Starting position of Ruler | Make the participant hold their hand straight out | | Noise | Do experiment in an empty room | Noise could possibly distract the participant therefore slowing down the reaction time | Light | Make sure the same amount of lights are on every time | Reaction time decreases in poor visibility so it would be unfair if the participants were hindered because of this. | Equipment List Ruler (1M) - To test reaction time Paper/Pen- Needed to record reaction time Method To test reaction time I will be using the ruler drop test 1) Hold a ruler just above the participants hand so that the participants hand is on level with 0cm...

Words: 274 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Effect of Bilingualism and Age on Inhibitory Control

...The effect of bilingualism and age on inhibitory control The study by Salvatierra and Rosselli (2010) examined whether bilingualism is a protective factor against age-related cognitive effects by exploring the effects of bilingualism in an inhibitory control task (Salvatierra, & Rosselli, 2010). Existing research evidence in the literature is not conclusive and does not provide a definitive position on whether or not being bilingual offers any protective benefits to people cognitive functioning as they age. Studies that have demonstrated a bilingual advantage, (Bialystok, Craik, & Freedman, 2007; Kaye, Eyal, Shorek, & Cohen-Mansfield, 2008) reported that language proficiency was high in both languages. Salvatierra and Rosselli’s (2010) hypothesis was that the bilingual groups would do better than the monolingual groups on the Simon task. The Simon task refers to reaction times, which are usually faster and more accurate when the light stimulus occurs in the same relative location as the response information processing (Simon and Wolf, 1963). Explanations for the Simon effect generally refer to the interference that occurs in the response selection stage of decision making. Secondly, the researchers hypothesized that there would be further differentiation between the balanced and non-balanced bilinguals. Balanced verses non-balanced refer to the level of language proficiency in the dominant and less dominant language. Bilinguals with similar naming scores on the......

Words: 797 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Outline & Evaluate Research Into How Age Affects Eye Witness Testimony

...different age groups (18-25; 35-45 and 55-78). They were shown 24 photographs which was representative of the three different age groups and asked to rate them for attractiveness. After that they were shown 48 photographs, 24 of which had been previously seen and 24 that acted as ‘distractors’. The results found out that young and middle aged participants were significantly more accurate than their older participants however, all age groups were most accurate in identifying pictures from their own age group. These findings fits in with the “differential experience hypothesis” which suggests that we are more able to identify people of our own age or of similar ethnic group. Therefore, the lack of experience with other age groups would result in a greater own-age bias. Similarly, the perceptual learning hypothesis suggests that individuals differ in the amount if expertise they have acquired for processing same age and other age faces. Therefore, regular contact with their own age group would make them more expert at recognising them yet lacking experience in other differences hence poorer recall. A major criticism of such studies is that for the most part they were conducted in laboratory settings which lacked ecological validity and realism. The benefit of this however was it allowed for experiments to be replicated for reliability and consistency to confirm findings as well as control for extraneous confounding variables and establish between cause and effect (Age for......

Words: 582 - Pages: 3