Premium Essay

Discuss, with Supporting Evidence, the Different ‘Proximate’ and ‘Fundamental’ Determinants of Poverty

In: Social Issues

Submitted By teets
Words 2058
Pages 9
Discuss, with supporting evidence, the different ‘proximate’ and ‘fundamental’ determinants of poverty
The World Bank states: “Poverty is hunger. Poverty is lack of shelter. Poverty is being ill and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is not having the ability to go to school and not being able to read. Poverty is being in unemployment. Poverty is losing a child to illness brought about by unclean water. Poverty is powerlessness, lack of representation and freedom.” (World Bank, as cited in Lang 2007, p.31). More than three billion people live on less than $2.50 a day which is approximately half the world’s population. In 2005, the developing world had about 72 million children of primary school age not enrolled in school; of this 72 million, 57 percent of them were girls. Each year, 2.2 million children die because they lack immunisation (Globalissues.org, 2013).
This essay will discuss the fundamental determinants of poverty with the two main contenders being geography and institution. It would also discuss the proximate determinants of poverty in Kenya.
What causes poverty is an important question when trying to explain poverty, but it is not one which can easily be answered. These causes can be grouped into ‘proximate’, ‘intermediate’ and ‘fundamental’ causes of poverty. The proximate cause is the ‘nearest cause’ in the chain of causation, ABCDE. The fundamental cause is what sets the chain of causation in motion. The fundamental cause of E is A, and B, C and D are intermediate causes (Rycroft 2009, p.232). In order to design a policy to reduce poverty, identifying the fundamental causes of poverty is essential. When explaining the fundamental determinant of poverty, the two main contenders that cause a difference in the prosperity of countries are geography and institutions (Acemoglu, as cited in Banerjee et al 2006, p19).
The geography hypothesis…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Discuss the View That Hiv/Aids Is a Disease of Poverty

...structure. This paper serves to explain that HIV and AIDS is a social problem of poverty and it also looks at other factors such as religion, promiscuity and child rights which also result in the spread of the disease. It is undisputed to say that poverty is implicated in the prevalence in most developing world. Because these countries are generally poor people are normally forced to engage in activities that end up putting them at the risk of HIV. United Nations (2004) revealed that in South Africa more than 6 million people where living with HIV. The paper also revealed that the majority number who were affected were blacks who are generally poor who have no proper housing facilities, mal-nutritional, lack of safe water. Further research has suggested that Botswana and Zimbabwe have high prevalence of the disease due to the poor conditions which prevails in these countries. In Zimbabwe around 2 million people are said to be contracting the disease and an assessment shows that those who are infected are mainly the poor people as compared with those who stay in low density suburbs. The general consensus is that poor people are pushed into risk behavior such as prostitution where they tend to sell their bodies for money so that they can earn a decent living. Part of the complexity of dealing with the relationship between HIV/AIDS and socioeconomic variables is that the latter can be both determinants and consequences of the epidemic. This dual relationship gives rise to......

Words: 1823 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Poverty

... TERM PAPER ABOUT POVERTY I. INTRODUCTION :   One of the major problems that continue to plaque the Philippines is poverty. Despite the said efforts of both government and business firms many Filipinos remain in need. It is not a simple problem because nowadays we are facing mass poverty. For all the magnificent testimonies to man’s superior skill and intellect in producing today’s level of cultural development, he still has to find the solution to mass poverty. Whether the government would admit it or not, it is very clear even with our bare eyes that we our suffering a lot from poverty. But what is poverty anyway? Let first define poverty so we can have a clear understanding with what are we going to discuss. From a Webster dictionary, poverty means ‘lack of money or material possessions’. While from the book of Villegas entitled ‘Guide to Economics for Filipinos’ he stated that poverty or being poor means ‘experiencing a low quality of life deprived of both the material and non material requirements that allow an individual to live like a human being’. According to ‘Addison Wesley Economics’ by Richard M. Hodgetts’ said most of people regard poverty as ‘a condition in which people are unable to buy the minimal amount of food, clothing and shelter that is required for existence’. Over all there are a lot of ways to define poverty, it depends on how the person thinks or how does the person relate it to his life personal experiences. Obviously there are a lot more......

Words: 4722 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Critically Discuss the Psychological Evidence That Helps to Explain the Use of Evidence Given in Court by Children Under the Age of 11

...Critically discuss the psychological evidence that helps to explain the use of evidence given in court by children under the age of 11, (usually described as ‘child witnesses’)          In the past 20 years the number of psychological studies on child witnesses and the competency of them being interviewed as well as the evidence being given by them has grown from very few quality studies to several thousand. Issues such as suggestibility, the effects of individual differences and the effects of long delays on their recall have been brought up and discussed in these studies. (Memon, Vrij & Bull, 2006) Traditionally, most Criminal Justice Systems have been reluctant to accept the testimony of young children, believing that they make less reliable witnesses than adults do. Although in recent years the balance has shifted and the evidence of children is now much more likely to be accepted. (Ainsworth, 1998) All witnesses defined as a child at the date of the trial, and irrespective of the nature of the offence, are automatically classified as vulnerable and this eligible for a range of protective special measures to enable them to give a testimony in court. There special measures include in-court screens, live TV link, removal of wigs and gowns and provision of any necessary aids to communication. (Raitt, 2007)     The issue of children’s competency to testify in court has changed from the presumption that no minor is competent to the belief that all children are......

Words: 2498 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Poverty Report

...Understanding Poverty From Multiple Social Science Perspectives A Learning Resource for Staff Development In Social Service Agencies Michael J. Austin, PhD, Editor BASSC Staff Director Mack Professor of Nonprofit Management School of Social Welfare University of California, Berkeley 510-642-7066 mjaustin@berkeley.edu August 2006 1 Table of Contents Introduction – Michael J. Austin, Guest Editor Part I Multiple Social Science Perspectives of Poverty Theories of Poverty: Findings from Textbooks on Human Behavior and the Social Environment Amanda J. Lehning, Catherine M. Vu, & Indira Pintak Economic Theories of Poverty Sun Young Jung & Richard Smith Sociological Theories of Poverty in Urban America Jennifer Price Wolf Psychological Theories of Poverty Kelly Turner & Amanda Lehning An Anthropological View of Poverty Kristine Frerer & Catherine Vu Political Science Perspectives on Poverty Amanda Lehning Theories of Global Poverty in the Developed and Developing World Jennifer Morazes & Indira Pintak Part II Theory Integration and Practitioner Perspectives Social Capital and Neighborhood Poverty: Toward an Ecologically-Grounded Model of Neighborhood Effects Kathy Lemon Osterling Social Work Students’ Perceptions of Poverty Sherrill Clark The Explosive Nature of the Culture of Poverty: A Teaching Case Based on An Agency-based Training Program Catherine Vu & Michael J. Austin 2 Understanding Poverty From......

Words: 65096 - Pages: 261

Premium Essay

Poverty in Phillipine

...2007-1 Why Does Poverty Persist in the Philippines? Facts, Fancies, and Policies Arsenio M. Balisacan SOUTHEAST ASIAN REGIONAL CENTER FOR GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE Science and education for agriculture and development Arsenio M. Balisacan SEARCA College, Los Baños, Laguna Tel/Fax: (63) 495362290 E-mail: post@agri.searca.org The SEARCA Agriculture and Development Discussion Paper Series aims to disseminate information on current trends or researches to inspire discussion between the author and other stakeholders in the same field of interest. SEARCA encourages readers to directly contact the author through the address provided or join the discussion board for this paper at http://bit.ly/searca-dps-2007-1. DISCLAIMER The point of view taken in this paper is entirely that of the author and does not reflect in any way, SEARCA’s position. INTRODUCTION A ddresing the widespread poverty problem is the single most important policy challenge facing the Philippines. Not only is poverty high compared with other countries in East Asia, but also its reduction is so slow that the country has become the basket case in the region. Proposals peddled to address the poverty problem are plenty—and keep growing. At one end of the spectrum are proposals contending that the root of the problem is simply the lack of a respectable economic growth. Putting the economy on a high-growth path is prescribed as all that is needed to lick the poverty problem. At......

Words: 7211 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

Fundamental Determinants

...Cochin. Even under the 40 degrees hot sun, the construction work was in progress and she was happy with the progress made so far. She slid into her car and was dreaming of the new building which was planned to become operational from July, 2010. It will indeed be a moment of great pride for her and the Foundation when the gates of the new building will be opened to her 150 students strong special school. Pragmatist that she was, she was soon worrying about the challenges the Foundation was already facing in areas of administration, staffing, recruitment of teachers/trainers and the monster called funding and how things were set to become a lot more challenging with the plans of expansion. She knew that she had to do something outstandingly different this time to maintain the high standards that the Foundation had set in the field of special education. Special Schools A special school is a school catering to students who have special educational needs due to severe learning difficulties, physical disabilities or behavioral problems. Special schools may be specifically designed, staffed and resourced to provide the appropriate education for children with additional needs. Students attending special schools generally do not attend any classes in mainstream schools. Mental retardation (MR) is a generalized disorder, characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors with Rachna on the crossroads onset before the......

Words: 6275 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Poverty and

...SUMMARY OF RESULTS OF THE SURVEY Franco Viciani Kostas G. Stamoulis Alberto Zezza Franco Viciani nd Alberto Zezza are consultants, and Kostas G. Stamoulis is a Senior Economist, Agriculture and Economic Development Analysis Division (ESA), FAO, Rome. | 1. Introduction 2. Poverty, Inequality and Food Insecurity 3. Policy Reforms Affecting Agriculture and Rural Development, and Changes in the Role of the State 4. Globalization and International Trade Liberalization 5. Increasing Agricultural Production: Sustainability and Technology Changes 1. INTRODUCTION The first step in the CUREMIS exercise was a survey conducted among all the regional and sub-regional policy officers and outposted staff of the Economic and Social Department of FAO. The survey was based on a questionnaire which was distributed to them and was structured around "major trends affecting food, agriculture and rural development" as identified in the process of preparing the FAO Strategic Framework, namely: * changes in the role and functions of the state and implication for food, agriculture and rural development * trade liberalization, globalization and increased reliance on regional blocks * persistence of poverty, mounting inequality, food insecurity and continuing risks of emergencies * population growth, urbanization and related changes in demand on agriculture; increasing pressure on natural resources and the environment * research and technology development and......

Words: 14312 - Pages: 58

Free Essay

"The Concept of Relevance in the Law of Evidence Is Not as Straightforwad as It Appears to Be." Discuss

...OF RELEVANCE IN THE LAW OF EVIDENCE IS NOT AS STRAIGHTFORWAD AS IT APPEARS TO BE.” DISCUSS It is difficult to spell out a straightforward definition of the concept of relevance (Tapper, p71). In the R v Nethercott case, it was held that any two facts to which the concept of relevance is applied are so related to each other that according to the common course of events, one either taken by itself or in connection with other facts, proves or renders probable the past, present or future existence or non-existence of the other. According to Lord Simon in DPP v Kilbourne, “Evidence is relevant if it is logically probative of some matter which requires proof… It is sufficient to say … that relevant (that is, logically probative or disprobative) evidence is evidence which makes the matter which requires proof more or less probable” (Allen, p8). Essentially, relevant evidence is that which makes the matter requiring proof more or less probable. In this sense, relevance is arguably an absolute concept, as proof of one fact either makes the existence of another more probable, or it does not. Notwithstanding, relevance is often regarded as variable, just as evidence can be regarded as more or less relevant. Zuckerman describes relevance as “having a contextual and dynamic nature”, and the relevance of one fact to another can be judged on its own or in connection with other facts (Zuckerman, p46). This seems to relate more to the cogency of the evidence, given its relevance, but......

Words: 2150 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Determinants of Different Accounting Methods Choice in Tanzania : a Positive Accounting Theory Approach

... DETERMINANTS OF DIFFERENT ACCOUNTING METHODS CHOICE IN TANZANIA : A POSITIVE ACCOUNTING THEORY APPROACH Objectives: • The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that influence the choice of accounting policies by managers of companies in Tanzania. • These studies also examine the number of factors that influence the managers’ incentives for accounting choice. Population/ sample size: The study investigates managers’ decisions to choose accounting methods in a positive accounting theory perspective using panel data covering 60 years from 15 companies listed on the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange. Research Methods: • Sample and data source: used quantitative methods to examine the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables. The data are drawn from annual reports of 15 companies listed on DSE for four years which resulted in 60 firm years. • Income strategy measurement: consider a company’s set of accounting choices that are disclosed in the company’s annual report as a single comprehensive decision. • Model specification: INCOME STRATEGY = α0 + α1 LEVER + α2 SIZE + α3 LABFORCE – α4 ODILUTION + α5 INTERFIN + α6 PROPNED + ε Findings: The results show that the significant factors are company size, internal financing, proportion of non-executive directors and labor force. Different with the outcome of prior studies, the authors found that the company size and internal financing are positively related with income strategy. So the......

Words: 298 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Discuss How Different Groups Within Society Experience Poverty in Different Ways

...With Reference To A Country You Have Studied, Discuss How Different Groups within Society Experience Poverty in Different Ways Botswana is a nation that has experience high rates of economic growth since 1966 when it gained independence. It’s a middle income country with a GDP $5,360, although over 45% of people who live there are below the absolute poverty line. This particular type of poverty is seen in rural areas and female headed households where there is significant differences income. Due to this, and many other reasons there are big differences in equality throughout Botswana, giving a large Gini coefficient of 0.54. Other reasons include developing wealth in Botswana, especially through the diamond trade. The country struggles to include the poor, remote communities into the mainstream economy. One example of this is that the poorest 20% of the population get 4% of the national income, whereas the richest get 60%. Botswana has the highest rate of HIV/AIDS prevalence in the world with 350,000 people affected and 39% of 15-49 year olds infected. HIV/AIDS rates are so extremely high due to the migration to South Africa for work and internal migration between rural and urban areas. Life expectancy rates have fallen from over 60 years in 1996 to just 35 in 2007. Many people are dying young and so the size of the work force is declining. It also means the number of widows and orphans is increasing. There are 69,000 AIDS orphans in Botswana. There are many......

Words: 657 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Discuss the View That Poverty Is the Real Killer in Earthquake Disasters (40 Marks)

...To discuss this statement, there is first a need to understand what is meant by the key words in it such as poverty and disaster. First of all, poverty is where people’s basic needs for food, clothing and shelter aren’t being met. There are usually two types of poverty. One of those is absolute poverty which is when people cannot obtain adequate resources to support a minimum level of physical health. This tends to be seen earning less than 2dollars a day by the World Health Organisation (WHO). There is also relative poverty and this occurs when people don't enjoy a certain minimum level of living standards and this is determined by the government (which is enjoyed by the majority of the population). This can vary between countries. Also, a disaster is something which causes very distressing or ruinous effects which disrupt functions of an organisation, society or system. What constitutes a disaster is the societies inability to cope rather than the event itself. There are a number of things besides poverty that can accentuate the effects of an earthquake such as the structure of the buildings, the population density, the education of the people but also more physical factors such as magnitude and the time of day when the earthquake hits. Poverty by itself can completely change the effects that the earthquake can have. If the money isn’t available to pay for preparation, monitoring, education about such problems and recovery, then does a country really have a chance......

Words: 1744 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Treating People Equally Is Not the Most Important Moral Principle for Resolving Issues of Poverty

...In reality, treating people equally is not the most important moral principle for resolving issues of poverty, sexism and disabilities, notwithstanding the fact that the counter proposition is often propounded. Many people hold the view that we are responsible for looking after the world’s population by treating everyone the same and by providing equal treatment to everyone, regardless of the fact that individual situations may not allow for such actions. Unfortunately although this viewpoint is seen to hold ethical significance, it is simply not a reality that translates to a possibility. This paper argues in support of the ethical viewpoint, that treating people equally is not the most important moral principle in resolving issues of poverty, by employing fundamental arguments and supporting frameworks to contribute to this conclusion. Ethical grounds for my arguments shall be explored, such as theories propounded by Aristotle, Bentham, Stuart Mill and Kant, in order to support the framework and provide supporting claims. Education and the opportunities that learning environments provide, are fundamental to the measurable successes and accomplishments within our modern day society. However, the great disparity in education standards across the globe are grounds to base an argument on the fact that subsequently treating people equally regardless of access or the ability to achieve certain levels of education, is not equitable and reasonable. Unfortunately it has been......

Words: 1915 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Discuss the Issues That Separatism Has Brought to Different Areas of the World

...Discuss the issues that separatism has brought to different areas of the world (40 Marks) Separatism is an attempt by a regional group within a country or across the borders of one or more countries, to gain more political control from central governments over the areas in which they live. There are many different reasons for why separatism occurs around the world, these can include: the feeling of being economically inferior to other areas within the same country the fact that they are often in an outlying location to the political centre and the feeling or being mistreated due to being an ethnic minority like the Kurds in Iraq or a religious minority like the Christians in Sudan. Separatism can lead to a wide range of issues around the world that range from the collapse of governments and civil wars to, more political disputes and peaceful protests. Separatism does not always have to be aggressive in the past those desiring more autonomy have used a wide range of means to get their campaign noticed by the powers that be. However these ‘means’ have are set upon a broad spectrum where they can vary from the peaceful and harmless establishment of societies with clear separate identities, such as the Bretons in France, to terrorism, and in some extreme cases, outright civil war. A recent example of separatism devolving into civil war is in East Timor, where the Tamil Tigers have fought for independence for over three decades. There are two sub-categories of separatism,......

Words: 1048 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Discuss the Research Into Different Types of Attachment

...Discuss the research into different types of attachment Attachment promotes survival; babies will always need their caregivers. This is the idea that Bowlby put forward. Bowlby explained the three main ways in which secure attachment provides survival. Firstly, safety results in a desire to maintain proximity ensuring safety of the baby and is reflected by both the infant and caregiver being distressed when separated. Attachment enables babies to form healthy emotional relationships. This is the continuity hypothesis – the idea that there is a direct link between early attachment behaviour and later emotional behaviour. The final way attachment promotes survival is a secure base for exploration. Having an attachment is important for protection. A child can explore the world e.g. when they go school and have a safe haven (a safe place) to come back to for protection and comfort. This will ensure that the child develops well intellectually, socially and emotionally. Bus and Van Ijzendoorn (1988) found that securely attached children showed more interest in written material than did the insecurely attached children regardless of their intelligence and the amount of preparatory reading instruction. Maccoby (1980) argued that you can tell two people have an attachment by looking at their behaviours. There are 4 areas he put forward. The first is seeking proximity. This is the desire of the infant and caregiver to be near one another and spend time together for example......

Words: 1633 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Success of Microfinance in Bangladesh: Its Determinants, Impacts & Challenges

... Success of Microfinance in Bangladesh: Its Determinants, Impacts & Challenges Chapter- One Introduction 1.1 Introduction: In recent years, microcredit, in its wider dimension known as microfinance, has become a much favored intervention for poverty alleviation in the developing countries and least development countries. There is scarcely a poor country and development oriented donor agency (multilateral, bilateral and private) not involved in the promotion (in one form or other) of a microfinance program. Microfinance programs claim many achievements as its impact and an outside observer cannot but wonder at the range of diversity of the benefits claimed. Although Bangladesh has huge potential for development, it is, for various socio-economic reasons, among the poorest countries in the world. About half of the country's population lives below the poverty line with 80% in the rural areas. The burden of poverty falls disproportionately on women, who constitute half of the total population. Logically, therefore, poverty alleviation and creation of rural employment are top priorities in the development agenda of the government of Bangladesh (GOB) which has adopted a broad based approach to poverty alleviation, emphasizing macroeconomic stability, economic liberalization, and support for a number of government agencies and non-government organizations (NGOs). Substantial progress has been made in implementing the microcredit program (MCP), and the scope for its......

Words: 21504 - Pages: 87