Free Essay

Geog

In: Science

Submitted By 214545832
Words 696
Pages 3
In primary School, we would define the atmosphere as a“ blanket covering the Earth” but in general it is defined as a layer of gases that surrounds the earth , I like to define it as the source of life ,that is to say there would not be life without the atmosphere . The atmosphere insulates the Earth from extreme temperatures; it keeps heat inside the atmosphere and it also blocks the Earth from much of the Sun's incoming ultraviolet radiation (NASA 1999).
The Earth’s atmosphere is divided into four different layers , namely , the Troposphere , Stratosphere , Mesosphere and the Thermosphere, In this essay , I am going to explain , with the aid of a diagram the layered structure of the atmosphere, the different temperatures that occur and also the different processes that take place in all the layers.

layered structure of atmosphere
As you can see in this picture above, this is how the layers are positioned in the atmosphere, it starts with the Troposphere which is the bottom layer and the one closest to the Earth ,it is the most important layer because all life takes place here, the important gases which are essential for living are found only here , it has a height of 12km, almost all weather occurs in this layer, the air is warmer at bottom of the troposphere and as you go up it gets cooler until eventually it reaches a point of dryness because altitude varies with latitude All the different layers have boundaries that separate them, in the troposphere it is called the tropopause ,the tropopauses separates the troposphere from the stratosphere which is the layer above and it is where the temperature declines , this rate of decline is known the lapse rate. The tropopause is not a complete barrier, it leaks. Strongly convective tropospheric storms transport water vapour up across the tropopause. There are breaks in the tropopause near jet stream westerlies allowing interchange of stratospheric and tropospheric air.(Atmospheric optics: 2014).In summary , the troposphere is considered to be the most important layer to humans , animals and plants because of all the essential needs it provides. The layer following the troposphere is the Stratosphere, it occupies the central region of the atmosphere , I personally consider this layer to be the second most important layer , mainly because it contains ozone layer which a layer that blocks the sun’s ultraviolet radiation from entering into the Earth .the ozone layer is very important to human, plant and animal life , imagine life without the ozone layer , it would be impossible for endless reasons , this introduces us to the term ‘’ozone depletion’’ , this is depletion or destruction of the ozone layer caused by the release of several manufactured chemicals , the depletion of the ozone layer creates a hole , allowing more UV radiation to enter the earth ,causing following impacts : Harm to human health, Adverse impacts on agriculture, forestry and natural ecosystems, Damage to marine life, eye and skin cancer in Animals, degradation of construction Materials(BC AIR QUALITY 2013).Unlike the troposphere , the stratosphere’s temperature increases with height ,which is 50 km , No weather occurs in this layer because the clouds are rare, the boundary that separates the stratosphere from the next layer which is the mesosphere is called the Stratopause., the stratosphere is quite an important layer ,it is very important that we take care of if by increasing the oxygen and decreasing CFCs in the air by planting more trees to keep our earth from further or total ozone depletion (Buzzle 2012).
The next layer is the mesosphere , this layer is above the troposphere , the temperature here decreases with height until it reaches the mesopause which is the area separating it from the next layer, it lies at an altitude of 50 to 80 km. both the stratosphere and mesosphere form the central region of the atmosphere and the mesosphere is also the second outermost layer .the mesosphere has clouds known as Noctilucent that appear as wispy clouds that only occur during the night , they look like the reflection of sunlight from meteoric dust particles coated with ice crystals , they are very beautiful clouds and they can be seen from the poles.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Geog

...When calculating the value of a deferred annuity, the deferment refers to the number of periods that: Payments are put off into the future It is fast and easy to make an algebraic calculation of the yield for a bond. False Which of the following statements is true regarding deferred annuities-all of these All of theses A bond that is purchased at a premium Was sold for more than its face value The formula: PVDA = R a m|i (1 + i)-n Refers to the present value of a deferred annuity with payment R being made for m months with a deferral period of n months The equation: PV = R/i Calculates the present value of a perpetuity The reason that a perpetuity goes on generating the same payment over time is that its corpus remains intact and it's only the interest income that is distributed. True Callable bonds: Can be recalled at the election of the bond issuer Capitalized cost is the "cost of capital" that a business incurs when it is making an investment in an asset.-f How are salvage values handled when calculating the capitalized cost? Salvage value is subtracted from the purchase price in the replacement cost perpetuity When calculating the capitalized cost of a technology asset like a computer, the present value of the maintenance or operating cost perpetuity may be many times larger than either the purchase price or the replacement cost perpetuity, depending on the assumptions that are used. True The expression [(1 + r)-L - 1] Converts the annual interest rate......

Words: 1586 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Geog Human Development Index

...1. The Human Development Index is a tool developed by the United Nations to measure and rank countries' levels of social and economic development measured on four things: Life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling and gross national income per capita. The HDI makes it possible to track changes in development levels over time and to compare development levels in different countries. By measuring life expectancy, education, literacy and gross domestic product per capita yearly, you can how individual countries have developed overtime. 2A) What freedoms you enjoy most in your day to day life: The freedomsI enjoy most in my life are the simple things that usually go by unnoticed; the freedom of speech is a significant one in my life as a lot of my time is spent on the internet writing opinions of what I think and being able to read opinions of others. I do not have to worry about what I say (in comparison to some Third World countries where there is a restriction on freedom of speech) as I have the freedom to speak the truth whenever I want. B) Areas in my life that I experience 'unfreedom' is mostly a result of my age and the fact that I am a poor student. This is restricting, as my age (19) is still classified as a teen and I am still not as 'mature' as I will be when I am in my early 20's. This makes it harder to get a job as I haven't got a degree and the fact that I am too young and inexperienced. Also, being a student restricts me...

Words: 408 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Geog

...World Cities Millionaire Cities, Megacities and World Cities Millionaire city: 1 million+ pop Megacity: 10 million+ pop, 2,000 persons/km², one or two places merged World City: Major area which doesn’t just serve area, but world, normally multinational These are all interlinked in a pattern, usually by train. Also they started mainly in MEDC’s, but have slowly appeared more in LEDC’s. Contemporary Urbanisation Processes Urbanisation: the movement and growth of proportion of people living in urban areas. Characteristics: Since the 1950’s, urbanisation has started rapidly to increase in LEDC’s. the main two reasons for this are population growth and migration. Push factors ← Poor infrastructure ← Unemployment ← Poverty/Famine ← Natural Disasters ← Civil War ← Desertification Pull factors ← Better Jobs ← Better Education ← City life ‘Bright Life’ ← Better Social life ← Higher pay ← Financial Aid ← Better Healthcare - Urbanisation in the UK: Started with the Industrial Revolution in the 1800’s | |Economic |Social |- |- | |Push Factor |1. Unemployment from mechanisation |1. Poorer education |- |- | | |2. Little pay |2. Poorer social life | | | | | ...

Words: 5277 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Geog 2rc3

...Geog 2RC3- Physiographic regions- Jan 10/14 Interior Plains- p.38-39 20 % of Canada’s land mass Sedimentary rocks Low relief Elevation increases from east to west Hudson Bay Lowlands- p- 39-41 3.5 % of landmass Low lying, poorly drained landscape (muskeg) Underlain by sedimentary rocks Arctic Lands- 41-42 Archipelago 10 % of Canada’s landmass Pre-Cambrian crystalline (igneous) rock overlain by Paleozoic sedimentary rock Ellesmere Island Appalachian Uplands- p.42 2% of Canada’s land mass Very old, heavily eroded mountains (Taconic mountains) Geologically complex (sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks, as a result of 2 periods of orogenesis (440 million years ago to 350 million years ago) Great Lakes-St Lawrence Lowlands- p 42-44 Less than 2% of landmass (1.8%) Smallest- 110 000 sq km 60% of all Canadians live here Underlain by Paleozoic sedimentary rocks Summary Given Canada’s enormous size- considerable variation in physical environment All of Canadian landscape influenced by glaciation Links between physical and human geographies Next- the Niagara Escarpment The Niagara Escarpment Dominant physiographic landform feature in Great Lakes-St Lawrence Lowlands Designated as a UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve in 1990 (12 total in Canada) 1st large scale environmental land use plan in Canada (The Niagara Escarpment Plan) Formation in 2 stages 1. Deposition of sediments by eperic (seas during Ordovician......

Words: 303 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Geog

...Term Assignment Population Dishan Mariarasa (4655834) Concordia University Term Assignment The evolution of humans has both positively and negatively contributed to an ever so changing environment. Understanding and educating ourselves about these events has become relatively important. In the world scale there are some indicators that must be used to understand a country’s positions and the world environment. A few of these measures will be discussed below. The level of income, population, and ecological footprint are some of the key factors that influence how the environment and resources are used up. Each of these element are related in one form or the other. For example, If income level of a country is high then in most cases the territory has a low population level and high ecological footprint. This can be vice versa for any of these indicators. One or two of these elements have a stronger impact on the worlds environment then the others. In my view I feel that population can be a major player in environmental health and sustainability. Population is a stronger impact on the environment health and sustainability compared to income. Population has been factor threw out history, beginning with the exploration by countries like England. As the need for new resources became a necessity the world map has been revealed and the population growth has lead to discovering new land and resources. With the world discovered is there any more room for the growing......

Words: 571 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Geog Essay

...Lee Ho Ting 3035049110 Essay 1: Compare and contrast the main characteristics of the urbanization process in the First and Third Worlds Introduction As a necessary step towards development, both the First world and Third world countries have been undertaking the process urbanization. Urbanization is referred to the process of the increase in the total population living in the urban areas through immigration to the areas and net increase in the urban population (Pacione, 2009). Although the processes of urbanization are similar among countries, there are still differences as the First world is defined as capitalist industrial market economies where the Third world is referred to states that failed to develop economically after independence (Pacione, 2009). The differences in the social and economic situations in the First and Third world as well as the different global environment have led to distinct characteristics in the urbanization process of countries. Understanding these characteristics is essential to the understanding the challenges faced by states in the process. Therefore this essay is going to discuss the similarities and differences between the urbanization processes starting from the eighteenth century up till now from the social and economic aspects in respect of the global environment. Similarities – Economic based urbanization The major similarity between the urbanization of the two different worlds is that economic development played a......

Words: 1845 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Geog- Ebola

...Ebola and the impact of development Ebola is a disease of humans and other primates caused by ebolavirus. Symptoms start two days to three weeks after contracting the virus, with a fever, sore throat, muscle pain and headaches. Typically vomiting, diarrhoea and rash follow along with decreased function of the liver and kidney. Around this time, affected people may begin to bleed both internally and externally. The virus may be acquired upon contact with blood and other bodily fluids of an affected human or other animal. Spreading through the air has not been documented in the natural environment. Fruit bars are believed to be a carrier and may spread the virus without being affected. Once human infection occurs, the disease may spread between people. There are more than 1,300 people with Ebola in West Africa and is having a devastating impact on the economies of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The impact has spread thousands of miles to African countries that have never recorded an Ebola death. Facts about Sierra Leone and the impact of Ebola: * The economy has deflated by 30% because of Ebola in Sierra Leone. * The agricultural sector is most impacted in terms of Ebola because the majority of people of Sierra Leone (66%) are farmers. * 12 out of 13 districts in Sierra Leone are now affected with Ebola. * Road blocks manned by police and military are preventing the movement of farmers and labourers as well as the supply of goods. * The president......

Words: 455 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Ms Fig 3 Geog

...(a)The species have been carried by marine trade on the hulls of ships and in bilge and ballast water and the movements tend to be between developed areas, reflecting trade patterns. Some areas are not involved; these tend to have less trade. There may be some specific knowledge of individual species from Figure 3 which should be credited, as should other species not shown on Figure 3 (rats). The major disruption is to food chains, as the alien species out-compete existing species reducing their numbers or even causing extinction. This can be directly through predation, or indirectly by occupying ecological niches. There is also the possibility that disease might be spread by new species, and in some cases damage to the physical make up of ecosystems (erosion). Biodiversity can be severely reduced, and in the worst cases ecosystems collapse. Level 2 5-7 Structure is satisfactory. Does explain the pattern with some clarity. Some understanding of impact on ecosystems and uses some geographical terminology, but incomplete; makes reference to map. Explanations are clear, but there are areas of less clarity. Lacks full range. There are some grammar, punctuation and spelling errors. (b) Indicative content The question requires both scales of threat to be covered, which could be accomplished using the same or different examples from within the named global ecosystem. In terms of global threats, the likely focus will be on climate change as an overarching threat to......

Words: 368 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Geog

...Year 10 Geography Coursework at Newhaven and Seaford, East Sussex. “Sediment is transported along the coast in large amounts and this has consequences for humans.” “Sediment is transported along the coast in large amounts and this has consequences for humans.” Introduction “Sediment is transported along the coast in large amounts and this has consequences for humans.” For our GCSE field work we were given this hypothesis (stated above) to examine. The most appropriate places we visited to investigate this hypothesis was Newhaven and Seaford on the South East coast. They are suitable places to visit as they are relatively close to us in Crawley, West Sussex. These places are most at risk from coastal erosion and flooding as they are along the South East coast. A process which transports sediment along the coast is called long shore drift. It is the process by which sand and pebbles are moved along a beach by the movement of waves. As water rushes up the beach it forms the swash and as it returns down the beach, the backwash. The most common direction in which the waves move is determined by the direction from which the wind blows most often (prevailing wind). There is evidence that long shore drift is operating and we are going to prove it. At Seaford long shore drift is constantly occurring moving sediment from West to East. Seaford regularly has beach replenishment operations where material is moved from one side of the beach to the other. Diagram of long shore......

Words: 2336 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Geog A2

...Assessment 1 04. The highest levels of insolation are found in the areas where there is a lower amount of cloud cover because if there is a lower amount of cloud then less insolation is reflected back into space. The highest rate of insolation is over Egypt. Over oceans the level of insolation decreases with increasing latitude both north and south of the equator. This is because of the decreasing angle of incidence of the sun, and so lower amounts of insolation occur. Over land it’s a lot different. Areas on the equator have lower amounts of insolation than areas both north and south, despite the higher angle of incidence. This is due to higher levels of cloud cover in these areas which reflect higher amounts back into space. The rate of insolation given decreases more rapidly in the southern hemisphere compared to the northern hemisphere. This is because there is a much larger cloud cover in the southern hemisphere due to there being more sea on the surface that provides an increase in water vapour for clouds. 05. Thermosphere – temperatures rise rapidly with height, perhaps to reach 1500°C. This is due to an increasing proportion of atomic oxygen in the atmosphere. Which like ozone, absorbs incoming ultra-violet radiation. Mesosphere – temperatures fall rapidly as there is no water vapour, cloud, dust, or ozone to absorb incoming radiation. This layer experiences the atmospheres lowest temperatures (-90°C) and strongest winds (nearly 300km/hour). The mesopause,......

Words: 737 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Geog

...Analyse the factors that cause differences in the hazards posed by volcanoes around the world (40mks) There are many volcanoes around the world, some of which are active and others are dormant. The factors which cause them to be active are varied and can cause a threat to the surrounding area, including the environment and economy as well as the social impacts on people. A volcanic hazard however can pose a bigger threat to these socio-economic factors as a result of the eruption. Firstly, the type of volcano will also depend on the type of eruption and where abouts it lies within the plate boundaries. A hot spot however does not lie on a plate boundary but causes a volcano due to the high pressures of heat flow. An example of this is in Hawaii, southwest of the United States. Kilauea is a shield volcano on the southern part of the island which erupts runny, non-viscous lava and tends to be large in size with a low profile. These eruptions are not very explosive but occur very regularly and due to it being located in Hawaii, it is a very developed country and therefore caused various hazards to the area. Another type of volcano is a stratovolcano, this is different to a shield volcano because it is tall with a steep profile and causes more explosive eruptions. For example the Pinatubo volcano is located in the Philippines between the Eurasian and Philippine Plate on a destructive plate boundary. The last biggest eruption of Pinatubo was in 1991 however it was in a less......

Words: 1383 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Plan for Human Geog Tourism

...Wednesday, 27 January 2016 Explain how the global pattern of tourism is the result of a variety of factors (25 Marks) (PLAN) Intro - Global data- in 1950 50 million international arrivals, in comparison in 2010 there was 1,015 million international arrivals - However, this growth in tourism is not uniformly distributed, rather some areas such as Europe have prospered with Europe growing from 25 million in 1950 to 550 million in 2010, but some areas such as South Asia who have grown from 0 million in 1990 to 20 million in 2010. Showing signs of there being spatial patterns and variations. - There are political, social, environmental and economic reasons for this pattern. - Throughout the globe we have two main types of tourism: • organised mass tourism - top-down, high density, ‘package holidays’, all-inclusive, can lead to economic leakages, enclaved tourism (main example- cruise ships), generally ran by TNCs • alternative tourism - bottom-up, less planned, involving communities, eco-tourism, integrating with culture, minimal impact on local environment, niche - Focus on the fact that it is not growth of tourism but the pattern of tourism The global pattern of tourism can result from political factors 1. When a country is stable, tourists are more likely to go there, as it is safer than a less stable country. This could mean that there has been differences in the pattern of tourism between politically stable countries and non......

Words: 1005 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Geog 204

...Chapter 18 – Energy Production Biomass and fossil fuels Biomass is plant matter used as fuel to produce energy Fossil Fuels once living plant matter used as energy. eg. Oil, Coal, Natural Gas Nuclear, tidal and geothermal power Nuclear: Process of cosmic evolution preceding the origins of the solar system Tidal Power: The forces of lunar motion Geothermal Power: Energy from the Earths core Cogeneration The generation of electricity and heat jointly by using wasted energy (Hot water) from conventional electricity. This hot water can be used for heating 
Renewable energy Forms of energy that can naturally regenerate or are continues 
Hydropower Mechanical Power of moving water to turn turbines to produce energy, Wind energy Generation of wind-derived electricity, using wind gush to turn turbines Solar power (361)
 Generating electricity from the suns energy. Passive solar energy Designing buildings that optimize suns light and heat Thermal electric generation Solar Radiation that is tracked by mirrors that concentrate the suns rays in order to heat liquid inside the pipes Photovoltaic energy PV power is produced when individual light particles “photons” are absorbed in a semiconductor such as silicon to create an electric current Processed and unprocessed Biomass Plant matter used as fuel Processed: (Charcoal, methane from biogas plants) Unprocessed: (wood, dung, veg matter and agriculture wastes) Tidal power Energy from the ocean found...

Words: 754 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Geog Exam

...Describe the landforms produced by rejuvenation. Rejuvenation is the renewal of a rivers energy in response to a relative fall in base level. Base level is the same as current sea level and so a drop in base level can be caused by either eustatic sea level fall, isostatic rebound or tectonic activity. There are three types of rejuvenation that I have learned about. One of them being incised meanders. Incised meanders are meanders which are particularly well developed and occur when a river’s base level has fallen giving the river a large amount of vertical erosion power, allowing it to downcut. There are two types of incised meanders, entrenched meanders and ingrown meanders. entrenched meanders are symmetrical and form when the river downcuts particularly quickly. Due to the speed which the river downcuts, there is little opportunity for lateral erosion to occur giving them their symmetrical shape. Ingrown meanders are asymmetrical. They form when the river downcuts at a less rapid pace, giving the river opportunity to erode laterally as well as vertically. Another type of rejuvenation is river terraces. This is caused by a river eroding vertically into the former floodplain. If vertical erosion is rapid then paired terraces are formed either side of the channel. If vertical erosion is slower though, unpaired terraces form as the river is given opportunity to meander. River terraces are particularly useful for settlements as they provide flat areas above the......

Words: 913 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Geog

...Explain how people can manage the environmental and social costs of globalisation for a better world (15marks) Suggest why the various groups shown hold differing views about this global trade. (10marks) The first view of UK customers being generally happy but some businesses and workers are less pleased, this is because customers are getting what they want easily and relatively cheaply in local shops and supermarkets. In contrast, businesses e.g. Trans-national corporations are having the adverse effect of losing customers as products are sold cheaper and are more accessible elsewhere. In result of this, many workers are losing their jobs and becoming unemployed which is devastating to many families. Next, millions of Chinese people and their government support this venture, this is because it brings money and investment into the area which can be used to develop and improve infrastructure, facilities and attractions. Furthermore, more jobs will be made so it is beneficial to the people living near the factories that manufacture the goods etc. Thirdly, Maersk shipping lines has offices in 150 countries, and 500 large container ships is a positive view as it will create millions of jobs making the financial state for many families and the overall economy stronger. Also, due to the connection between different countries and the vast size of the company suggests there would be profit which could be used for development and growth of the area, increased wages of employees......

Words: 337 - Pages: 2