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Integrated Pest Management Fo Rlady Beetle

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THE GAMBIA COLLEGE
SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH
TOPIC: LADY BEETLE
Presented by: Omar ceesay GC # 214426 Submitted to: LECTURER: Mr. Fabakary minteh

Lady beetles, also known as “ladybugs” or “ladybird beetles”, are familiar insects. They belong to phylum arthropod and family of Coccinellidae. Some 70 species are native to Colorado and about 10 to 12 additional species have established during the past century. Adult Lady Beetles are round and small (1-10 mm) long.
This paper gives a comprehensive overview of the morphology and the economic importance of the lady beetle. The morphology look into the size, shape and the colour of the above insect, while the life cycle look into the various stages of the development from the egg to the adult. Under the economic important, it look into its impact on human, on agriculture and its medical impact as well.
It went further to look at the types of lady beetle and its habitat as well as some of the preventive measures in controlling and managing them.

Key words: lady beetle, pest, Coccinellidae


Lady beetles, also known as “ladybugs” or “ladybird beetles”, are familiar insects. They belong to phylum arthropod and family of Coccinellidae. Some 70 species are native to Colorado and about 10 to 12 additional species have established during the past century. Adult Lady Beetles are round and small (1-10 mm) long.
Overwhelmingly, habits of lady beetles are highly beneficial to human interests. Both the adult lady beetles and the grub-stage larvae have chewing mouthparts and are voracious predators of other insects. Although each type of lady beetle has preferences for what they will eat (e.g., aphids, scales, spider mites, mealy bugs, etc.), they tend to have fairly broad tastes and feed on almost any small arthropods (insects, mites) or insect eggs that they can successfully attack and ingest.

       

Most people know lady beetles as small, round, red beetles with black spots on their backs. Not all lady beetles are red, and not all red lady beetles have spots. Some lady beetles are very little and are black and hairy. Lady beetles vary in color as red, orange, or yellow with black spots. They can also be black with red spots. Some are missing spots altogether. There are even a few kinds of ladybeetles with metallic blue iridescence, and some have checkerboard markings or stripes.
Most of the black part of the ladybeetle is the thorax, also called the pronotum. It sometimes has spots on it, and sometimes it is all black. Multi-spotted individuals tend to be females while those with few or no spots tend to be males. Most beetles have a small, dark "M" or "W"-shaped marking on the whitish area behind the head. Lady Beetle antennae are short, shorter than the front legs, and are thicker at the ends than the middle. Lady Beetle larvae are also colored in some combination of black and red or orange. They are very active, and have rather rough or bumpy looking bodies that are longer than the adults. Lady Beetle pupae look somewhat like the adults. It is nearly impossible for anybody but experts to tell male Lady Beetles from female ones, and even the experts sometimes can't tell without dissecting the beetle.

 *  Has a black spot on its light gray or yellowish wings. A black form with two red spots also occurs. It feeds on aphids and psyllids * 
 ranges from red to yellow with no spots or up to 19 spots on the wings. The thorax is often cream colored with black markings. This larger lady beetle feeds on aphids, scales, psyllids and other insects. *  It eats only cottony cushion scale, a pest of citrus and certain ornamentals, often providing
Complete biological control. * 
It has no spots on its wings and two widely spaced white spots on its thorax, but no white band * 
Is red with two black spots on the wings and two white blotches on a black thorax, or black with four reddish spots on the wings. *  Has a black head with two white spots *  Have a white band on its thorax and a pale white band between its eyes.

Lady beetles, as all beetles, develop in a pattern known as ‘complete metamorphosis. This involves eggs, mobile feeding-stage larvae that molt four times as they develop, transition-stage pupae that undergo changes to the final form, and ultimately the familiar adults.
Most lady beetle eggs typically are spindle-shaped and yellowish or orange-red in color. They are laid in clusters on leaves or other surfaces near aphids and other prey. Lady beetle eggs are distinctive and easily separated from most other insect eggs. However, a few species of leaf beetles produce egg masses of generally similar form--such as the Colorado potato beetle, cottonwood leaf beetle and elm leaf beetle. Small differences in size and color differentiate these from lady beetle eggs. In addition, these leaf-feeding insects restrict their egg laying to the few plants on which they develop; whereas lady beetle eggs can be laid wherever there is nearby insect prey. As with all insects, the development rate depends on temperature and the lady beetle egg stage typically lasts five to seven days. Shortly before eggs hatch, the color changes to more greyish.
Lady beetles that feed on scale insects or spider mites do not lay their eggs in masses. Instead, eggs are laid singly on leaves or under the cover of the scale insect. Larvae complete their development in three stages (instars), each separated by molting that typically occurs over the course of 10 to 14 days. After lady beetle larvae finish feeding, they attach themselves to a solid surface by the hind end, head down. They remain motionless and shrink in form, appearing more compact. This stage, called the prepupa, lasts for a couple of days before the insect molts to the pupal stage. Lady beetle pupae usually are round in shape, attached to a surface by their hind end. During summer, development of the pupa typically may take about five to eight days. After the adult emerges from the pupal skin, it is light colored and soft (teneral adult). Over the course of a day or two, the beetle wing covers harden and darken.
Lady Beetles are found all around the world. There are hundreds of species of lady beetles in North America. Also over a hundred species have been transported between continents by people hoping they would eat aphids and other pests better than the native beetles do. Lady Beetles live where their prey live. This means on plants, mostly herbs and bushes, but sometimes trees or even grass. Species that live in temperate climates with cold winters sometimes make short migrations to warmer habitats, and many spend the winter hiding under bark or in a crack or crevice.
7.1 Impact on human Lady beetles generally do not injure humans and are mainly a nuisance. Unlike some household pests (e.g., fleas and cockroaches), they do not reproduce indoors, those appearing in late winter/early spring are the same individuals that entered the previous fall. Lady beetles do not attack wood, food or clothing. Nonetheless, some householders detest finding any insects indoors, and hygienic establishments such as hospitals have zero tolerance for contaminants of any kind.
Besides being a nuisance, the beetles emit an acrid odor and can stain surfaces with their yellowish secretions when disturbed (volatile compounds used in defense against bird and other vertebrate predators).
7.2 Medical impact
Although Asian lady beetles do not transmit diseases, recent studies suggest that infestations can cause allergies in some individuals, ranging from eye irritation to asthma.
People should avoid touching their eyes after handling the beetles, and should consult a physician if they suspect they are having an allergic reaction. When large numbers of beetles are flying in the fall, they often land on clothing and occasionally will bite or 'pinch' if in contact with skin. In nature, lady beetles eat other insects and have chewing mouthparts. The bite feels like a pinprick and is seldom serious.
7.3 Agricultural impact
A great many nuseries and garden catalogs offer lady beetles for control of garden pests. Most lady beetles are voracious predators. A large adult lady beetle can eat 60 aphids a day, and even a smaller larva might eat 25. In her lifetime, a female lady beetle might eat 2,500 aphids. Some lady beetles eat other kinds of small, soft-bodied insects that are related to aphids. A very few species eat fungal spores, and there are three species in North America that eat plants. One of them is a significant agricultural pest; it eats the leaves of bean plants. A few lady beetles eat pollen, especially early in the spring when there aren't many aphids.
Unfortunately, the record for effective use of lady beetles released in a garden is typically poor. One reason for this is that the beetles are highly dispersive, poised to migrate long distances from their collection areas. 
People's reaction to lady beetles varies widely from tolerance to revulsion. The following management tips are provided when the beetles become a serious nuisance within a dwelling.
8.1 Vacumming Once the beetles are indoors, the easiest way to remove them is with a vacuum cleaner. If you later wish to release the beetles outdoors, place a handkerchief between the vacuum hose and the dust collection bag to act as a trap. A broom can also be used, but is more likely to result in staining when beetles emit their yellowish defensive secretion.
8.2 Sealing entry point
Sealing cracks and openings is the most permanent way of preventing lady beetles from entering buildings. The time to do this is in late spring or summer, before the adults begin flying to buildings in search of overwintering sites. Cracks should be sealed around windows, doors, soffits, fascia boards, utility pipes and wires, etc. with caulk or other suitable sealant.
Larger holes can be plugged with cement, urethane foam or copper mesh. Repair damaged window screens and install screening behind attic vents, which are common entry points for the beetles. Install tight-fitting door sweeps or thresholds at the base of all exterior entry doors. Gaps of 1/8" or less will permit entry of lady beetles and other insects. Gaps under sliding glass doors can be sealed with foam weather stripping. These practices will also help prevent entry of flies, wasps, crickets, spiders and other pests. Some householders may find it more practical to hire a pest control firm, building contractor or painter to perform these services.  Insecticide foggers, "bug bombs" or sprays are generally not recommended for eliminating beetles indoors. Insecticides applied indoors for lady beetles tend to be ineffective and may stain or leave unwanted residues on walls, countertops and other surfaces. A vacuum is more sanitary and effective. Attempting to kill beetles hibernating in wall cavities and other protected locations is seldom effective. A better approach is to take preventive measures to reduce beetle entry in subsequent years. 8.4 Exterior barrier methods
While sealing cracks and openings is a more permanent way to limit beetle entry, the approach is time-consuming and sometimes impractical. There can be countless cracks associated with eaves, siding, vents, etc. where insects can enter. On multi-story buildings, sealing becomes even more difficult.
If lady beetles are a perennial problem, owners may want to hire a professional pest control firm. Many companies apply insecticides to building exteriors in the fall, which helps prevent pest entry. Fast-acting residual insecticides can be sprayed in a targeted band around windows, doors, eaves, soffits, attic vents, and other likely points of entry.
Some of the more effective insecticides used by professionals include Demand (lambda cyhalothrin), Suspend (deltamethrin), Talstar (bifenthrin) and Tempo (cyfluthrin). Effective over-the-counter versions of these products include Spectracide Triazicide, Bayer Advanced Powerforce Multi-Insect Killer, and Ortho Home Defense Max. Purchasing these products in concentrated (dilutable) form will allow larger volumes of material to be applied with a pump-up or hose-end sprayer.
To be effective, barrier treatments should be applied before the beetles enter buildings to overwinter. During late winter or early spring, barrier treatments are ineffective since the beetles gained entry the previous autumn.  Other approaches have been suggested to alleviate problems with Asian lady beetles. Ladybug "houses" sold in garden supply catalogs will have no effect in keeping the beetles out of your home. Light traps can be useful for capturing flies and lady beetles in dark confined spaces such as attics, but will capture relatively few beetles entering living spaces in the fall or emerging from hidden locations the following spring. Unfortunately, there is no "quick fix" or easy answer to annual lady beetle invasions. Vacuuming, pest proofing and properly timed exterior insecticide treatments can provide relief but will not prevent entry of every single beetle.

10.0 CONCLUSION Lady beetle generally do not injure human and are mainly a nuisance. Unlike other household pest, they do not reproduce indoors. However, many garden catalogs offer lady beetle for control of garden pest hence, they are varacious predators to some garden pest. Unfortunately, some of them are significant agricultural pest because they eat the leave of bean plants and a few of them eat pollens.

11.0 REFERENCES * Anon (2004) “deadly lady beetle * A. Honek, martinkova & S. pekar(2007) “Aggregation characteristic of three species of Coccinellidae at hibernation sites” * Quinn (2013). Leaf beetles of Texas * William F. Lyon,(2014). The kitchen cookbook * Microsoft Encarta premium (2009). Beetle * Welcome wildlife. Beetle and weevil * Pest kills (2015). Best control tips on how to get rid of beetle Report structure = 4
Report content = 6
Conclusion = 3
Reference = 4
Total = 17/25…...

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