Free Essay

Historical

In: Historical Events

Submitted By highbillings2
Words 614
Pages 3
Skepticism, Rationalism, Empiricism, and Realism Skepticism well known as skepticism involves generally facts on the questions that articulate attitude, facts, beliefs, as well as opinions generated from claims granted elsewhere. Skeptical is a philosophical term and the anticipation of it is supposed to be supported by evidence. Many philosophers around the world, believes that skepticism is a pyrrhonist that refrains and position itself through claiming and making truth. Through various researches, skepticism is believed does not claim truth terming it as an impossible perception however, recommending suspension as belief. On the other hand, empiricism is closely related but not identical as far as academic skepticism is concerned. Through the study, we find that skepticism is comprised of two pragmatic type involving philosophical skepticism and nomothetic science, which is also known as radical empiricism (Greco, 2011). Meanwhile, rationalism is commonly an epistemology discipline that attests knowledge at large. This is a role as well as a source of knowledge that works and articulates justification. However, rationalism is defined as a theory based on the criterion of truth that lacks sensory not but with intellectual deductive. Reality plays a bigger role in refraining rationalism in that it asserts intrinsic and logic structure hence claiming that truth exist and through this intellect can directly grasp these truths at hand. Basing on this fact, as far as the issue of belief is concerned, Rationalism has termed empiricism as one of the greatest rivals in argumentative perspective. It is out researchers understanding of how rationalism feels about the truth that we realize that the perception takes into account that the reason has precedence over other ways of acquiring knowledge and this uniqueness plays a vital role in pre-modern ways of understanding (Robertson, 2010). Moreover, empiricism is well known as a theory of knowledge that originates from sensory experience within the life of a human being. This is one of the philosophical articulations, which highlight experience norm based on the evidence tabled out as far as rationalism, idealism and historicism is concerned. However, empiricism is a philosophical science that works based on the emphasis. In regards to empiricism, knowledge is taken into consideration as a tentative and probabilistic subject that results into revision and falsification theorem (Rorty & Sellar, 1997). In addition, realism which is an extensive terms, plays a bigger role in stressing out the representation of reality and its verisimilitude position. Generally, this is a technique used in many schools as far as writing is concerned. Realism on the other hand denotes a specific subject matter specifically representing middle class life style and this has been considered realism as a reaction norm against romanticism (Fer & Wood & Batchelor, 1993). The disagreement between rationalism and empiricism distress the degree to which we are reliant upon sense experience in our effort to gain knowledge at large. Rationalists assert that there are important means in which our ideas and comprehension are gained independently of sense experience. Empiricists declare that sense experience is the decisive cause of all our concepts and knowledge. The availed articulation comes in our life’s especially during study time that people administers realism, rationalism, rationalism and skepticism as real features in shaping up speech and how one express him or herself while communicating with others in epistemology level of philosophical understanding.
References
Fer, B. & Wood, P. & Batchelor, D. (1993). Realism, Rationalism, Surrealism: Art between the Wars (Modern Art Practices and Debates) [Paperback]. Washington DC: Yale University Press.
Greco, J. (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Skepticism (Oxford Handbooks) Paperback. New York: Oxford University Press.
Robertson, M. (2010). Rationalism Paperback. Washington: FQ Books.
Rorty, R. & Sellar, W. (1997). Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind [Paperback]. United Kingdom: Harvard University Press.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Historical Perspectives

...Historical Perspectives of Abnormal Psychology Psy/410 October 9, 2012 Toni Heath Historical Perspectives of Abnormal Psychology For a number of years, multiple forms of hysteria or madness have been seen in every society and culture. Vast varieties of theories, and many myths as well as legends, have been developed to help better explain such disorders and conditions. Society’s view on what was considered to be abnormal behavior was often determined on these particular phenomenon’s, as well as paranormal forces, unstable personality, the anger of the gods, hereditary factors, the influence of the moon, and debauchery. Throughout time history has shown that theorists are continually developing a vast amount of theories to help explain psychological issues. These theories typically fall under three basic categories: scientific/medical (biological, imbalances, emotional stressors, or faulty learning processes), humanitarian (cruelty or inadequate living conditions), and mystical/supernatural (possession of spirits), (Frude, 1998). To get a fuller and better understanding many theorist focus these ideas of psychology have had in their field of study, because it is good to know the beginnings or the origins of unusual or abnormal behavior, knowing how these behaviors are treated and noticed, even to known how it evolved into a scientific discipline, is just as important to the history. The concepts of abnormal psychology has been studied for centuries, but......

Words: 1061 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Historical Sources

...University of Phoenix Material Historical Sources Historians study records of the past to understand and explain the stories of the people and events of earlier times. These records, or historical sources, form the core of the scholarly practice of history. There are two types of sources on which historians generally rely: primary and secondary. Primary Sources Primary sources are firsthand accounts or records. Primary sources provide a view of historical events or people as witnessed by people who were actually there. Primary sources have not been interpreted by others, but use the words, sounds, or images of those present during a historical period. Primary sources often incorporate the interpretation or attitude of the individual who recorded the experience; different people may often record different impressions of a single event. Examples of primary sources include the following: • A letter written by Otto von Bismarck • A recording or libretto of a portion of Wilhelm Richard Wagner’s The Valkyrie • The recording or transcript of a speech given by Jacques Chirac • The transcript of an interview with an 18th-century factory worker • Property tax registers from Languedoc • A photograph of German troops moving through a devastated Polish town during the Nazi invasion • A reprint of a propaganda poster • The last will and testament of a Norwegian merchant • A print of Paul Nash’s We Are Making a New World • A translation of the diary Anne Frank kept......

Words: 386 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Historical Prespective

...Historical Perspective: Immigration Reform and Gun Control Laws Leslie S. Purdy PAD510 Intro. Public Policy Analysis July 17, 2013 Dr. Phillip Neely Jr. Immigration is an issue at the heart of America. Today, with the exception of the few appropriately named Native Americans, every American is an immigrant or a descendent of an immigrant. In recent years the discussion of immigration policy in the United States has focused mainly around the regulation and selection of legal immigrants and the control and penalties regarding illegal immigrants. The historical perspectives of former President George H. W. Bush, and President Obama clearly shows how different the immigration issue is for republicans and democrats alike. Each party appears to be pro-immigration for varying reasons. President Bush found that during his time as governor of Texas that many immigrants entered the country through illegal means as a viable workforce. During his second term as President he also found that many Americans did not agree with giving undocumented immigrants a path to legal citizenship, and found it difficult to come up with a program for immigration reform. Some of former President Bush’s comprehensive immigration reform included: 1. Introduce a guest worker program, which would include a tamper-proof identification card 2. Enhance border security 3. Stricter immigration enforcement at businesses, which would reduce exploitation and help slow demand for......

Words: 1136 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Historical Materialism

...and heavy, the river floods, bursts its banks, and may take a new course. This represents the dialectical part of Marx’s famous theory of dialectical (or historical) materialism." Historical materialism is a methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history first articulated by Karl Marx (1818–1883) as the materialist conception of history. It is a theory of socioeconomic development according to which changes in material conditions (technology and productive capacity) are the primary influence on how society and the economy are organised. Historical materialism looks for the causes of developments and changes in human society in the means by which humans collectively produce the necessities of life. Social classes and the relationship between them, plus the political structures and ways of thinking in society, are founded on and reflect contemporary economic activity. Since Marx's time, the theory has been modified and expanded by thousands of Marxist thinkers. It now has many Marxist and non-Marxist variants. Objectives of Study: • To define Historical Materialism. • To discuss about the basic philosophy behind the concept of historical Materialism by Karl Marx. • To study about the Recent Versions of Historical Materialism. • To findout the limitations of the Concept of Historical Materialism. Research Methodology: This project work is descriptive & analytical in approach. It is largely based on secondary & study of books......

Words: 3080 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Historical Cost

...financial accounting according to the different measurement attributes, can be divided into historical cost accounting, current cost accounting, fair value accounting and other different models. Today is the leading and ruling position, or historical cost accounting model, although it faces challenges, can still be regarded as the basic pattern of financial accounting. 1, the historical cost accounting features 1, the basis for the past recognized. most important feature of the historical cost accounting is a past-oriented. From the basis of confirmation of view, the historical cost accounting is based on past transactions or events have occurred based on. Whether accrual or cash basis, are targeted to have occurred in terms of past transactions. The former caused a result of past transactions and the rights and obligations; the latter a result of past transactions caused by cash. Their common feature is based on transactions or events that have occurred in the foundation. 2, measured at historical cost. This is the essence of historical cost accounting. Assets, liabilities, costs measured at historical cost, provided that for the past history information associated with the lack of reality. 3, follow the decision of revenue realization and matching principle. double-entry bookkeeping has been created, through cost and revenue for the ratio to determine the income, has been the main features of accounting, and constitutes the entire accounting......

Words: 1457 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Historical Perspective

...Running Head: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 1 Historical Perspective Joyce Lawson Professor Dr. Phillip R. Neely, Jr. PAD 510 Introduction to Public Policy Analysis July 21, 2013 Running Head: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 2 Historical Perspective Discuss the historical perspective of the time when each policy was discussed or implemented. What was the context of the problem of the day and the urgency for the policy? The Policies Recent American health care and foreign policies were discussed over a span of two different administrations. President Bill Clinton began addressing the gaping problems in the health care system in 1993 and President Barack Obama continued to seek national health solutions in 2009. President G.H. Bush was considered adept at crafting strong foreign policies. George W. Bush experienced the same sentiment until close to the end of his presidency. Historical perspective of the health care policies President Clinton’s health care policy, also known as the Health Security Act was designed by a task force chaired by his wife Hilary Rodham Clinton Health care reform had been a staple of Clinton’s presidential campaign and he fully intended to deliver on his promise with a package palatable to both parties and to the public. On September 22, 1993 he addressed Congress and......

Words: 1636 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Historical Eves

...ndia is a diverse country steeped in history. Its past has seen a melting pot of different religions, rulers and empires -- all of which have left their mark on the countryside. Many historical places in India are listed as World Heritage sites due to their cultural importance. Visit these popular historical places in India and take a trip back in time to ancient India. You'll marvel at the architecture of what are some of the most stunning and captivating historical attractions that India has to offer. Taj Mahal at sunrise - James Gritz/Photographer's Choice RF/Getty Images James Gritz/Photographer's Choice RF/Getty Images 1. The Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal looms fairytale-like from the banks of the Yamuna River. It's actually a tomb that contains the body of Mumtaz Mahal – the wife of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. He had it built as an ode to his love for her. Dating back to 1630 AD, the Taj Mahal is made out of marble and took 22 years and 20,000 workers to complete. One of the most captivating things about it is the way its color appears to gradually alter in the changing light of the day. Taj Mahal Travel Guide 5 Top Places to Stay in Agra Best Delhi to Agra Trains Explore the Golden Triangle in India More » Ads The Triposo Travel App www.triposo.com/free_download 25000 destinations, 6M travelers sharing their experiences with you. Homework help brainly.in 80% question get an answer in 10 min - www.sxc.hu user hde2003 www.sxc.hu user hde2003 2. Hampi ...

Words: 693 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Historical Costing

...http://hbr.org/2013/03/why-fair-value-is-the-rule/ar/2 For the past two decades, fair value accounting—the practice of measuring assets and liabilities at estimates of their current value—has been on the ascent. This marks a major departure from the centuries-old tradition of keeping books at historical cost. It also has implications across the world of business, because the accounting basis—whether fair value or historical cost—affects investment choices and management decisions, with consequences for aggregate economic activity. The argument for fair value accounting is that it makes accounting information more relevant. However, historical cost accounting is considered more conservative and reliable. Fair value accounting was blamed for some dubious practices in the period leading up to the Wall Street crash of 1929, and was virtually banned by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission from the 1930s through the 1970s. The 2008 financial crisis brought it under fire again. Some scholars and practitioners have connected its proliferation in accounting-based performance metrics to the actions of bankers and other managers during the run-up to the crisis. Specifically, as asset prices rose through 2008, the fair value gains on certain securitized assets held by financial institutions were recognized as net income, and thus sometimes used to calculate executive bonuses. And after asset prices began falling, many financial executives blamed fair value markdowns for......

Words: 1076 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Historical Laws

...Historical Laws and Security Melissa Church CJS/250 Rich Montcalm July. 27, 2015 Historical Laws and Security In a brief description, here you will find the following laws in which they were originated. Civilizations throughout time have found it necessary to establish a set of laws dependent on their society's religious beliefs, social structure, setting, and other variables. Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally "Great Paper"), also called Magna Carta Liber Tatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English legal charter, originally issued in the year 1215. It was written in Latin. Magna Carta required King John of England to proclaim certain rights (pertaining to nobles and barons), respect certain legal procedures, and accept that his will could be bound by the law. It explicitly protected certain rights of the King's subjects, whether free or fettered most notably the writ of habeas corpus, allowing appeal against unlawful imprisonment that led to the rule of constitutional law today in the English speaking world. The earliest legal system known in its entirety is the Code of Hammurabi which was established in ancient Babylonia nearly 4000 years ago. The Code of Hammurabi was compiled by King Hammurabi himself. Hammurabi was the most notable ruler of the first Babylonian dynasty, and unified Mesopotamia under one central government. Hammurabi's life is unknown, it is predicted that he established his reign around 1792-1750 B.C., thus dating the Code to......

Words: 773 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Historical Materialism

...TermPaperWarehouse.com - Free Term Papers, Essays and Research Documents The Research Paper Factory JoinSearchBrowseSaved Papers Home Page » Other Topics Historical Materialism In: Other Topics Historical Materialism INTRODUCTION "In the Marxian view, human history is like a river. From any given vantage point, a river looks much the same day after day. But actually it is constantly flowing and changing, crumbling its banks, widening and deepening its channel. The water seen one day is never the same as that seen the next. Some of it is constantly being evaporated and drawn up, to return as rain. From year to year these changes may be scarcely perceptible. But one day, when the banks are thoroughly weakened and the rains long and heavy, the river floods, bursts its banks, and may take a new course. This represents the dialectical part of Marx’s famous theory of dialectical (or historical) materialism." Historical materialism is a methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history first articulated by Karl Marx (1818–1883) as the materialist conception of history. It is a theory of socioeconomic development according to which changes in material conditions (technology and productive capacity) are the primary influence on how society and the economy are organised. Historical materialism looks for the causes of developments and changes in human society in the means by which humans collectively produce the necessities of life. Social......

Words: 449 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Historical Accounting

...Cost is then subject to depreciation with to write off cost of the asset over its estimated useful life down to the recoverable amount ASSET AND LIABILITIES IN DOMINATED CORRENT Monetary items such as cost balance receivable and payable which are dominated in foreign currency using the closing exchange rate under IFRS. EXCEPTION TO THE HISTORICAL COST BASIS OF ACCOUNT REVALUATION OF PROPERTY PLANT EQUIPMENT Under IFRS it is acceptable, but not required to restate the values of property, plant and equipment to a fair value; fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged or a liability settled between knowledgeable, willing partners in an arm’s length transaction. Such a policy must be applied to all asset of a particular class. It would therefore be acceptable for an entity to revolve free hold properties every three (3) years. The revaluation must be made with sufficient regularity to ensure that the carrying value does not differ materially from market value in subsequent years. A surplus on revaluation would be recovered as a reserve movement not as income. DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENT Under IFRS and US GAAP derivative financial instruments are stated at fair value (mark to market) with movement recorded in the income statement. FINANCIAL REPORTING IN HYPER INFLATIONARY ECONOMIES IFRS requests a separate method of accounting in currencies deemed to be hyper inflationary. The characteristics of a hyper inflation include the population......

Words: 910 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Historical Cost

...Accounting Communication Tatiana Egipti ESSAY "What are the arguments for and against continuing the use of historical costs in accounting?" Under Historical Cost valuation method all assets are presented on the balance sheet at their nominal (original) cost at the time of their acquisition. The Historical Cost method is the method prescribed by US GAAP for use by US companies. The proponents of the Historical Cost method often point out that one of the main advantages of such method is verifiability of initial cost information. This is true because the assets’ historical costs are based on actual transaction information, not merely estimates or hypothetical transactions. Thus, the costs are measured and presented objectively and are less susceptible to manipulation by management. There is also the Cost Efficiency advantage due to the fact that most times cost information is readily available and requires very minimal effort to obtain and verify. Additionally, determination of Historical Cost does not require any estimation by accountants and can be easily substantiated for audit purposes. Because of the objectivity of Historical Costs, information produced by accounting systems based on such methodology is easily understood by the end users. On the downside, many critics of the Historical Cost Accounting argue that usefulness of such approach diminishes in the periods of inflation when the purchasing power of money changes while the book values remain unchanged. The...

Words: 404 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Historical Analysis

...format can be easily applied by any military professional seeking insight from historical battles and campaigns to help deepen his/her understanding of warfare and the profession of arms a. The battle analysis methodology is a process for systematic study of a battle or campaign. b. This process takes the form of a checklist that ensures completeness in examining the critical aspects of the chosen subject. c. There are two forms of the Battle Analysis: Basic and Advanced. Both utilize the same four steps, but the Advanced is more complex and detailed. Also, the Advanced analyzes the strategic influences on the battle. 2. Format: The checklist is divided into four steps, each of which builds on the previous one(s) to provide a logical order for the study. a. The four steps are: (1) Define the Subject/Evaluate the sources. (2) Review the Setting (Set the Stage). (3) Describe the Action. (4) Assess the Significance of the Action. b. In the first step, you decide what battle you are going to study. In the next two, you gather the information necessary for a thorough and balanced study, and organize it in a logical manner to facilitate analysis. In the last step, you analyze the information to derive “lessons learned.” 3. Purpose: The battle analysis methodology is a guide to help ensure that important aspects of the study of a historical battle or campaign are not forgotten. It is not a rigid checklist that must be...

Words: 1707 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Historical Places

...“Historical Places” The Fort Santiago, National Museum, some part of Intramuros, the Rizal Park, and Paco Park are the five historical places here in Manila that we went to. It was a great chance and opportunity for me to see and visit them, since aside from Rizal Park, it was my first time to be in those places. The activity gave me a meaningful experience for I gained much information beyond those written on books. It was awesome and fun having a tour in our country’s historical spots increasing our appreciation to these beautiful scenery of the past even until now. Our first stop was in Intramuros. There, we took pictures and enjoyed a little walk above the mighty wall. We went on up to the wider part where some realistic cannons are displayed. Thereafter, we took some rest and went on to the National Museum. Before entering, we were reminded about some strict rules upon going inside the museum. I was comfortable inside for the place was cool and clean. I was amazed on the different artworks and paintings created by our Filipino painters, especially the “Spoliarium” by Juan Luna. It was so magnificent and large that I was inspired with the effort and time he spent to finish the painting. There were more or less a thousand of artworks displayed in the national museum and all are unique, some were unfinished because of a closed reason and some were too old but still can be appreciated because of the impact of art in the eyes. For me, it was......

Words: 681 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Historical Leaders

...Jesse Yeager EXS-335 2/18/2016 William Kuehl Historical Leaders Essay: Otho Davis Otho Leroy Davis was born on February 8th, 1934. He was born and raised in Texas, and graduated from South Park High School. He served in the U.S Army Medical Service Corp for 3 years after graduating. Otho graduated from Lamar University in 1957 and received a degree in physical education, before receiving his master degree from Kent State, where he began his athletic training career. In 1971, Davis became an associate athletic trainer for the Baltimore Colts and in 1973 he became the head athletic trainer for the Philadelphia Eagles until 1995. During his time with the Colts and Eagles, he became the first NATA Executive Director, and the NATA made extensive progress in the understanding of how to take care of athletes during and after injury. (2) Otho Davis was recognized many different times for his work by the NATA, which awarded him the Professional Trainer of the Year award 5 times while he was with the Eagles. He was also elected into the Athletic Trainer Hall of Fame in 1981, while he was still working. Under Davis, the NATA secured professional liability insurance for athletic trainers, brought in the first corporate sponsors, and established the national office in Dallas, Texas. When he secured professional liability insurance for athletic trainers, he allowed athletic trainers to be safe from their athletes accusing them of negligence and other claims without evidence and......

Words: 530 - Pages: 3