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Foodbornue Illness Short Answer Questions

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Salmonella (Food Bourne Illness) * What is the infectious agent (pathogen) that causes this infectious disease? For example, the name of the bacteria, virus, or parasite.
The infectious agent (pathogen) that causes Salmonella is called Salmonella Enteriditis. Salmonella is a non-motile, rod-shaped, and gram-negative, that doesn’t form spores. Bacterium within the Enterobacteriaceae and tribe Salmonellae. Salmonella is divided between two species; S. Enterica and S. Bongori. The three main serovars of Salmonella enterica are Typhimurium, Enteritidis, and Typhi. Salmonella can cause two types of illness; nontyphoidal salmonellosis and typhoid fever. Salmonella communicates with fellow bacteria via AHL (Acyle Homeoserine Lactone). Infecting the cell, multiplies, then bursts the cell. Salmonella symptoms include: diarrhea, fever, stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting and headaches. It takes between six and seven hours to become ill, usually lasting three to four days, but some bacteria may be presented for much longer. * How is this infectious agent transmitted through food or water?
The infection is mostly caused by ingestion by contaminated food, water or fecal particles. This bacteria is found within humans, farmed, pets and birds, particularly chickens. Good hygiene along with appropriate food handling, storage and cooking have important roles in preventing disease. Salmonella illness is worldwide and contaminates almost any food type. From raw eggs, raw meat, egg products, fresh vegetables, cereal, pistachio, nuts, tomatoes and contaminated water. Washing hands thoroughly with soap and hot running water, disposing of paper towels and avoid using cloth towels to prevent the spread of bacteria from one person to another. * What is an example of a real life outbreak of this foodborne illness in the United States?
The most recently, salmonella outbreak in the United States was in October 2013. The salmonella outbreak was linked to raw chicken from California, involving several antibiotic-resistant strain. There were no deaths linked to the outbreak, but over 42% of the victims were put in the hospital. According to Barbara Reynold; CDC spokeswoman, “It’s a higher percentage.” Due to this outbreak, over 270 people, within 18 states were affected by the Heidelberg outbreak of Salmonella. It was stated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), that, “The chicken was produced by Foster Farms at three different Californian plants.” There are seven strains of salmonella Heidelberg involved within this one outbreak, which most were resistant to antibodies. Apparently the United States Center of Disease Control was hindered due to the government shutdown causing the agency to shut down PulseNet, a national network of health laboratory that looks for trends and spots food-borne illness outbreak.

* What are the clinical symptoms, duration of the disease, and treatment if any?
Salmonella infection can last from several hours to two or three days. The possible signs and symptoms include: nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fever, chills, headache, and bloody stools. Types of salmonella infections generally last from four to seven days, causing several months for your system to return to normal. Salmonella infection can cause dehydration, the treatment focuses on replacing fluids and electrolytes. Severe cases that require hospitalization causes fluids delivered directly into the vein (IV tubes). Two treatments that doctors might recommend are; Antidiarrheals and Antibiotics. Antidiarrheals can help relieve cramps prolong diarrhea while antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria. * What steps can be taken to prevent further outbreaks? Include individual as well as environmental precautions and methods.
There are many steps that a person can take to prevent Salmonella outbreaks. First of all, safe cooking and preparation of food can kill existing Salmonella bacteria and prevent it from spreading. Precautions and methods to prevent the chances of an outbreak include: washing your hands before preparation of food, cooking poultry until 165° and never drink raw (unpasteurized) milk. For more information about signs and symptoms of salmonella poisoning you can follow the links below.
Resource(s):
www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/10/08/salmonella-chicken-outbreak/2941783/ www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease www.edu/imagepages/1048.htm www.cdc.ncided/dbmd/diseaseinfo www.webmd.com/food-recipes/food-poisoning/tc/salmonellosis-topic-overview www.about-salmonella.com/salmonella_prevention/…...

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