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General Business Environmetn

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Resume Pencemaran Limbah Pertambangan Nikel

Resume Pencemaran Limbah Pertambangan Nikel
Industri pertambangan merupakan suatu industri yang secara finansial memang sangat menguntungkan suatu bangsa karena memiliki daya jual yang amat tinggi di pasaran global. Namun tidak selamanya industri tersebut memiliki hal-hal yang baik, ada kalanya industri tersebut juga menimbulkan dampak yang buruk seperti pada kasus lingkungan. Seperti yang kita ketahui, lokasi bahan tambang umumnya berada di lapisan bumi bawah (bawah tanah) sehingga diperlukan pengeboran untuk mengeksploitasi barang tambang tersebut. Dalam hal ini maka timbullah dua jenis pertambangan yakni :
1) Tambang terbuka (dengan cara menggali tanah permukaan untuk mencapai lokasi bahan galian tambang, dengan kedalaman maksimal 800 meter)
2) Tambang tertutup atau tambang bawah tanah (dengan membuat terowongan dari permukaan tanah menuju lokasi bahan tambang di bawah tanah)
Dan yang paling sering menimbulkan kerugian bagi lingkungan ialah jenis pertambangan yang terbuka. Karena setelah bahan tambang yang ingin diambil habis, maka para pelaku industri pertambangan sangat sering meninggalkan lokasi tambang terbengkalai. Tindakan pemerintah memang bisa dianggap cukup memihak lingkungan dengan dikeluarkannya peraturan pemerintah bagi para pelaku industri pertambangan agar setelah bahan tambang habis di suatu daerah pertambangan, maka daerah tersebut harus direklamasi. Namun walaupun telah dilakukan reklamasi, lahan tersebut tetap saja tidak bisa ditanami oleh tetumbuhan lain karena sumberdaya tanah tersebut juga sudah tidak ada lagi, alias lahan tersebut juga akan semakin gundul.
Industri pertambangan merupakan industri yang tidak berkelanjutan karena tergantung pada sumberdaya yang tidak terbarukan. Pengelolaan lingkungan hidup dalam operasi pertambangan seharusnya meliputi keseluruhan fase kegiatan pertambangan tersebut, mulai dari fase eksplorasi, fase produksi, hingga pasca penutupan tambang. Belajar dari catatan operasi penutupan pertambangan yang dilakukan oleh PT Barisan Tropical Mining (milik Laverton Gold Australia) di Sumsel, PT Indo Moro Kencana (milik Aurora Gold Australia), PT Newmont Minahasa Raya (milik Newmont Amerika Serikat), PT Kelian Equatorial Mining (milik Rio Tinto Inggris-Australia).
Fenomena yang terjadi pada industri pertambangan di Indonesia, justru perusahaan tambang tersebut memiliki kekebalan untuk tidak mentaati aturan-aturan lingkungan hidup dan dapat dengan bebas melakukan pencemaran tanpa takut mendapatkan sanksi. Perilaku lainnya adalah praktik pembuangan limbah pertambangan dengan cara-cara primitif, membuang langsung limbah tailing ke sungai, danau, dan laut.
Industri pertambangan pada pasca operasi akan meninggalkan banyak warisan yang memiliki potensi bahaya dalam jangka panjang, antara lain :
1) Lubang Tambang.
Sebagian besar pertambangan mineral di Indonesia dilakukan dengan cara terbuka. Ketika selesai beroperasi, perusahaan meninggalkan lubang-lubang raksasa di bekas areal pertambangannya. Lubang-lubang itu berpotensi menimbulkan dampak lingkungan jangka panjang, terutama berkaitan dengan kualitas dan kuantitas air. Air lubang tambang mengandung berbagai logam berat yang dapat merembes ke sistem air tanah dan dapat mencemari air tanah sekitar. Potensi bahaya akibat rembesan ke dalam air tanah seringkali tidak terpantau akibat lemahnya sistem pemantauan perusahaan-perusahaan pertambangan tersebut. Di pulau Bangka dan Belitung banyak di jumpai lubang-lubang bekas galian tambang timah (kolong) yang berisi air bersifat asam dan sangat berbahaya.
2) Air Asam Tambang.
Air asam tambang mengandung logam-logam berat berpotensi menimbulkan dampak lingkungan dalam jangka panjang. Ketika air asam tambang sudah terbentuk maka akan sangat sulit untuk menghentikannya karena sifat alamiah dari reaksi yang terjadi pada batuan. Sebagai contoh, pertambangan timbal pada era kerajaan Romawi masih memproduksi air asam tambang 2000 tahun setelahnya. Air asam tambang baru terbentuk bertahun-tahun kemudian sehingga perusahaan pertambangan yang tidak melakukan monitoring jangka panjang bisa salah menganggap bahwa batuan limbahnya tidak menimbulkan air asam tambang. Air asam tambang berpotensi mencemari air permukaan dan air tanah. Sekali terkontaminasi terhadap air akan sulit melakukan tindakan penanganannya.
3) Tailing.
Tailing dihasilkan dari operasi pertambangan dalam jumlah yang sangat besar. Sekitar 97 persen dari bijih yang diolah oleh pabrik pengolahan bijih akan berakhir sebagai tailing. Tailing mengandung logam-logam berat dalam kadar yang cukup mengkhawatirkan, seperti tembaga, timbal atau timah hitam, merkuri, seng, dan arsen. Ketika masuk kedalam tubuh mahluk hidup logam-logam berat tersebut akan terakumulasi di dalam jaringan tubuh dan dapat menimbulkan efek yang membahayakan kesehatan. Celakanya, tidak ada aturan di Indonesia yang mewajibkan perusahaan pertambangan melakukan proses penutupan tambang secara benar dan bertanggungjawab. Kontrak karya pertambangan hanya mewajibkan perusahaan pertambangan melakukan reklamasi, dalam pikiran banyak pelaku industri ini adalah penghijauan atau penanaman pohon semata.
Limbah udara merupakan salah satu jenis limbah yang dihasilkan oleh industri pertambangan. Limbah udara dari pertambangn nikel tersebut dihasilkan sebagai emisi atmosferik dari industri tersebut. Jenis komponen yang termasuk ke dalam emisi tersebut di antaranya adalah sebagai berikut :
• Debu/partikulat
• Gas yang diproduksi oleh proses pembakaran, seperti CO, CO2, NOx, SO2
• Coolants, seperti CFCs, yang berasal dari air-conditioners
Dari sejumlah komponen tersebut, emisi debu/partikulat memiliki porsi terbesar dalam kandungan limbah udara kegiatan pertambangan. Debu, pada khususnya, memiliki ukuran partikel 1-10000 mikrometer. Debu tersebut dihasilkan dari aktivitas mekanik pertambangan, seperti pemecahan atau penggerusan batuan, peledakan area tambang, maupun penanganan massa hasil pertambangan. Pada umumnya, sumber utama dari limbah udara tersebut adalah akses pertambangan yang tak diaspal, aktivitas penggalian, pembuangan, operasi sabuk conveyer, serta pembukaan lahan pertambangan.
Adapun penanganan debu tersebut dapat dibagi menjadi dua tahap, yaitu tahap awal dan akhir, berdasarkan besar partikel debu yang dipisahkan.
Tahap awal dikhususkan menangani partikel debu yang berukuran cukup besar berskala milimeter. Alat yang sering digunakan untuk menangani debu pada tahap awal adalah settling chamber (ruang pengendapan) dan siklon, yang dijelaskan sebagai berikut.
a) Settling chamber
Alat ini merupakan teknologi penanganan debu yang telah diterapkan sejak lama. Prinsip dari alat ini adalah pengendapan berdasarkan gaya gravitasi. Alat ini terdiri dari sebuah chamber (kamar/ruang) besar yang terintegrasi dalam aliran pipa gas pertambangan yang mengandung partikel debu yang akan dipisahkan. Keberadaan ruang tersebut akan m engurangi kecepatan gas yang melewatinya sehingga partikel debu yang cukup besar akan terendapkan di dasar chamber tersebut. Partikel debu yang dapat dipisahkan oleh alat ini berukuran lebih besar dari 60 mm. Alat inipun kemudian difungsikan sebagai pembersih awal (preliminary cleaners) gas dari sistem penanganan debu yang ada. Alat ini dapat dipasang sejumlah tray pada tiap sisi chamber untuk mempersingkat waktu pengendapan partikel debu yang akan dipisahkan sehingga efisiensi pemisahan dan pengumpulan debu menjadi lebih besar. Settling chamber ini memiliki biaya instalasi dan operasi yang murah, namun juga memiliki efisiensi pengumpulan debu overall yang cukup rendah. b) b) Cyclone (siklon)

Skema Operasi Siklon
Alat ini menggunakan gaya sentrifugal sebagai driving force pemisahan debu dari gas yang akan dihasilkan kegiatan pertambangan. Alat ini memiliki biaya instalasi dan operasi yang rendah, serta memiliki dimensi yang relatif kecil untuk mendukung efisiensinya. Keuntungan tersebut membuat siklon banyak digunakan industri pertambangan untuk mengumpulkan partikel debu yang akan menimbulkan pencemaran udara. Siklon yang berdiameter kecil akan memberikan gaya sentrifugal sampai 2500 kali dibandingkan dengan gaya gravitasi pada settling chamber. Efisiensi siklon dapat ditingkatkan dengan pengurangan diameter, penambahan panjang siklon, dan penambahan rasio siklon terhadap diameter keluaran gas. Contoh industri yang menggunakan siklon ini adalah Ampol Lytton, industri petroleum refinery di Brisbane, Queensland, dan Alco…...

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