Free Essay

Imagery, Peetlep Model and Technology

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By msh1967
Words 3414
Pages 14
Imagery, PEETLEP Model and Technology
Michael S. Harmon
Capella University

Abstract
The use of imagery in the realm of sport psychology is widely accepted and used to enhance skill, reduce anxiety, increase decision making skills, etc. Although several models are available to construct imagery scripts, the PEETLEP model offers seven concepts that should improve the delivery system over more traditional oriented approaches. Integrate that model with advances in technology (video capture, podcasts, virtual reality), the sport psychologist has the opportunity to help an athlete enhance their performance like no other time in history.

Imagery conducted for sport performance is referred to as sport imagery, but can be used interchangeably with the broader term mental imagery (Taylor and Wilson, 2005). Several other terms including mental practice, mental rehearsal, and visualization have also been used to refer to various components of mental imagery in sport (Morris, Spittle, & Watt, 2005; Taylor and Wilson, 2005; Weinburg & Gould, 2007). Specifically, sport imagery can be defined as using all senses to re-create or create a sport experience in the mind with the goal of enhancing sport performance during training and competition (Morris, Spittle, & Watt, 2005; Vealey & Greenleaf, 2001; Weinberg & Gould, 2007).
There is a large amount of empirical evidence that supports that mental imagery works (Liggett, 2000; Moran, 2002; Morris, Spittle, & Watt, 2005; Porter, 2003; Taktek, 2004; Taylor & Wilson, 2005; Vealey & Greenleaf, 2001; Weinberg & Gould, 2007). Anecdotal evidence is also plentiful, including several accounts from well-known athletes of various sports. For example, golfer Tiger Woods has acknowledged the importance of seeing and feeling desired shots in the mind prior to physically hitting the golf ball (Moran, 2002). Tennis great Chris Evert visualized matches based on her opponent’s style of play (Weinberg & Gould, 2007). Evert was quoted that she often felt like she had already played a match even before stepping on the court (Weinberg & Gould, 2007). Hockey legend Wayne Gretzky used visualization by looking at pictures of previous champions and repeatedly envisioning himself holding the Stanley Cup (Orlick, 1998). Two-time Olympic Gold Winner Greg Louganis used imagery by visualizing his dives in slow motion (Liggett, 2000; Louganis & Marcus, 1995). Many other great athletes have been known to use some form of imagery including Muhammad Ali, Michael Jordan, Bill Russell, Andre Agassi, and Carl Lewis (Liggett, 2000; Porter, 2003). Sport imagery is not only valued by the athletes, but also by many coaches. One coach that is probably the most recognized for using sport imagery is Hall of Fame coach Phil Jackson, who methodically employs mental concepts and techniques to the game of basketball. In Jackson’s books (Sacred Hoops: Spiritual Lessons of a Hardwood Warrior, 1996; More than a Game, 2001; The Last Season: A Team in Search of its Soul, 2005) he described the importance of the intellectual component of playing basketball and how it contributes to personal and team success. With eleven NBA (National Basketball Association) championships, Jackson’s teams definitely had the mental edge over their opponents. The collection of empirical and anecdotal evidence makes it apparent that sport imagery plays a key role in athletic performance and sport success. Research findings also indicate that sport imagery is more effective when it is combined with physical practice (Morris, Spittle, & Watt, 2005; Taktek, 2004; Weinberg & Gould, 2007). Any improvements to either mental training or physical training, or both, would certainly result in greater gains in sport performance. Therefore, it is important to determine the best methods to enhance the sport imagery experience in conjunction with physical training. Can the PEETLAP model and new technology integrate to enhance athletic performance in the realm of sport imagery?
PETTLEP MODEL
The following seven items for sport psychologists to consider have been distinguished for ease of communication. The model comprises: physical, environment, task, timing, learning, emotion, and perspective. The model draws on the neuroscientific functional equivalence literature previously mentioned and our experiences of the factors that relate to motor imagery script construction (Holmes & Collins, 2001). All the PETTLEP components are considered by Langian theory because “it is the interaction between training mode and the propositional structure of the imagery presentation that is crucial” (Carroll, Marzillier, & Merian, 1982, p. 76).

Physical
Most sport performers encounter their first imagery training sessions with the instructions, “lying or sitting comfortably, visualize . . .” Indeed, some authors (e.g., Miller, 1991; Weinberg, Seabourne, & Jackson, 1981) advocate relaxation strategies prior to imagery to clear the mind of distractions. However, the literature’s support for such wide spread use seems at best devided and certainly not a critical variable (Murphy, 1994). Relaxation’s link with imagery seems to be based in its therapeutic past (e.g., Wolpe, 1958) rather than through empirical support from sport psychology research. Suinn’s (1976) visuo-motor behavior rehearsal is a method specifically requiring relaxation prior to imagery. While there is little doubt that some relaxation strategies can have a positive imagery effect for some individuals, the technique does not take into account the influences of relaxation which would seem to be totally contrary to the somatic state of the performing athlete. The majority of relaxation techniques described is primarily somatic in nature and, therefore, is seen to act primarily on somatic systems (Davidson & Schwartz, 1976). However, if relaxation strategies are to be used then techniques which can best create the “calm mind–aroused body” observed in elite performance (Hooper & Collins, 1999) should be advocated.
Environment
Lang (1979, 1985) has emphasized that the response and meaning propositions must be relevant to the individual. Motor imagery should, therefore, be personalized through full, multisensory involvement of the performer in the generation of the motor image content. Suggesting situations that are not specific to the performer or the performance may not be an effective use of mental practice. However, supporting individual motor imagery with videotaped recordings of performance in familiar training and competition environments should more effectively access the correct motor representation. In cases in which performance is to take place at a new venue, every attempt should be made to provide the performer with multisensory environmental cues to increase the validity of the stimulus propositions in the imagery process. These may include video footage, photographs, discussion with previous venue performers etc. (Syer & Connolly, 1987, p. 64)
Task
When considering the findings by Konttinen, Lyytinen, and Konttinen (1995) there is strong evidence that imagery techniques should be different for elite compared with pre-elite performers. Konttinen and his team identified that during good performance, elite rifle shooters focus primarily on motor control prior to triggering (internally driven) whereas pre-elite shooters were more concerned with visuo-spatial processing (externally driven). Therefore, the imagery modality for elite versus pre-elite, should be different until the pre-elite, begin to display task characteristics of the elite group.
Similarly, Hardy (1997) has provided evidence that task characteristics should determine the primary perspective of the imagery although possibly not at the expense of individual perspective preference. In tasks where form is emphasized as important, Callow and Hardy (1999) have suggested that a combination of external visual imagery with kinesthetic imagery will lead to superior performance with the external visual image possessing greater information about the nature of the form.
Timing
Vogt (1995) showed that movement tempo and consistency of relative timing were similar in physical and mental practice conditions. He concluded that performance, observation, and imagery of sequential patterns involves a common process. A study by Collins, Morriss, Bellamy, and Hooper (1997) has stressed temporal rhythm, as opposed to achieving key body positions, as a key feature of effective performance. Realistic timing, it is suggested, is, therefore, even more important. In sports where the temporal nature of the task is important, performers frequently refer to it first when doing well, and many athletes identify such as important for their imagery scripts.
Learning
According to research by Pascual-Leone, Dang, Cohen, L. G., Brasil-Neto, Cammarota, and Hallett (1995) the motor responses will change over time as learning takes place, so the content of the motor imagery must change to accommodate such learning. By analyzing the motor areas, they have shown that motor imagery of finger movements increased in conjunction with motor preparation and execution over a one week period. Therefore, where motor imagery is combined with technical training or in intensive learning phases of a task, regularly reviewing content is essential to increase learning.
Emotion
Emotion has recently been referred to as “the missing link” in sports performance (Botterill, 1997), while others have observed that “the central core of mental training is emotional” (Loehr, 1997). Similarly, Moritz, Hall, Martin, and Vadocz (1996) found that high sport-confident roller skaters used more mastery and arousal imagery suggesting that emotions are an important imagery mediator. Lang (1985) suggests that the performer’s response, and the meaning he or she attaches to a scenario, must be considered if strengthening of the memory is to take place. However, Lang has also stated that during emotional imagery the efferent pattern is even more elaborate.
Perspective
As previously suggested, motor imagery is performed from an internal orientation (primarily kinesthesis, but concurring with other individual and task specific percepts such as vision and olfaction). It is generally well regarded that this perspective, along with similar response propositional approaches (Lang, 1979, 1985), leads to a greater physiological response during the imagery process (Perry & Morris, 1995; Hale, 1982). This in turn, should lead to more effective learning and performance outcomes. However, recent findings have led to renewed interest in imagery perspective with some authors (e.g., Hardy & Callow,
1999; White, & Hardy, 1995) proposing the use of external visual imagery as a more effective approach for certain types of form based skills which allow the performer to “see” precise positions and movements (Hardy & Callow, 1999).
TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES
It is within these contexts that the new forms of technology be explored and applied to enhance the script writing procedure and enrich the athletes experience and performance. Sport psychologists, along with coaches and athletes, are already using modern devices such as digital cameras, digital video recorders, computers, and various software programs in conjunction with mental imagery (Straub, 2003). It is likely that using the latest technology will generate innovative applications of imagery for skill acquisition and performance enhancement. There are several high-tech devices available today, particularly mobile devices, which have great potential in functioning as technical tools for sport imagery. Examples of mobile devices include digital media players, smartphones, personal digital assistants, and handheld personal computers. The iPod is perhaps the most popular modern device to date. The number of iPods sold have reached over 140 million, making the iPod the most widely-used digital device worldwide (Mack & Ratcliffe, 2007).
Technology is constantly evolving. This means that older, inferior products are always being replaced by high-tech models that are more advanced, more efficient, and more reliable. New products have several advantages. One advantage is that new models usually have more functions and applications. Also, next-generation models often possess a distinctive aesthetic value or “cool factor” effect. In some cases, this may entice individuals to try something new or different. It is apparent that “many athletes are attracted to approaches that involve new technology,” (Morris, Spittle, & Watt, 2005), thereby promoting the practice of mental techniques. So for athletes who normally would not be interested in mental imagery techniques, he or she may actually try it if “cool” gadgets (specifically iPods) are involved.
Technical techniques via video modeling, biofeedback, and flotation are suggested as worthy considerations in the application of imagery in sport (Morris, Spittle, & Watt; Fletcher, 2005). Research evidence supports that the use of technical aids can potentially facilitate mental practice by increasing the accuracy and efficacy of imagery (Morris, Spittle, & Watt; Fletcher, 2005). For instance, Mayers (2005) determined that video modeling was successful in increasing free throw shooting accuracy among high school basketball players. Aldridge, Morris, and Anderson (2003) found that self-efficacy and basketball free throw shooting performance significantly increased for participants in the imagery-plus-floatation condition. Biofeedback studies have also shown positive results in increasing sport performance, but have yielded inconsistent results (Kavussanu, Crews, & Gill, 1998).
The existing research regarding VR for sport psychology training is rather anecdotal in nature. Sorrentino, Levy, Katz and Peng (2002)developed a head-mounted display (HMD) system that allowed speed skaters to prepare for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. An environment of the competition venue was created, and the system allowed the athletes to navigate within the scene and become acclimated to the surroundings. The athletes reported positive experiences with the system, but no controlled experiment was performed to validate the observations. Another recent study also looked at using VR to assist a golfer in learning relaxation techniques (Lagos, Vaschillo, Vaschillo, Lehrer, Bates Pandina, 2011). Biofeedback training was administered to a college athlete using a golf simulator over a 10-week period, and psychometric tests and physiological measurements were recorded. The results demonstrated that the athlete had improved anxiety control after using the training system. While both of these studies suggest using VR for sport psychology training would be beneficial, controlled experiments are needed to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the systems.
CONCLUSIONS
With the combining of the PEETLEP model, which encourages the use of multiple variables found in the execution of athletic performance, with the emergence of the incredible technological advances that sport psychologists may utilize, the use of imagery in athletics should see a significant increase. With the availability of video capture applications on tablets and smartphones, the sport psychologist can provide on demand, not only sport specific but individual specific imagery video’s in a matter of minutes as opposed to hours or days that was the case in the recent past. Also, the emergence of Virtual reality may be one of the best tools that a sport psychologist may have to increase the effectiveness of imagery in athletic performance. Virtual Reality will allow for the sport psychologist to individualize and immerse the athlete in situations and learning environments without having to rely on the “expertise” of learned imagery by the athlete. Also, Virtual Reality may employ all seven aspects of the PEETLEP model which would give the athlete the best experience in imagery thereby heightening the level of performance.

REFERENCES
Aldridge, T., Morris, T., & Andersen, M.B. (2003). A comparison of flotation and autogenic relaxation for the facilitation of imagery of basketball shooting. In New approaches to exercise and sport psychology: Theories, methods and applications. Proceedings of the 11th European Congress of Sport Psychology. Retrieved September 23, 2007 from http://www.ifi.ku.dk/fepsac/abstracts/FEPSAC2003%20Book%20of%20Abstracts.pdf.
Botterill, C. (1997). The role of emotion in sport performance: The missing link? Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 9, 12.
Carroll, D., Marzillier, J., & Merian, S. (1982). Psychophysiological Changes Accompanying Different Types of Arousing and Relaxing Imagery. Psychophysiology, 19(1), 75-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.1982.tb02603.x
Collins, D. J., Morriss, C., Bellamy, M., & Hooper, H. (1997). Competition stress effects on kinematics and performance level in elite javelin throwers. Journal of Applied Sport
Psychology, 9, S38.
Davidson, R. J., & Schwartz, G. E. (1976). The psychobiology of relaxation and relaxed states: A multi-process theory. In D. I. Mostofsky (Ed.), Behavior control and modification of physiological activity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Hale, B. D. (1982). The effects of internal and external imagery on muscular and ocular concomitants. Journal of Sport Psychology, 4, 379–387.
Hardy, L. (1997). Three myths about applied consultancy work. Journal of Applied Sport
Psychology, 9, 107–118.
Hardy, L., & Callow, N. (1999). Efficacy of external and internal visual imagery perspectives for the enhancement of performance on tasks in which form is important. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 21, 95–112.
Hooper, H., & Collins, D. J. (1999). A focus on elite athletes’ interpretations and their perceived effects on performance: I. Anxiety and arousal. Manuscript submitted for publication. Jackson, P. & Arkush, M. (2005). The Last Season: A Team in Search of Its Soul. New York, NY: Penguin Press
Jackson, P. & Delehanty, H. (1996). Sacred Hoops: Spiritual Lessons of a Hardwood. New York, NY: Hyperion.
Jackson, P. & Rosen, C. (2001). More Than a Game. New York, NY: Seven Stories Press.
Kavussanu, M., Crews, D., & Gill, D. (1998). The Effects of Single versus Multiple Measures of Biofeedback on Basketball Free Throw Shooting Performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 29, 132-144.
.Konttinen, N., Lyytinen, H., & Konttinen, R. (1995). Brain slow potentials reflecting successful shooting performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 66, 64–72.Lang, P. J. (1979). A bio-informational theory of emotional imagery. Psychophysiology,
17, 495–512.
Lagos, L., E. Vaschillo, B. Vaschillo, P. Lehrer, M. Bates and R. Pandina (2011). "Virtual reality-assisted heart rate variability biofeedback as a strategy to improve golf performance: A case study." Biofeedback 39(1): 15-20.
Lang, P. J. (1985). Cognition in emotion: Concept and action. In C. Izard, J. Kagan, & R.
Zajonc (Eds.), Emotion, cognitions, and behavior (pp. 192–226). New York: Cambridge
University Press.
Liggett, D. (2000). Sports Hypnosis. 41-55. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Loehr, J. (1997). The role of emotion in sport performance: Emotions run the show. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 9, S13.
Louganis, G. & Marcus, E. (1995). Breaking the surface. New York: Random House.
Mack, S. & Ratcliffe, M. (2007). Podcasting Bible. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.
Mayers, J. (2005). Effects of visuo-motor behavior rehearsal and model type on free throw shooting. Dissertation Abstracts International. (Order No. DA3177120).
Miller, B. (1991). Mental preparation for competition. In S. J. Bull (Ed.), Sport psychology:
A self-help guide (pp. 84–102). Marlborough, UK: Crowood Press
Moran, A. (2002). In the mind’s eye. The Psychologist, 15 (8), 414-415.
Moritz, S. E., Hall, C. R., Vadocz, E., & Martin, K. A. (1996). What are confident athletes imaging? An examination of image content. The Sport Psychologist 10, 171–179.
Morris, T., Spittle, M., & Watt, A. (2005). Imagery in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Murphy, S. M. (1994). Imagery interventions in sport. Medicine and Science in Sport and
Exercise, 26, 486–494.
Pascual-Leone, A., Dang, N., Cohen, L. G., Brasil-Neto, J., Cammarota, A., & Hallett, M.
(1995). Modulation of motor responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation during the acquisition of new fine motor skills. Journal of Neurophysiology, 74, 1037–
1045.
Porter, K. (2003). The Mental Athlete. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Orlick, T. (1998). Embracing your potential. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Perry, C., & Morris, T. (1995). Mental imagery in sport. In T. Morris & J. Summers (Eds.),
Sport psychology: Theory, applications and issues. Queensland: John Wiley.
Sorrentino, R. M., R. Levy, L. Katz and X. Peng "Virtual Visualization: Preparation for the
Olympic Games Long-Track Speed Skating." International Journal of Computer Science in Sport: 40.
Straub, W. (2003). Digital Sport Psychology. The Sport Supplement: A Supplement of the Sport Journal. Retrieved September 19, 2007 from http://www.thesportjournal.org/sportsupplement/Volume11/sport-supplement-digital.htm#.
Suinn, R. M. (1976). Visual motor behavior rehearsal for adaptive behavior. In J. Krumboltz
& C. Thoresen (Eds.), Counseling methods. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Syer, J., & Connolly, C. (1987). Sporting body, sporting mind: An athlete’s guide to mental training. London: Simon & Schuster.
Taktek, K. (2004). The Effects of Mental Imagery on the Acquisition of Motor Skills and Performance: A Literature Review with Theoretical Implications. Journal of Mental Imagery, 28 (1&2), 79-114.
Vealey, R. & Greenleaf, C. (2001). Seeing Is Believing: Understanding and Using Imagery in Sport. In Williams, J. (Ed.), Applied Sport Psychology: Personal Growth to Peak Performance, (4th ed., 276-278). Mountain View, California: Mayfield Publishing Company.
Vogt, S. (1995). On relations between perceiving, imagining and performing in the learning of cyclical movement sequences. British Journal of Psychology, 86, 191–216.
Weinberg, R. & Gould, D. (2007). Foundations of sport and exercise psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Weinberg, R. S., Seabourne, T. G., & Jackson, A. (1981). Effects of visuo-motor behavior rehearsal, relaxation, and imagery on karate performance. Journal of Sport Psychology,
3, 228–238.
White, A., & Hardy, L. (1995). Use of different imagery perspectives on the learning and performance of different motor skills. British Journal of Psychology, 86, 169–180.
Wolpe, J. (1958). Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Stanford, CA: Stanford University
Press.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Integration Model of Technology Internalization Modes and Learning Strategy

...MARKET SHARE* • SONY • SAMSUNG "As measured in tevenuas Note: 2009 ligures aro through Q3 2009 Dala and music. "We would hke to concentrate our resources on Sony-unique apphcations," says spokeswoman Sue Tanaka. Tliisyear Sony hopes to boost sales of its Bravia TVs by giving buyers content via tbe Internet, including streaming Sonyfilmsbefore their DVD or Blue-ray releases. Now, Sony aims to outsource production of 40% of all TVs. On Jan. 1 it sold its biggest North American TV plant, in Tijuana, HOW TO Mexico, to Taiwan's Hon PLAY IT Hai Precision Industry. 61 Citigroup notes the fast " est growth in TVs is in low-end sets sold in China and other developing countries—production that can more easily be outsourced than sophisticated models. Another argument for outsourcing is that even when Sony builds its own liquid-crystal-display TVs, it relies on Samsung and Sharp for LCD panels, a key component. In contrast, Samsung is becom ing more like the old Sony. It's now tbe only major TV maker that also produces tbe computer chips at the heart of new digital TVs. Samsung says that helps it more quickly introduce newfangled services such as Internet access, turning TVs into the centerpiece of home entertainment. Owning its factories, Samsung says, also lets it reap all the benefits from new efficiencies. "You need a harmonious chorus of manufacturing, design, and marketing for a TV business," says TV chief Yoon. "But manufacturing remains tbe key." BW - With Mariko Yasu in......

Words: 762 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Technology Acceptance Model

...Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) The purpose of this model is to predict the acceptability of a tool and to identify the modifications which must be brought to the system in order to make it acceptable to users. This model suggests that the acceptability of an information system is determined by two main factors: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. * Perceived Usefulness: the degree to which individuals expected that the adoption of a particular technology would enhance their job performance. * Perceived ease of use: the degree to which individuals believed that using a particular technology would be simple. USEFULLNESS The technology acceptance model specifies the causal relationships between system design features, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude toward using, and actual usage behaviour.Overall,the TAM provides an informative representation of themechanisms by which design choices influence user acceptance, and should therefore behelpful in applied contexts for forecasting and evaluating user acceptance of information technology 1) Person’s attitude towards the use of the system : As demonstrated in the theory of reasoned Action, the Technology Acceptance Model postulates that the use of an information system is determined by the behavioral intention, but on the other hand, that the behavioral intention is determined by the person’s attitude towards the use of the system and also by his perception of its utility. 2) Impact...

Words: 583 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Imagery

...Imagery is very important in poetry. It is used to give the reader a visual or sense of what the author is talking about. Imagery triggers something in the brain that then gives us the ability to correlate a word with a sound, smell, feelings or even sight. Without any type of imagery, it would make it very difficult to relate with the author. Color imagery is used to trigger sight and make us visualize colors and associate it with the words either preceding or proceeding. In the two poems, “Nothing Gold Can Stay” by Robert Frost and “Spring and All” by William Carlos Williams, color imagery plays a big role in describing the scene. “Nothing Gold Can Stay” by Robert Browning is a poem about nature and how everything is so beautiful at first, but it then becomes subsides and isn’t as wonderful. “Nature’s first green is gold”, this could refer to the sunrise in the morning (499). This reminds me of all the gorgeous hues of a sunrise and how the sky and everything the sun hits seems golden. It could also be referring to seasonal changes. When spring is around, all the flowers and sunlight look amazing, but when the flowers start turning into leaves and falling off, it is a little upsetting to look at. “So dawn goes down to day”, this gives me the sense that Frost is talking about the early mornings (499). Watching dawn turn into day is disappointing, especially when you get to see all the natural colors coming from dawn and then it just turns into another plain day. The last......

Words: 637 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Use of Imagery

...Discuss the use of imagery in two stories of your choice. How do the various images work in a particular story to bring its subject matter into focus? Is there a central image? And how does this enhance or confuse or complicate the effect of the story? Short fiction can be seen as a literary medium through which the writer concisely creates a story that is almost as fleeting in its detail, as it is in its length of words. Imagery can be used in varying manners depending on what the writer is trying to achieve. In the short story ‘Sleepy’ by Anton Chekhov, we see a more vivid and palpable type of imagery that’s almost figurative and has the ability to lull the reader into sharing the protagonist’s feelings rather than just her surroundings. On the contrary, Katherine Mansfield’s ‘Her First Ball’, utilises strong, descriptive imagery that paints the setting, and the events occurring within, rather than bluntly focusing on the feelings associated with them. In ‘Sleepy’, Chekhov successfully evokes a strong feeling of the setting without being superfluous in his description. He provides an image of the tiny room at the beginning of the story and reinforces it throughout. In doing so, Chekhov portrays Varka’s painfully scarce reality to emphasise the huge contrast between the immediate scenario and the imagery describing her flustered dreams. It’s Varka’s need for sleep that seems to be the subject matter throughout the narrative, her exhaustion and inability to stay awake......

Words: 1095 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Color Imagery

...Running head: COLOR OF IMAGERY IN POEMS 1 COLOR IMAGERY IN POEMS 2 Color imagery; also known as color symbolism is a literary tool that refers to the meaning associated with a certain color. The color symbolizes a feeling or meaning. Author’s use color imagery to help the reader reference the feeling or meaning. In literature it is an object or reference used to provide meaning to the writing beyond what is essentially being described. It can be restrained or obvious, used cautiously or strong. An author may repeat the same object to communicate a deeper meaning or might use distinctions of the same object to produce a mood or feeling. Nothing Gold Can Stay, written by Robert frost in the year 1923, uses color imagery. The title of the poem is a metaphor where the gold represents value and wealth so when it says nothing gold can stay it means that nothing that is precious or of great value in the materialistic way can last forever. Gold symbolizes materialism it will not last for long and it gives an untrue happiness. Gold and other things such as, money can take years to accumulate but can be depleted in an instant.  On the other hand, things having emotion and sentimental values cannot be bought with money and therefore will remain with us throughout our life.   Frost says “nature’s first green is gold” he compares the color of nature “green’ with something that can be bought; gold. He is trying to portray that...

Words: 653 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Imagery Is the Key

...Brooke Bull Professor Brewer English 1302.007 24 September 2013 Imagery is the Key Throughout the short story “The Blue Bouquet” by Octavio Paz, there are several different types of imagery. The descriptive detail in the story adds a design of what the scene of the village looked like in Paz’s eyes. Without descriptive detail and imagery, the short story would be hard to understand and follow. With the use of visual imagery, auditory imagery, and kinesthetic imagery, showing more detail and visual imagination, throughout the story, helps the reader see and feel exactly what Paz is feeling throughout the story. Visual imagery is one of the factors Paz uses in his short story to help the reader’s visual and imagine what is going on. For example when he says, “Suddenly the moon appeared from behind a black cloud, lighting a white wall..,” (Paz 3), it is making the reader imagine the moon coming out of the clouds, so the little boy could see where he wanted to go. Another example of Paz’s visual imagery would be when the little boy finally turns around and faces the man who is trying to take his eyes. When Paz says “..He was small and fragile. His palm sombrero covered half his face. ..,” (Paz 12), that helps the reader understand and visualize what the old man looked like and who the little boy was up against. As the reader can conclude that without visual imagery in a story, the story is hard to understand and imagine. Without Paz describing the old man, the readers......

Words: 884 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Outstanding Technology & Business Model

...Services RESEARCH Initiate with BUY chenjunhua@cicc.com.cn Shuwei CHEN shuwei.chen@cicc.com.cn Beijing Originwater Technology (300070.SH) Outstanding Technology & Business Model 2010A 500 60 236 61 209 68 177 65 1.20 24 36.9 2.2 6 0.2 2011E 929 86 426 81 368 76 313 77 0.97 (20) 45.9 4.5 10 0.3 2012E 1,470 58 707 66 608 65 519 66 1.61 66 27.7 4.0 14 0.7 2013E 2,301 57 1,105 56 946 56 809 56 2.50 56 17.8 3.4 19 1.1 Financial highlights (Rmb mn) Revenue (+/- %) Gross Profit (+/- %) Operation Profit (+/- %) Net Profit (+/- %) EPS(Rmb) (+/- %) PE(X) PB(X) ROE (%) Dividend Yield(%) 2008A 221 7 92 7 81 8 75 6 0.68 6 65.3 22.3 34 0.3 2009A 314 42 146 59 124 53 107 43 0.97 43 45.6 15.2 33 0.1 Investment highlights With membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, Beijing Originwater Technology achieves fast cross-regional expansion by creating joint ventures with local state-owned enterprises, a means of ensuring stable MBR sales in the medium-/long-term and riding on the steady growth of local sewage treatment markets. The company’s technological advantage matches the 12th FYP sewage treatment development strategy. 1) Urban sewage treatment regulations to be raised from Standard II to Standard IB, meaning 40% of waste water should be recycled in north China cities with water shortages; 2) MBR can produce better water quality than traditional technology, matching 12th FYP sewage treatment program; and 3) MBR expected to have a market size of about Rmb40bn.......

Words: 584 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Visual Imagery

...Psych/640 March 2015 Volume 1, Issue 1 Visual Imagery What is Visual Imagery Two important cognitive systems a person has are a person’s visual and verbal systems which are two very basic ways that individuals are able to express themselves to others. These two systems allow individuals to both create word and visual images in order to communicate thoughts with other individuals. In the verbal system a person is able to create words, portray thoughts, sequence words together in order to communicate with other people. In the visual system the system is more sensory based, relying on holistic, emotional, personal, and fantasy-based information or images. This system though being called visual is not just about seeing it’s also about sounds and touch. This paper is going to compare and contrast verbal and visual imagery, provide an argument of which is considered more important by the author, and provide justification of the argument with research . Inside this issue Visual Imagery ............................ 1 Visual and Verbal Systems .......... 1 Argument of Importance ............ 2 Closing Thoughts......................... 2 Visual and Verbal Systems For cognitive functioning to work in most individuals they must use imagery as well as verbal systems together. According to Mzoughi and Abdelhak (2011), most people uses both verbal and visual together though some people may be better at one or the other. Some individuals may be better visually and be......

Words: 895 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Visul Imagery

...Visual Imagery Magazine Article Angele’ Christian – Ojo Psych 640 Christopher Wessinger What is imagery? The word imagery means to use figurative language to represent objects, action and ideas in such a way that it appeals to our physical sense. For most people, the word imagery is associated with mental pictures however imagery is more complex. Our minds manage memories (pictures), which are known to be on the right side of the brain, (visual) and processes information with language which resides in the left side of the brain, (verbal). This is done through visual and verbal imagery. The information which passes through the brain as though something is being perceived, when in reality there is nothing really happening is known to be Visual Imagery. For coping with upsetting occurrences, or bettering physical performances and or establishing desensitization hierarchies, visual imagery is being utilized. People learning to manage their stress may be guided through visualizations as a way to take a mental vacation out of a stressful situation or trauma. Those who are able to visualize, think more concretely, personalize information, tend to be field dependent, process information holistically, and tend to be introverted. In addition, those who are better at visual imagery tend to excel at spatial interpretation tasks such as interpreting graphs, charts or pictures, mechanical drawing and measuring. The saying goes; one picture is worth a thousand words however, some...

Words: 541 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Imagery and Symbolism

...Mrs. Stansfield ENG 4U0 July 6, 2015 Imagery and Symbolism in Poems Poem #1: Where There’s a Wall by Joy Kogawa This poem evokes motivation and inspiration. The main message that I received from it is that, even when life puts an obstacle in front of you, you can always find a way to get your goal to the other side. The wall is a symbol that represents an obstacle in life that may prevent one from reaching what they desire. Literal imagery is used quite often in this poem. The writer composes a stanza that states that he/she is “standing” on one side of the wall, “staring at the top, lost in the clouds.” From this, we can imagine a person standing in front of a wall, mindlessly looking into the clouds. But the stanza continues, stating that they “hear every sound” one makes but “cannot see” them. This implies that this person is trying to get to another person on the other side of the wall, but can only hear their voice from behind the wall that stands between them. Figurative imagery is also slightly utilized in this poem, near its end. When the poem reads that “a voice cries faint as in a dream,” a simile is used, comparing a voice’s quiet sound to one you would hear while dreaming. This makes it easy for the reader to imagine how strong this wall is, blocking out so much sound that the heard voice is as faint as in a dream. Poem #2: Poem About Your Laugh by Susan Glickman This poem presents a lot of imagery, mostly figurative rather than......

Words: 515 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Imagery of Darkness

...Kapilan Pushparajah ENG4U1 Mr.Karantonis April 11th 2014 Imagery of Darkness The book “Heart of Darkness” is a novel written by writer Joseph Conrad. It is about the adventurers that an ivory transporter named Charles Marlow had down the Congo river to central Africa. The novel is based on a true story, of Joseph Conrad's actual journey up the Congo River in 1900. Marlow is Joseph Conrad’s alter ego. The novel had many themes such as; racism, loneliness, colonialism, good vs evil, power and many more. In this novel, Conrad uses imagery and symbolism to reveal the implication on the traits of different characters’ personalities. They represent main character traits. Main examples of imagery and symbolism in the novel occur when; Marlow meets the accountant for the first time. Marlow was amazed by how well dressed the accountant was. Imagery and symbolism also occur when Marlow looks through his binoculars to see the heads that were facing the station house which he had initially thought were just ornaments. The heads represent how kurtz is crazy and violent due to the graphicness of the heads.The imagery and symbolism in this novel describe the personality traits of the characters very well and helps the reader make better connections with the novel and helps them understand it better. When Marlow first met the chief accountant he was amazed. He was impressed with the way that the accountant looked. He seemed to be very surprised. “When near the buildings I met a......

Words: 1004 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Macbeth Imagery

...hallucinations and is questioning reality. William Shakespeare uses graphic language and visual imagery convincingly to convey that Macbeth is overwhelmed with fear and anguish. Shakespeare used visual imagery to distinguish Macbeth’s fear. In line 38 of act 2 scene 1, Macbeth says, “A dagger of the mind, a false creation, proceeding from the heat-oppressed brain?” This image of a dagger shows how problemed and grieved Macbeth is about killing Duncan. Shakespeare giving Macbeth hallucinations also tells the readers that he is very afraid about the murder that he is about to commit. In line 49, Shakespeare uses witchcraft and nightmares as one of his tools to create a sense of eeriness. “Now o’er the one-half world nature seems dead, and wicked dreams abuse the curtain’d sleep; witchcraft celebrates pale Hecate’s offerings, and wither’d murder, alarum’d by his sentinel, the wolf…” He uses the word “wolf,” and “wicked dreams” to add an effect of mysticism and to better describe the unsure feelings that Macbeth is having. Shakespeare visual imagery to paint a mental image of what might me happening to Macbeth, and how scared Macbeth is of what he has to do. He uses certain terms and phrases that help establish Macbeth’s frame of mind as shown when he used the terms “wolves” and “witchcraft.” Macbeth’s frame of mind in this passage is very nervous, scared, and uneasy. Shakespeare used graphic imagery to portray an anxious and stressed Macbeth as he did....

Words: 307 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Internationalization, Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Business Models for New Technology-Based fiRms

...1007/s10997-010-9154-1 Internationalization, innovation and entrepreneurship: business models for new technology-based firms Alberto Onetti • Antonella Zucchella • Marian V. Jones • Patricia P. McDougall-Covin Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010 Abstract New technology-based firms, particularly those that develop their business around a new technological platform, are likely to be impacted by globalization, in terms of both pace of innovation and pressure of competition. For these firms, strategic decisions and growth processes are characterized by a deep interrelationship amongst the processes of internationalization, innovation and entrepreneurship; processes which have tended to be examined independently in distinct bodies of literature. In practice strategic decisions concern each of these processes and address issues such as organizational boundaries, location of the operational activities, what activities to focus on and selection of value partners. The business model by which firms operate needs also to accommodate the spatial dimensions indicated by globalization; and the emergence of global technology markets. Little is known to date about the extent to which business models accommodate or are adapted to internationalization, innovation and entrepreneurship. This paper presents a review of the business model literature from which a generic business model framework is derived, identifying and introducing the main elements of these A. Onetti......

Words: 11236 - Pages: 45

Premium Essay

Imagery in Hamlet

...Imagery in Hamlet Hamlet is one of the most widely read works of literature. It's an exploration of the multifaceted world of adolescence. This world is full of confusion, thoughtfulness, intimacy, and action. It's a study in how a young person emerging into adulthood attempts to cope. In Hamlet, Shakespeare allows his hero to dream and to think through his dreams (Williams). Hamlet is a revenge tragedy and by the end, almost every character has died in some tragic or gruesome way. In this play, Shakespeare makes use of imagery, allegory, metaphor, and symbolism. In particular, the symbols of the ghost, the garden, and flowers, along with imagery and metaphors for madness are used to convey specific ideas which provide depth and complexity to this story. The ghost is a pivotal symbol and appears throughout Hamlet. Is the ghost Hamlet's father or is it Hamlet himself? Is the ghost real or is it part of Hamlet's imagination? The ghost claims he is Hamlet's father. He says he was murdered by Claudius, Hamlet's Uncle who is now wed to Hamlet's mother and who is also sitting on the throne. He also says his sins must be wiped clean before he can ascend to heaven. His soul is "doomed" to endure "sulph'rous and tormenting flames" until the "foul crimes done in [his] days of nature / Are burnt and purged away" (1.5.6; 17-18). The ghost requires revenge and this is an odd request given the religious context, yet this is what sets the revenge plot in motion. Father's Ghost. My......

Words: 1124 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

New Technology Disrupts Old Model

...2.0 New technology disrupts the old model – Modern Day Challenges 2.1 Preamble With the increase in technological innovation we can observe how these forces are disrupting the conventional business models and marketing strategies of industries. These innovations have shaken core of the business world where several venerable facets of the media industry such as newspapers, radio and television are clamoring for their breadth under the impact of innovative giants such as Google and TIVO with large chunk of ad revenue shifting from conventional channels to more topical channels (refer graph 2.1). Why? Primarily, conventional media industries were not poised for changes, as we observed the break neck speed at which we have proceeded from web 1.0 to 3.0 within the last decade. Could the companies have avoided the wreckage if they had prepared for this pace of change? That is questionable. Graph 2.1 We can observe several strategic inflection points which have diminished the prominence of media industries; primarily, the ability of internet based technologies to deliver richer content in a cost effective manner in comparison to the high legacy cost of running a newspaper (i.e. office buildings, printing press, editors, photographers etc.). Second is the failure of the media companies to keep pace with the evolving changes around them, and the final elements of this downward spiral is the industries disregard for the customer base or the target market, i.e. producing......

Words: 1496 - Pages: 6