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India

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Varsha Kedia
This paper focuses on the factors that have effected Indian environment , a summary of the main problems and initiatives by the government to curb all these issues.
Varsha Kedia
This paper focuses on the factors that have effected Indian environment , a summary of the main problems and initiatives by the government to curb all these issues.
INDIA- An economic boom and environmental Disaster
INDIA- An economic boom and environmental Disaster

India, the country’s name is derived from the great ancient civilization that was situated around the river Indus, the Indus Valley Civilization. This is known to be one of the oldest known civilizations in the human history, dating back to 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. The civilization that began in the northwestern region of India surrounding the Indus River later spread its tribes further across to east and south, covering the whole of present known peninsula of India. (UCLA, nd)

India has been ruled by a lot of rulers. They came to India in search of wealth and prosperity. India had a lush and very dense amount of resources, which made it one of the most flourishing countries of that period. India at that time had very good trade relations with the Middle Eastern, Persian, European and Afghanistan etc. India traded goods like cotton, spices, gold and silk. In the recent history, India has been ruled by the Persian-Arab Mughals and later by British Imperials. (Mark, 2012)

The Mughals and the British were the most influential rulers in the Indian ecological history. They Mughals were greatly responsible for bringing in architecture and art to India. They constructed many monuments and embezzled these monuments with precious stones and gold. The British are responsible for bringing in modern elements like trains to India. While the Mughals focused towards the architectural and artistic development of India, British ruler fueled the infrastructural and industrial development of India. India was under the British rule and Mughal rule for a combined period of over 400 years. They exploited India’s resources to a great extent. British ruled India during the peak of the industrial revolution and had set up the world-renowned East India Company. (Mark, 2012)

India is spread over 3,287,263 sq. km of surface area, which is divided by 2,973,193 sq. km of land and 314,070 sq. km of water bodies. (Maps of India, 2012)This makes India the seventh largest nation in the world. The major resources that can be found in India are coal, petroleum, limestone, arable land, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, iron ore, mica, manganese, bauxite diamond etc. India is estimated to have the 4th largest coal reserves in the world. India uses 47.87% of its land as arable land, 3.47% as permanent cropland and the rest is 48.39%. India has about 663,340 sq. km of irrigated land. India has a total of 1911 cu km of total renewable water resources and 761 cu km/year of freshwater withdrawal by domestic, industrial and agricultural use. (The World Fact book, 2014)

Considering the geography and tropical climate of India, agriculture is the main source of livelihood for the bigger portion of the Indian population. Therefore, India has about 31.3% of urban population and the rest is rural population, as a result of residing in agricultural and croplands for agricultural purposes. However, India does have a 2.47% of urbanization rate. India in the olden times used to be a country populated with farmers, craftsmen, artisans, and other skilled labors. This trend is now changing. India has now trending towards urbanization and modern professions, with acceptance of modern education. (The World Fact book, 2014)

As per a recent study, India is the 7th most hazardous country in the world. (Chetan Chauhan, 2011) The major environmental hazards that threaten the country include droughts, severe thunderstorms, widespread monsoonal earthquakes flash floods, rains, and volcanism. The environmental issues that currently add to country’s perceived risks include soil erosion, overgrazing, desertification, deforestation, air pollution, water pollution etc. (The World Fact book, 2014)

India is one of the largest exporters of cotton, chemicals, copper etc. and has many other major global trade relations. India’s exports contribute to about 17.7% of the entire GDP. (India, 2013) Due to this reason there are a lot of environmental impacts. The process of transporting these exports from point A to point B and also the impact of packaging and manufacturing causes a lot of environmental damages like pollution and waste. This waste and pollution is not treated properly. This further leads to water and land getting depleted in terms of quality.

India has a total population of 1.2 billion with a population growth rate of 1.25%. due to this India is the second most populous country in the world. (World Population Review , 2014) Due to the population, India faces many environmental problems. Population is a major factor when it comes to environmental problems. Because of the large number of people to cater to there isn’t enough resources for everyone. Scarcity of these resources leads to problems like poverty and low standards of living. Because of this people don’t get education and do not realize their impact on the environment. Demand and supply goes hand in hand. Unrest occurs when demand goes up and supply is short. That is how the world will be like in 100 years. Scarcity of everything is where we are headed. When the population transitions there demands grow and the nature cannot supply to their needs. This will result in poverty, high costs of living. Hunger etc. There is an immediate need to sustain our environment and control population or else there will come a time where there will be no more for anyone.

India is a poor country. About 29.8 % of Indian population is below poverty line (The World Fact book, 2014) India consumes low quality of fuels due to the high rate of poverty. Low quality fuels help the poor population survive and meet their energy needs. However, this cheap fuel has big environmental impact by polluting the air. Dung waste, wood fire, crop waste etc are major sources of energy in rural India. This leads to deforestation, which very negatively impacts the environment. This also causes indoor pollution and is a major health risk to the igniter of fire. (Bhattacharya, 2011)

Another major issue in India is of waste disposal. India produces about 0.2- 0.6 kgs of waste per person per day. That is an insane amount of waste every day. Each household comprises of at least 4-5 members so each household produces 2.4 kilograms of food per day, which is about 5 pounds. This is a lot of waste to be treated. So far, there isn’t anything much being done about waste treatments in India. Another major concern for India is E-Waste disposal. The US and other developed countries sell their waste to India and Indian companies try scraping out metals from this e-waste and dispose the rest into the Rivers and landfills. This problem needs immediate attention as it can cause a lot of long run problems like health problems, degraded quality of food and can mess with the ecosystem. (Shanker, nd)

All this brings to the leading environmental and sustainability concerns of the country. India is not at a threshold of emerging crisis with its growing population, depleting resources and increased urbanization. Therefore the major pressing environmental issues facing the country include population , deforestation and pollution.
India has a total population of 1.2 billion with a population growth rate of 1.25%. This makes India the second most populated country in the world after China. (World Population Review , 2014) Due to the population, India faces many environmental problems. Population is a major factor when it comes to environmental problems. Because of the large number of people to cater to there aren’t enough resources for everyone. Scarcity of these resources leads to problems like poverty and low standards of living. Because of this people don’t get education and do not realize their impact on the environment. Demand and supply goes hand in hand. Unrest occurs when demand goes up and supply is short. That is how the world will be like in 100 years. Scarcity of everything is where we are headed. When the population transitions there demands grow and the nature cannot supply to their needs. This will result in poverty, high costs of living. Hunger etc. There is an immediate need to sustain our environment and control population or else there will come a time where there will be no more for anyone.

Deforestation is the process by which trees are cut down to create more space for urban developments. In India, deforestation is practiced to get wood for fuel. This is a major reason for deforestation in India. Another reason is Urbanization. To develop townships and make space for urban spaces trees are cut down. We don’t realize the ill effects of deforestation and keep taking trees down without any consideration. Trees absorb CO2 and give out oxygen. Oxygen is the basis of human survival. Trees also absorb polluted gas from the environment. Asthma, lung diseases etc. are growing due to deforestation. (National Geographic, nd)

India has one of the highest rates of air and water pollution in the world. Air is the basis on which human existence is built. Bad air quality leads to us inhaling polluted air, which causes a lot of respiratory, and breathing diseases. India doesn’t comply with the WHO Standards of air quality. (WHO, 2005) In fact there is a major difference between the two standards. India has a way more lenient policy for air quality standards. This is horrific to know.. The inhaling of impure air causes a lot of diseases like asthma and cancer. It is important for the environment to have clean air because it damages the rivers, lakes, crops ani1amals and trees. (The Plain English Guide to the Clean Air Act , 2012) Introducing foreign elements into water pollutes water. Dumping wastes, using fertilizers and improper treatment of sewage causes pollution.

The increased population of the country is causing the country to deplete more resources in seek for meeting requirements of the increasing population. With increased population, deforestation and urbanization, pollution becomes inevitable. High rates of pollution in almost all forms are being emitted across the country in action to meet economic and developmental competition with the world.

India has developed several laws to protect the interests of the country and seek preservation and conservation of the existing environmental assets of the country. The policies relating to environmental protection in India are The National Forest Policy, 1988 and Indian Forest Act of 1927, Policy statement for Abatement of Pollution, 1992 and National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development, 1992.

The National Forest Policy, 1988 and Indian Forest Act of 1927 -The aim of this Policy was ensuring environmental stability. It also focused on maintaining ecological balance, atmospheric equilibrium both of which are extremely important for human survival. The Indian Forest Policy doesn’t have a matching act. Therefore the Indian Forest Act of 1927 is still the most dominant forest policy in India. The latest amendment to it was made in 1990. India ordered all states to follow these guidelines and work with the local communities to achieve the goals. After 1990, most limitations to the original have been overcome. National forests are actually very well protected in India. Problems of poaching and hunting have gone down drastically after the implementation of these laws. But very limited forest space is covered under this act. More space needs to be added to secure more forest space. (SINHA)

Policy statement for Abatement of Pollution, 1992-This policy lays emphasis on pollution prevention. They focus on issues such as improvement of environment audit, waste minimization, water quality, reuse or recycling promotion of clean and low waste technologies etc. They deal with the problem of pollution prevention and control by taking fiscal measures, creating awareness and organizing voluntary works. (ICED, nd)

National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development, 1992- The main objective of this policy is providing the basis for the integration of environmental considerations in the policies of various sectors. It also outlines government’s goals and projects for achieving sustainable lifestyles and the proper management and conservation of resources. The main priority of this is population control and development of biodiversity. They do a lot of awareness programs and campaigns to involve local communities in projects. It also focuses on promoting technological use and get women and children involved in protection of the environment. (Forest)

India has been historically exploited by a lot of rulers and nations. When the British left India, they left it in a mess in many ways. Emotionally, environmentally and economically India was a disaster. Over the years it has developed and is finding its identity and firming its ground in the global scene very well. To get back on track environmentally the government of India is taking a lot of steps. In my personal opinion education is the key to transforming any nation, and if India focuses on education as its first priority it can curb many problems at once. Education can cure problems of population, pollution, and deforestation and also promote a healthier life to Indians. If all the problems are not solved and India keeps focusing on the economy, it will lead to India becoming an economic paradise but an environmental disaster. The new government is focusing on education as its top priority and as an Indian I am quite positive India will be an environmental paradise in the next 10-20 years.

References 1. Bhattacharya, S. (2011, 11 1). Overview of the Clean Cooking Challenge. Retrieved 6 5, 2014, from SEI: http://sei-international.org/mediamanager/documents/Projects/Climate/Improving-energy-access/SEI-TERI-DFID-cookstoves-consumer-choice-Feb2012-Sribas-Bhattacharya.pdf 2. Chetan Chauhan. (2011, 1 10). India 7th most environmentally hazardous country: study. Retrieved 6 5, 2014, from Hindustan Times: http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/newdelhi/india-7th-most-environmentally-hazardous-country-study/article1-648692.aspx 3. Forest, M. o. NATIONAL CONSERVATION STRATEGY AND POLICY STATEMENT ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT. GOVERNMENT OF lNDIA. 4. ICED. (nd). Policy Statement for the Abatement of Pollution, 1992. Retrieved 6 5, 2014, from ICED: http://iced.cag.gov.in/?page_id=1034 5. India, P. T. (2013, 3 6). Share of exports in India's overall GDP rises to 17.7% in FY12. Retrieved 6 5, 2014, from Times Of India: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/Share-of-exports-in-Indias-overall-GDP-rises-to-17-7-in-FY12/articleshow/18831542.cms 6. Maps of India. (2012, 5 12). Geography of India. Retrieved 6 5, 2015, from Maps of India: http://www.mapsofindia.com/geography/ 7. Mark, J. J. (2012, 11 13). India. Retrieved 6 5, 2014, from Ancient: http://www.ancient.eu.com/india/ 8. N/A. (2014, 3 4). World Population Statistics. Retrieved 5 4, 2014, from Population of India 2014: http://www.worldpopulationstatistics.com/population-of-india-2014/ 9. National Geographic. (nd). Deforestation. Retrieved 6 5, 2014, from National Geographic: http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/deforestation-overview/ 10. Shanker, H. (nd). Waste Disposal in India. Retrieved 6 5, 2014, from The Viewspaper: http://theviewspaper.net/waste-disposal-in-india/ 11. SINHA, G. N. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS OF INDIA AND THE UK WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THEIR ENFORCEMENT. The University of Birmingham. 12. The Plain English Guide to the Clean Air Act . (2012, 3 6). The Plain English Guide to the Clean Air Act . Retrieved 5 27, 2014, from EPA: http://www.epa.gov/airquality/peg_caa/concern.html 13. UCLA. (nd). Indus Valley Civilization. Retrieved 6 5, 2014, from SSCNET: http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/History/Ancient/Indus2.html 14. WHO. (2005). WHO Air quality guidelines. Retrieved 6 5, 2014, from WHO: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2006/WHO_SDE_PHE_OEH_06.02_eng.pdf?ua=1 15. World Population Review . (2014, 3 26). India's Population 2014 . Retrieved 5 6, 2014, from World Population Review : http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/india-population/…...

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...India Introduction India is located in southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan. It is the world's seventh largest country and second only to China in terms of population. India has long been a country plagued with poverty, but is now building itself and its economy. It is accomplishing this with new entries into the world market and a different outlook on economics. The future of India is uncertain for the moment, but the opportunity for growth and prosperity is most assuredly present. It will take time for India to emerge as a nation free from its problems, but is plausible with international trade. India’s Culture and Its Economic Implications India is certainly a country that is rich in history and culture. India acquired its independence from Britain on August 15th in 1947. Unlike the American and French revolutions, the Indian revolution was one of peace and temperament. The diversity that now exists within the borders of India is evident in the colorful mix of languages, ethnicity, and religious beliefs. As a throwback to the era of British rule, English is most important language for national, political, and commercial communication. However, Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of people. There is also a blend of several other languages that are spoken throughout India such as Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi,...

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India

...Indian Education System Presented by: Doff _____________________________________________________________________________________ History * India has a long history of organized education. The Gurukul system of education in which students were taught orally and the data would be passed from one generation to the next. Up to the 17th century * The first millennium and the few centuries preceding it saw the flourishing of higher education at Nalanda, Takshashila University, Ujjain, & Vikramshila Universities. * Art, Architecture, Painting, Logic, mathematics, Grammar, Philosophy, Astronomy, Literature, Buddhism, Hinduism, Arthashastra (Economics & Politics), Law, and Medicine were among the subjects taught. After 1976 * In 1976, education was made a joint responsibility of the states and the Centre through a constitutional amendment * Center is represented by Ministry of Human Resource Development's Department of Education and together with the states, it is jointly responsible for the formulation of education policy and planning. * The 86th Amendment of the Indian constitution makes education a fundamental right for all children aged 6-14 years. Today education system in India can be divided into many stages. Pre- Primary - It consists of children of 3-5 years of age studying in nursery, lower kindergarten and upper kindergarten. At this stage student is given knowledge about school life and is taught to read and write some basic......

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