Free Essay

Internal Divisions in the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s Plan

In: Historical Events

Submitted By JamesRaddings
Words 593
Pages 3
How far was the effectiveness of the civil rights movement in the 1960s limited by
Internal divisions?
Firstly mention the successes of the 1960s * Greensboro Sit-ins 1960, This protest was very effective; it successfully desegregated the Woolworths store by the end of 1960 and all of Woolworths by 1961. By the end of 1962, 700k people protested and 810 southern towns desegregated something which helped to start the erosion of the Jim Crow Laws.
But, the foundations for divisions were set, SNCC accused the SCLC of keeping donations and they were displeased with Kings top-down leadership. NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall called SNCC a ‘group of crazy coloured’. Although this didn’t affect this campaign, the co-operation was unsustainable and could be seen as the beginning of the end. * Freedom rides 1961, This again was successful in the respect that Supreme Court rulings MORGAN V VIRGINIA 1946 and BOYNTON V VIRGINIA 1960 were upheld, but divisions remained, CORE insisted that the SCLC said that CORE originated the freedom rides, cracks were beginning to widen. * The failure at Albany also helped with the radicalisation of SNCC and CORE, people started to question the effectiveness of peaceful protest.
Talk about how when there is collaboration there is usually success, e.g. March on Washington which helped the 1964 Civil rights act go through.
Tangible successes (dejure) * Civil Rights Act 1964 outlawed racial discrimination in employment and all forms of segregation in public places. * Voting Rights Act 1965 outlawed voting blocks and helped over 200,000 people in the south vote within a year. * Civil Rights Act 1968 outlawed housing discrimination.
But these weren’t campaigns; they were federal acts so it was impossible for divisions to affect this.

The main divisions were caused by questioning the role of peaceful protest. This is shown in the early 1960s when Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam promote self defence by using force against whites and wanting black separatism. This is perhaps, at the beginning an ideological difference, but events in the campaigns i have mentioned and the horrible violence used against black protestors played a part.
These divisions carried on into the mid 1960s when SNCC and CORE radicalised, this limited the effectiveness greatly, due to how they excelled at grassroots activism and SNCC in particularly were a young and energetic group. CORE and SNCC achieved nothing of any significance once they radicalised.
Black power and the Black panthers were then on the rise, they were the polar opposite of Kings ideology of how to gain equality. This was the biggest division. They stopped King moving north and limited King to the South. The failure of Chicago 1966 was down to a division over tactics. This divisions led King to radicalise and modify some of his views (this is shown in the poor people’s campaign of 1968, Kings radical demands and his shift to economic changes which strongly weakened the civil rights movement), he spoke out against the Vietnam war which lost him huge support, the violence of the Black power movement and Black Panthers lost much white support, and white support was vital in gaining equality and federal intervention.

Then in 1968, King was assassinated and the civil rights movement was in a mess and bitterly divided over future tactics. Then the black power movement took control of the movement and they achieved very little, so to conclude, towards the end of the 1960s, these small divisions grew into massive divisions and were the main contribution to the end of the civil rights movement.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Civil Rights Movement Paper

...Civil Rights Movement Parminder Singh History 145 September 20th, 2011 Christopher Jackson Civil Rights Movement In the early 1960s the American nation was struggling with anxiety in many different ways. The position of America in the world was sinking with the Soviet Union bringing competition to the table with their space programs that intimidated the American government. The public, itself, was concerned about the ‘visibility of Poverty, the rising frustrations of women,’ and most important, besides “other long-suppressed discontents” was the “growing pressures of African American and other minorities” (Brinkley (2007) p.821). The media had a large role on the way the society thought along with Martin Luther King and Malcolm X’s influences that changed the movement of civil rights later in the 1960s. The media in the 1960s was great at getting raw and non-bias stories, unlike in today’s era where most of the news Americans get is mainly leaning toward one side or the other. The media expressed how the African Americans deserved equal rights in the south and other areas; “when urban black parents attempt to intervene, they are characterized as “obstructionist” for requesting those participatory privileges in the educational process taken for granted by white suburbanite parents”[New York, N.Y] 13 Nov 1966: 276). The public’s opinion of civil rights grew with the media displaying raw footage of segregation. The white Americans that once were friends with or......

Words: 821 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Importance of the Civil Rights Movement

...Kenneth Gill Honors American History II Per: 4 The civil rights movement had a big impact on racial equality. It made the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act possible. In this essay, I will be discussing the factors which contributed to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. I will also discuss the shift in the civil rights movement towards “black power” and the results of the shift. There were many factors that contributed to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In early 1960 a group of black college students staged a sit-in at a segregated Woolworth’s lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. This caused similar demonstrations throughout the South that forced merchants to integrate their facilities. In the fall of 1960, participates of the sit-ins formed the SNCC or Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. This group worked to keep the spirit of resistance alive in the South. In 1961 a group of interracial students, collaborating with the Congress of Racial Equality, organized “freedom rides”. These consisted of interracial students traveling by bus throughout the south in an attempt to force the desegregation of bus stations. In some places they were met with physical brutality from whites which forced President Kennedy to dispatch federal marshals to help keep the peace. Kennedy also ordered the integration of all bus and train stations. In October 1962, federal courts ordered the University of Mississippi to enroll its first black......

Words: 863 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Civil Rights Movement

...Civil Rights Movement Marilyn Hemingway History 300 May 08, 2013 Dr. Goldstein African Americans have experienced racial discrimination in virtually every single area of their lives. America has come a long way since the 1800’s when slavery was common, but that road certainly hasn’t been easy or short for Black American. Not long after the Civil War ended, African Americans experienced a form of racial segregation called Jim Crow. The name "Jim Crow" originated from a character in an early nineteenth-century minstrel show song. A white minstrel blackened his face and jigged around while singing. The "Jim Crow" character regularly appeared in minstrel shows touring the South. Eventually, Jim Crow became the name of the racial caste system which operated primarily, but not exclusively, in southern and Border States. These laws legalized segregation from the 1860’s through 1967. The most widespread laws mandated racial segregation in schools and public places such as railroads, restaurants, and streetcars. Since segregation laws typically excluded African Americans from services, Jim Crow laws began as an attempt to move forward by providing separate services for blacks. These laws were adopted earliest in most southern towns and municipalities where diverse crowds lived. These communities passed vagrancy laws that controlled the influx of black homeless migrants. Many southern states during......

Words: 2034 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

The Basic of the Civil Right Movement

...The Basics on the Civil Right Movement Because large segments of the populace--particularly African-Americans, women, and men without property--have not always been accorded full citizenship rights in the American Republic, civil rights movements, or "freedom struggles," have been frequent features of the nation's history. In particular, movements to obtain civil rights for black Americans have had special historical significance. Such movements have not only secured citizenship rights for blacks but have also redefined prevailing conceptions of the nature of civil rights and the role of government in protecting these rights. The most important achievements of African-American civil rights movements have been the post-Civil War constitutional amendments that abolished slavery and established the citizenship status of blacks and the judicial decisions and legislation based on these amendments, notably the Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision of 1954, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Moreover, these legal changes greatly affected the opportunities available to women, nonblack minorities, disabled individuals, and other victims of discrimination. The modern period of civil rights reform can be divided into several phases, each beginning with isolated, small-scale protests and ultimately resulting in the emergence of new, more militant movements, leaders, and organizations. The Brown decision demonstrated that the......

Words: 1943 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Civil Rights Movement

...Civil Rights Movement Viviane Jean xxxx The Civil Rights Movement America’s Founding Fathers centered political responsibility in their citizens, with James Madison arguing against the ancient assumption that a populace needed controlling from some higher force. Instead, as the Constitution allowed, America would trust in the wisdom of its people, deciding at large, through the nonviolent means of elections, who was most fit to lead and how. Still, nobody expected that an ignored and despised racial minority to be the ones who, two hundred years after the signing of the Constitution, would be the ones to face down hatred and push the United States back towards serving the will of the people. Yet that was exactly what the Civil Rights Movement was and it was achieved through nonviolence. Calling the ideals of the Founding Fathers “an unrealized dream” Martin Luther King, Jr. would say that the American people had “proudly professed the principles of democracy and… practiced the very antithesis…” (Branch, 2006). The Civil Rights Movement would be a long and deadly struggle, casting American race relations into international focus, and eventually fragmenting under internal pressures but it changed the country forever, resurrecting voting rights of the Fifteenth Amendment that had been enshrined after the Civil War and then buried, along with the rights of the black race, in the failure of Reconstruction. One of the seminal works on both the life of Martin Luther King, Jr.......

Words: 786 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

How Far Was the Effectiveness of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s Limited by Internal Divisions? (30 Marks)

...How far was the effectiveness of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s limited by internal divisions? (30 marks) During the Civil Rights Movement great improvements were made gradually for the small minority groups in USA, for example Black African Americans, Hispanic groups and also women. However, from the very beginning there were internal divisions within the civil rights movement as well as external divisions. These partitions were caused by four major factors; methods such as peaceful protest and violence, ideology, effects of tension from jealousy and rivalry and lastly personalities of the different civil rights organisations and their leaders as they were competing for media attention and public recognition. These divisions did limit the effectiveness of the civil rights movement as they slowed down the process and cause many complications. These divisions were extremely clear thought out the 1960s as there was the development of Black Power and their methods of violence which is a contrast to Martin Luther King’s approach which was peaceful protest. In the early 1960s many successes came about for the civil rights movement especially for SNCC and of Martin Luther King. The Greensboro sit-ins led by SNCC in 1960 is an example of a triumph as they demonstrated that civil rights campaigns could spread quickly and also showed that other organisations could work together as the sit-ins attacked all aspects of segregation and it lead to the extending of the existing......

Words: 913 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Civil Rights Movement

...Civil Rights Movement The Civil Rights Movement originated when the African American was tired of the ragged schools and unfair treatment they was getting from their own country. They wanted to be treated equally thus for exercise the 14th Amendment. The 8 year old girl from Kansas protested that they should end segregation. She wanted to go to the whites’ only school that was down on her block and not the African American school that was so far away. NAACP got involved along with its lawyer; Thurgood Marshall took the case to state and federates courts, to appeal it to the US supreme courts. This was the year of 1950. (http://11historyatimmanuel.wikispaces.com/)Therefore the Supreme Court appeals to desegregation all the schools. 6 Southern states didn't abide by the case and continued segregated their schools. Little Rock Arkansas was one of the cruelest states that mistreated African American. The students were ridiculed and harassed they had to be led by US army. This occurred in 1957.(http://11historyatimmaneul.wikispaces.com/) There were others that were affected by segregation as well, which brought about the civil rights. For instance, In Montgomery Alabama a woman named Rosa Parks refused to sit at the back of the bus. The bus driver told her that she couldn't sit their and tried to make her get up for the whites only section. She worked all day on her feet and was too tired to move out of the seat, she told him that she was not moving. Refusing to move, the bus......

Words: 367 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Civil Rights Movement

...Historically, the Civil Rights Movement was a time during the 1950’s and 60’s to eliminate segregation and gain equal rights. Looking back on all the events, and dynamic figures it produced, this description is very vague. In order to fully understand the Civil Rights Movement, you have to go back to its origin. Most people believe that Rosa Parks began the whole civil rights movement. She did in fact propel the Civil Rights Movement to unprecedented heights but, its origin began in 1954 with Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka. Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka was the cornerstone for change in American History as a whole. Even before our nation birthed the controversial ruling on May 17, 1954 that stated separate educational facilities were inherently unequal, there was Plessy vs. Ferguson in 1896 that argued by declaring that state laws establish separate public schools for black and white students denied black children equal educational opportunities. Some may argue that Plessy vs. Ferguson is in fact backdrop for the Civil Rights Movement, but I disagree. Plessy vs. Ferguson was ahead of it’s time so to speak. “Separate but equal” thinking remained the body of teachings in America until it was later reputed by Brown vs. Board of Education. In 1955 when Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat, and prompted The Montgomery Bus Boycott led by one of the most pivotal leaders of the American Civil Rights Movement, Martin Luther King Jr. After the gruesome death of......

Words: 916 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Civil Rights Movement

...The Civil Rights Movement The Civil Rights Movement was a series of political movements for equality before the laws peaked in the 1960’s. During the period of 1954-1965, many gains were made in the progress of desegregation. In 1954, the landmark case of Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas deemed that separate education facilities for the races were unconstitutional. Though the ruling was a significant victory in the movement, the process of overturning segregation was just beginning (Beacham, T. Gilmartin, B., Grobman, S, Ling, C., & Rhee, V. (Producers), Libretto, J. (Director), 2004). In 1964, the passing of The Civil Rights Act banned discrimination in employment practices and public accommodations. In 1965, The Voter Rights Act insured all citizens had the right to vote and eliminated discriminatory “tricks” often used in southern states to prevent African Americans from going to the polls (Bowles, 2011,Chapter 4:6). These momentous strides were not without the painful realities of violence and death for many who supported the movement. Though the movement centered on African Americans, other minorities wanted equality as well. Women, Mexican Americans, and American Indians sought out methods of equality during this time of change in the country. In the 1960’s the United Farm Workers of American (UFW), led by Cesar Chavez, started a strike and boycott of table grapes that gained nationwide support. Women, through voices like Gloria Steinem,......

Words: 526 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Civil Right Movement

...July 15, 2015 sTUDENT NAME July 15, 2015 sTUDENT NAME Civil rights movement Primary Source- Staff, H. (2009, July 15). Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved from History.com: http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-movement This source on Civil Rights Movement was created in 15th July, 2009 by history.com staff which was published by A+E Networks. Social liberties developments are an overall arrangement of political developments for fairness under the watchful eye of the law, that crested in the 1960s.[citation needed] In numerous circumstances they have been portrayed by peaceful challenges, or have taken the type of crusades of common resistance went for accomplishing change through peaceful types of resistance. In a few circumstances, they have been went with, or took after, by common distress and furnished insubordination. Subsequent to perusing the article I comprehended that the principle point of the fruitful African-American Civil Rights Movement and different developments for social liberties included guaranteeing that the privileges out of every other person on earth were and are just as ensured by the law. These incorporate yet are not restricted to the privileges of minorities, ladies' rights, and LGBT rights. It triggers the thought regarding how these individuals saw viciousness over numerous decades. The primary point of the effective African-American Civil Rights Movement and different developments for social equality included......

Words: 1113 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Civil Rights Movement

...Jerrell Johnson 9/18/15 2B Social Issues Civil Rights Movement (1954-1972) 1960 Greensboro, NC Lunch Counter Sit-Ins In protest of local restaurants that refuse to serve African-American customers, a series of sit-ins is staged at lunch counters in Greensboro, North Carolina. 1. How did this impact the lives of Americans? How it impact a nation was it sparked a sit-in that movement that spread to colleges and, towns and many protesters were arrested for trespassing, disorderly conduct and so called disturbing the peace, but their actions have made an immediate and ever- lasting impact, which forced Woolworth’s and other establishments to change their segregationist policies. 2. How did the three branches of government respond to this event? How did the government respond the sit-ins were successful in achieving the desegregation of lunch counters and other public places. Nashville's students, who started their sit-ins a few days after the Greensboro group, attained desegregation of the downtown department store lunch counters in May, 1960 which then helped media picked up this issue and covered it nationwide, beginning with lunch counters and spreading to other forms of public accommodation, including transport facilities, art galleries, beaches, parks, swimming pools, libraries, and even museums around the South. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 mandated desegregation in public accommodations. 3. what are the social political......

Words: 1074 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Struggles of the Civil Rights Movement

...Struggles of the Civil Rights Movement Jason Mitchell Southern New Hampshire University The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s was a powerful political movement that not only spurred for change for the people of the African American race, but for other minority races as well. This movement peaked in the 1950’s and lasted through the ending of the 1960s. Through the numerous arrests of individuals, protests, and sit-ins around the country, marchers for a better way of living marched on. The main country that was mostly affected by the Civil Rights Movement was the United States of America. The 1954 decision of Brown v. Board of Education, 1963 March on Washington was just a corner piece of one of the biggest movement to ever happen in the US. One of America’s most notable court cases, Brown v. Board of Education, changed the mindset of so many people. From December 1952-May 1954 the case brought different viewpoints that supported the case, but it also brought negative support as well. Before the 1954 decision that ruled separate educational institutions unequal, that was the court case of Plessy vs. Ferguson of 1896 that argued that state laws should establish separate public schools for black and white children. Many people thought that Plessy vs. Ferguson was the backstage scene for the Civil Rights Movement, but others disagree. The “Separate but Equal” idea remained in America until the historic case of Brown v. Board of Education. The Civil Rights Movement......

Words: 1106 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Civil Rights Movement

...1960’s America for African Americans: The Civil Rights Movement For African American’s life in the 1960’s proved itself to be a challenge amongst many other things. These challenges are what prompted the Civil Rights Movement, which actually began in 1954 and lasted until 1968. Because African Americans or Blacks, in the United States had virtually no equality or constitutional rights they began a nonviolent freedom movement in order to gain some quantity of value. Throughout the years of this movement, Blacks in America went through both wins and losses against the states in the South and the United States Supreme Court. Within the fourteen years of the movement many events created a lasting impact on life for African Americans in America. In the following paragraphs the details of these events will be discussed. Beginning the Civil Rights Movement were a number of court cases that created more opportunity for African Americans. Bolling v. Sharpe in 1954 was an important case in providing equal education rights for white and black students. Similar to it was one of the most monumental cases or more landmarked case, the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka that was decided on within the same year. This case paved a way for African American student acceptance into all white schools that permitted segregation, overturning the court case Plessy v. Ferguson with the idea of “separate but equal”. The first states to follow through with desegregating education were the District...

Words: 2014 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Civil Rights Movement

...Civil Rights Movement The Civil Rights Movement was an introduction to what would be the nations’ most important effort to solve the racial issues. No longer to ignore the race problems; an effort to provide justice and equality to African Americans began. Leaders launched demonstrations and speeches were given. Organizations gathered to support litigations against the segregation laws. Pressure built, leading to a response to the Civil Rights Movement and through continuing efforts a breakthrough was made African Americans favored President Kennedy because he helped with the release of Martin Luther King, Jr. from a Georgia prison (Brinkley, 2007, 2003, 1999). Kennedy’s dream was to change the existing segregation laws without hurting the political side in the south. The beginning of the civil rights movements started when Black college students in Greensboro, North Carolina exhibited sit-ins and similar demonstrations began to happen throughout the south (Brinkley, 2007, 2003, 1999). In the New York Times paper stated “The National Student Association said that students across the country were joining a mass protest with “non violent sit ins” (Salisbury, 1960, p. 28). Some of the people who been a part of the sit-ins formed a group called the Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee (SNCC) (Brinkley, 2007, 2003, 1999). A year later in 1961 another group of students who worked with the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) started “Freedom rides” (Brinkley, 2007, 2003,......

Words: 1005 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Civil Rights Movement

...Haller Eng-132 22 April 2016 Civil Rights Movement In history there have been many changes socially and physically. In the 1960’s the civil rights movement was significant for the equality of people. After the abolition of slavery in 1853, there had been a continuous conflict between the races of people who lived in the United States. In the United States there have been and still are many hate groups. Many think that after the civil rights movement African Americans and whites people got along perfectly; however, there are many stories on how white people have been disgracing African Americans. There were many types of protesting during this time. Some protest involved violent and some involved non-violent protesting. Many influential people were here at the time such as: Rosa Parks, Malcolm X, and Martin Luther King, Jr. There were also many hate groups at the time that tried to erase the African American population. During this time there were many rights that were violated during the civil rights movement. Many amendments were also made to stop the segregation such as the 14th and 15th amendment. The civil rights movement was a mass protest movement against racial segregation and discrimination in the southern United States that came to national prominence during the mid-1950s. This was in the roots of centuries-long efforts of African slaves. (Carson, 2015) The south was worse than the north about how this. The civil rights movement was about of the Jim Crow......

Words: 1920 - Pages: 8