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Economist

In: Social Issues

Submitted By 08131839958
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.
Pregnancy is the state of being pregnant. It is also defied as a situation where by a woman or female animal having a baby or an egg or a young animal developed inside her baby.
Unwanted pregnancy on the other hand means the pregnancy which occurs as a result of illegal in evolvement in sexual intercourse by both sexes. It is said to be unwanted or illegal because both sexes have not been legally united either by law or Religions doctrine or authorities under the caption of marriage.
Abortion is believed to be a deliberate ending or termination of a pregnancy at an early state.
Marriage is said to be a relationship between a husband and a wife to live or co-husband as such for life
Thus early marriage could be seen as any marriage contracted unintentionally or that which is contracted by way of duress or undue influence.
Unfortunately, most young girls in secondary school in Nigeria today see to it that sex is a golden slice or a do or die affair and as such when at their dangerous stages or period, they still fail to keep boys or man at arm’s length which at long last leads to unexpected pregnancy. Hence proper arrangements or precautionary measure not put in place as regards such pregnancies. The next idea as the only option that readily come to their winds at this point is abortion through any means which most of the time take their lives or endanger lives in such situations. Norststill, most girls in secondary in school involved in these acts are either forced to forfeit their educational cares or to marry any interested husband against their will or atones they ultimately lose their values in the market of marriage as a result and so go in to haloing in order or earn their living.
Unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage by secondary school girls is indeed regarded as a very serious problem in the society as it shatters the dreams and aspirations of most promising young girls who may not only die or be dropped out of schools or be forced into unintended marriages, it leads to total frustration of promising careers of the affected girls as well.
Thus, the researcher strives in this study to investigate into the doom of ear wanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage on girl child secondary school education and training within Gwer East Local Government Area of Benue state of the Nation. So, Since the research has been conducted in Gwer – East Local Government Area, it is imperative to introduce the area to the reader of work. (A) LOCATION: Gwer – East Local Government Area of Benue state was created out of the defunct Benue plateau state in 1976 by the then General Yakubu Gowon’s military administration following the local Government reform policy. Later however, Gwer –west Local Government Area was carved out of the former Gwer Local Government Area in 1991.
Gwer –East Local Government Area derives its name from River Gwer, which is the longest in the area. The local Government is bounded on the North by Makurdi Local Government areas, on the south by oju and konshisha Local Government Areas, On the East by Gboko and Logo local Government Areas which it is bounded on the west by otukpo and obi local Government Areas respectively. (B) POPULATION AND CLIMATE: The local Government Area has masev as the indigenes and a projected population of about 125, 000 people (1991 census). The is composed of a verile harehvorking people from three clans namely; the Nogohov , youov and njiriv who devote much of their times farming as their major occupation. The mean animal rainfall is 1, 250 and 2,000mm while the mean temperature is 32, 50C. Rainy season in the area starts from March to October annually while dry season spans from November and terminates in March yearly. (C) MANPOWER STRENGTH AND ADMINISTRATION: The available records indicate that Gwer –East Local Government Area administration has a total of about 921 staff out of which, 422 are junior staff while 298 are senior cadres on salary grade levels 1-6 and then 7 and above respectively. For the purpose of Governance, the elected council is made up of the executive and the legislature. The executive council is made up of the chairman, Deputy Chairman, the council secretary, Director General, services and Administration (D G S A) as the head of personal administration, all heads of departments as well as sectional heads. On the other hand, the legislative council is composed of all the 14 elected counselors representing the 14 council wards of the local Government Area with two of them always elected amongst themselves as the leader and deputy leaders of the legislative council with a Clark of the house appoint among the local Government staff to seven as a recorder. (D) THE AVAILABLE SECONDARY SCHOOLS: Gwer–East Local Government Area can boast of over 230 secondary schools sparsely established by Government and private individuals and groups throughout the area. Out of the member, only Government girls’ model secondary school Aliade is exclusively for girls while the rest including Govern much day secondary school, Aliade are co-educational institutions. Now, apart from Government Girls’ model secondary school and special school for exceptional children and the famous mt st Michael’s secondary school, all in Aliade, that offer boarding opportunities, the rest are dry secondary school.
The aim is to train both young and men and women alike for a better tomorrow. However since the inception of secondary school education and training in the area over some decades ago the local government area has witnessed a total doom resulting from unwanted pregnancy, abortion and easily marriage by young secondary school girls. All effort made by successive local authorities, parents, administrators of public and private schools, concerned individuals and groups to help curb this social ill and to redeem the brighter future of young female student in the area have yielded no positive result.
On the whole , girls child education and training particularly at secondary school level in Gwer- east local government area is not given adequate attention as such girl child education and training viewed generally as a useless venture and woman is still being seen as a chatted in the area. Suffice it to say that the doom of unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage on girl child secondary school education and training is not only peculiar to Gwer-East local Government Area, but it is also nationwide. In the same vein, all the attempts made by the federal and state government successive authorities to eliminate the doom in the Nigerian Education sub-sector proved abortive as it is also prove that girl child education and training for country is damned.
Therefore, it is against this unbearable ugly background that the researcher has embarked on a serious investigation to examine the root factors that are hampering the effective and efficient girl child secondary school education and training in Gwer-East local government area in particular. More so, it is the zeal of the researcher that if the doom is verified, then, necessary suggestions or solution that could help permanently eliminate the problem could be easily found.
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
(A) To enlighten the entire public on the doom of unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage on girl child secondary school education and training in Gwer-East L.G.A. of Benue state of Nigeria.
(B) The researcher will identify, examine and analyze girl child secondary school education and training in the state as well as the corporate and private institutions of education sub-sector of Benue state.
(C) The researcher will also know and point out the primary factors that include most young girls to involve themselves in unwanted pregnancies, abortions and early marriage and shall find out the at what age(s) or the range at which girls find themselves in such acts.
(D) The researcher shall study the schools environment in terms of attitudes of students, parents, teachers’ private individuals, groups, government and of course, the general public towards girl child education and training in Benue state generally.
(E) The researcher study will ensure the survival of effective and or positive result-oriented girl child secondary school education and training in Nigeria as a whole since it will serve as a tool for critical analysis and evaluation and to put forward some useful suggestions that will go a long way to promote the spirit of check and balances as far as girl child and training in schools is concerned.=
(F) The report will serve as a practical approach to, or vital fulfill/meant of the requirements for the award of national certificate in education (N.C.E) by the national commission for colleges of education in Nigeria.
(G) Finally it will serve as an open air proposition for further and better comments by readers and researchers. 2.3 HYPOTHESIS:
The investigation of into the doom of unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage on girl child secondary school education and training demands for the following hypothesis:
(i) Most young female secondary school girls are rather anxious about canal knowledge.
(ii) They are happy when pregnant
(iii) Lack of sex-education during their secondary school days (teenage) leads to
Unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage
(iv) Unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage do not only endanger the lives of young secondary school girls and their academic race but their brighter future is a jeopardized as will. 2.4 SIGNIFICACE OF THE STUDY:
The research study aims at finding out as to whether or not sex-education is introduced in the school academic curriculum and taught in secondary school in Gwer-East Local Government Area. It would also determine how far sex-education campaign against unwanted
Pregnancy, abortion and early marriage has been so far reached out to Gwer-East Local Government Area and if not then what efforts are being made by the relevant agencies in order to effectively carry out the golden assignment.
The search work would also enable mimeos readers to embark on further and better research in this field of study hence then will have a clue of the possible factors that are responsible for the inability of government to ensure teaching of and enlightenment campaign about unprotected sex-education and its inherent implications.
At the end of the assignment, suggestions would be offered by the researcher as to how sexual hazards would be eradicated or totally minimized amongst teaming students of secondary schools in Gwer-East Local Government Area. 2.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY.
The researcher’s work is restricted and limited to Gwer-East local Government Area of Benue state. How-ever, it does not limit itself to specific periods in the existence of the study. 2.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY.
The overall success of this research study is hampered by so many attendant problems. However, the researcher enjoyed some great deal of co-operation and assistance from most secondary school guidance and councilors, staff of social welfare department of the local Government Area, a host of other philanthropists, friends, relatives, and teachers as well as respondents without whose efforts, the research work wouldn’t have attained it deserved excellence and glory. Yet most secondary schools and colleges were unwilling to grant the fortified (firsthand) Information which made the work a little bit difficult.
In spite of the support enjoyed the researcher still experienced generous difficulties and setbacks need mention in the helium to wit; (I) Lack of logistics such as finance, facilities and equipments (II) The 2014 N.U.T. industrial dispute in Benue state. (III) The TIV versus Fulani tribal fracas of 2013-2014 in Benue state. (IV) The short time factor affecting the researcher’s ability to most of the school managers, staff, students, parents and academicians. (V) The inability of respondents to complete and return questionnaires to the writer in time. (VI) Finally, the research study itself is limited in scope as the topic chosen is a case study of Gwer-East Local Government Area with particular reference to, the doom of unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early school, education and training in - - - - the researcher observed that though, the above mentioned limitations and delimitations affect the smooth conduct of the study as well as good and better quality performance, it is submitted that “there is noun and nothing so completely and conclusively reliable since there is no monopoly of knowledge and wisdom in the field of academy” Therefore, the researcher braves the rest of the job to harmonize and completed by other interested researchers for the development of the topic. 2.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONN OF TERMS.
PREGNANCY: A female animal conceived of an egg or a young baby inside her womb.
UNWANTED: The termination of pregnancy at an easy stage when the baby is yet to be safely delivered through any means so deliberately adopted.
MARRIAGE: A union between a man and a woman to live and co-habitate as husband and wife for life.
EARLY: Happening too soon.
SEX-EDUCATION: Instruction on sex organs, their functions as well as their correct use.
CHARFF: Outer covering of grain usually removed or blown away before the grain is eaten as human food.
ABYSIMAL: Bottomless, complete absence of knowledge and wisdom.
DOOM: ill fate.

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 INTRODUCTION
In a study of this nature, it is usually pertinent to consult the existing works of other writers/commentators so as to obtain accurate and reliable data for the purpose of analysis. It is in the light of this that a review of related literature is being conducted.
Hence, books, magazines, newspapers, journals and other periodicals were compiled and consulted for the purpose.
Views or opinion held on the doom of unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage on girl child secondary school education and training in our great country, Nigeria and more especially in Gwer-East local government area of Benue state are collated.
Literature review on the foregoing topic in this part of the nation is inadequate. It will not therefore be viewed in isolation from the entire country. To have a positive appreciation of this write-up, a brief discussion will be done with respect to sexual behavior of change and HIV/AIDs will throw more light on how their roles have also adversely affected secondary school young girls towards their actualization of their dreams.
2.2 UNWANTED PREGNANCY, ABORTION AND EARLY MARRIAGE.
Indeed, the 21st century began
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA In the foregoing chapter, the data so collected in the course of investigation are being analysed and accordingly interpreted. This is however based on the information on the topic from the respondents. The validity of the study therefore depends largely on what they supplied s/no | School | No. distributed | % | No. collected | % | 1 | Government model girls secondary school Aliade | 30 | 16.6 | 26 | 17.3 | 2 | Government day secondary school Aliade | 30 | 16.6 | 24 | 16 | 3 | Government secondary school Taraku | 30 | 16.6 | 27 | 18 | 4 | Government secondary school Ikpayongo | 30 | 16.6 | 25 | 16.6 | 5 | Special school for exceptional children Aliade | 30 | 16.6 | 24 | 16 | 6 | Masev community secondary school Taraku | 30 | 16.6 | 24 | 16 | 7 | TOTAL | 180 | 100% | 950 | 100% |

TABLE II: This table shows respondents views on the first hypothesis which states that, ‘most secondary school girls are either happy when they are pregnant’. Question 1, 3, 6 and 8 on the questionnaire provide this hypothesis that most adolescent girls in secondary schools are happy when pregnant. S/No. | Question item | Yes | % | No | % | Not sure | % | total | % | 1. | Do you feel happy when you are pregnant as a student? | 40 | 26.6 | 80 | 53.3 | 30 | 20 | 150 | 100 | 3. | Are your parents happy about this development? | 37 | 24.6 | 93 | 62 | 20 | 133 | 150 | 100 | 6. | Do you go about freely with your academic work when you are pregnant? | 29 | 19.3 | 88 | 58.6 | 33 | 22 | 150 | 100 | 8. | Do you move freely with your peers when you are pregnant? | 45 | 30 | 90 | 60 | 15 | 10 | 150 | 100 | Going by the information in table II above, forty out of one hundred and fifty (150) students representing twenty-six percent agree that they feel happy when they are pregnant. Eighty (80) representing 53.30% said; “No” while thirty (30) representing 20% said; “Not sure”. On question three (3), thirty respondent representing 24.6% agree that their parents are happy with the development. Ninety three (93) said “no” or disagree, and twenty (20) representing 13.3% are not sure. As to how they move about with peers when pregnant, the response were forty-five (45) out of one hundred and fifty (150) students representing 30% agreed. Ninety (90) representing 60% said “no” while fifteen (15) representing 10% are not sure. Following this information, the researcher concluded that most secondary school girls are not at all happy when they are pregnant.
TABLE III
This table shows respondents views on lack of sex education at their secondary school days leading to unwanted pregnancy and abortion.
Questions 2, 4, 5 and 7 prove the hypothesis. S/No. | Question item | yes | % | No | % | Not sure | % | Total | % | 2. | Do you have sex education in the junior secondary school time table? | 25 | 16.6 | 85 | 56.6 | 40 | 26.6 | 150 | 100 | 4. | Are there social welfare officers attached to your school to enlighten students on sex and family life education? | 30 | 20 | 95 | 63.3 | 25 | 16.6 | 150 | 100 | 5. | Is there any provision in the school time table for enlightenment of students by guidance counselors on the inherent dangers of unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage? | 43 | 28.6 | 88 | 58.6 | 19 | 12.6 | 150 | 100 | 7. | Do your parents involve you in any sex related enlightenment discussion at home very often while with them at all? | 34 | 22.6 | 79 | 52.6 | 19 | 12.6 | 150 | 100 | Out of a total of one hundred and fifty (150) responses, twenty-five (25), i.e. 16.6% agreed that lack of sex education of their secondary school days leads to early pregnancy. Eighty-five (85) representing 56.6% said ‘no’ while forty (40) representing 26.6% are not sure. As to whether or there are social welfare attached to their schools for enlistment of student on sex and family life, 20 agree, 95 representing 66.3% said no and 25 representing 16.6% are not sore.
As for the provision in the school time table for enlightenment by guidance counselors to instruct, especially girls on the bad effect of unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage, about forty-three (43) responses out of hundred and fifty (150) representing 28.6% agreed, eighty-eight (88), that is, 58.6% said ‘no’ or disagreed and nineteen (19) representing 12.6% weren’t sure. This reviews that there is indeed, lack of sex education at their secondary school which leads to girls’ unwanted early pregnancy, abortion and sometimes early marriage and the rest of the vices. It is also implied that even at their homes there is no sex education offered by their parents and guardians.
TABLE IV
Respondents’ views on unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage enhances the academic performance of most secondary school girls. S/No | Question items | yes | % | No | % | Not sure | % | Total | % | 10. | Are unwanted pregnancies ideal to young girls in secondary school? | 40 | 26.6 | 76 | 50.6 | 34 | 22.6 | 150 | 100 | 12. | Do this problem of unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage enhance the academic performance of these girls academically? | 35 | 23.3 | 90 | 60 | 25 | 16.6 | 150 | 100 |

13 | Are the factors responsible for these behaviors by students rampant in secondary schools? | 76 | 52.6 | 35 | 23.5 | 36 | 24 | 150 | 100 | 14 | Do your parents discuss issues of unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage with you at home? | 30 | 20 | 80 | 53.3 | 40 | 25.6 | 150 | 100 | 15 | Are you taught the dangers of unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage in school or at home? | 40 | 26.6 | 87 | 58 | 23 | 15.3 | 150 | 100 |

However, out of one hundred and fifty (150) respondents, forty (40) representing 26.6, agreed that unwanted pregnancy is rather ideal to young secondary school girls, seventy sex (76) representing 50.6% said no while thirty – four (34) representing 22.6% are not sure. This shows that many people are of the view that young girls should be allowed unwanted pregnancy, abortion, early marriage and the rest of the vises during their secondary school education and training which is erroneous. As to whether or not unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage enhance their academic performance, 23.3% agreed, ninety representing 16.6% aren’t sure. As regards whether or not the factors that stimulate these types of girl child behaviours i.e., unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage are rampant in secondary schools, seventy nine (79) out of one hundred and fifty representing 52.6% agreed, the factors are rampant there. Thirty-four (34) representing 23.3% disagreed and thirty-six (36) representing 24% are not sure. On whether or not they are taught the inherent adverse consequences of unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage either in school or at home, forty (40) out of one hundred and fifty (150) respondents representing 26.6% agreed, eighty seven (87) representing 58% disagreed while twenty-three (23) representing 15.3% said that they are not sure. It therefore means that children are not ,taught the dangers that are attached to unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage either in school or at home which is very disappointing.

TABLE V Here respondents’ view on unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage by secondary school girls is against societal norm and the public environment. S/No | Question item | Yes | % | No | % | Not sure | % | Total | % | 9 | Do unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage cause any problem to the society? | 40 | 26.6 | 84 | 56 | 26 | 17.6 | 150 | 100 | 11 | Does the society approve of them? | 30 | 20 | 97 | 64.6 | 23 | 15.3 | 150 | 100 | 16 | Does the society frown at the factors as affects secondary school girls? | 43 | 28.6 | 87 | 58 | 20 | 13.3 | 150 | 100 | 17 | Do the factor tell on the societal norms and values of the adolescent secondary school girls? | 40 | 26.6 | 77 | 51.3 | 33 | 22 | 150 | 100 | 18 | Unwanted pregnancy, abortion and early marriage | | | | | | | | |…...

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