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Investigatory Project

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Dried Papaya Leaves as Organic Mulch for Tomato Plants | AbstractMulching in agricultural provides a safe yet equally profitable method of enriching and fertilizing the soil planted with crops. Most often-used mulches are of organic composition, such as dry leaves and barks. Unlike synthetic fertilizers and herbicides, these organic mulches pose no or little damage to the soil and crops.In this study, the effectiveness of dried papaya leaves as organic mulch for tomato was tested. Papaya mulches in different thickness were applied on plots planted with tomato in three replications. After the determined period of mulch application, the researchers application, the researchers measured the height increases of tomato plants ands the weed density in the plots. It was concluded that papaya mulch significantly promoted height increase of tomato plants and inhibited the growth of weeds. The best mulch was 3 inches in thickness.IntroductionUsually defined as the use of organic and biodegradable materials to give plants the nutrients they need, organic farming proved to be the safest and most effective method of increasing and sustaining yield. Various methods fall under organic farming, such as composting, green manuring, legume inoculating, and utilizing animal manure as fertilizers.Mulching is a simple process that increases soil fertility and regulating several factors affecting overall plant growth. In this method, a layer of material-the mulch-is placed on soil surface around the plant. The mulch is used to retard the growth of weeds, protect roots and stems from sudden or extreme temperature changes, reduce soil erosion by wind and water, retard runoff of rainfall, prevent soil puddling by breaking the impact of raindrops, and keep flowers and fruits from being spattered with mud during rainstorms.Further clarification of the procedures and results should be directed to the researchers and adviser.ResearchersMa. Theresa C. AcayenLeizel G. MagdaraogLevin G. MatrianoLeslie Mae D. RiveroAdviserMs. Marie Christine W. MercaPhilippine Science High SchoolBicol Region Campus Used Cooking Oil as an Additive Component of Candle | AbstractThe study aims to produce a low-priced, high-quality candle by using used cooking oil as a major component. The following candle compositions were used: 100 percent paraffin wax; 90 percent paraffin and 10 percent oil; 80 percent paraffin and 20 percent oil; 70 percent paraffin and 30 percent oil; 60 percent paraffin and 40 percent oil; 50 percent paraffin and 50 percent oil. The firmness, texture, and light intensity of the candles were tested and compared.Results of the tests showed that the candle made from 100 percent paraffin wax had the lowest melting rate, lowest amount of melted candle, and a light intensity of 100 candelas (cd). The 90:10 preparation had the next lowest melting rate and amount of melted candle. The other preparations ranked according to the proportion of used cooking oil in the candle, with the 50:50 preparation performing least comparably with the 100 percent paraffin wax candle.IntroductionToday, candles are made not only for lighting purposes but for many other uses such as home décor, novelty collections, as fixtures for big occasions (weddings, baptismals, etc.), and as scented varieties for aromatherapy. Candles are made from different types of waxes and oils.Cooking oil is a major kitchen item in Filipino households. It is also used substantially in fast-food outlets, where it is used in different stages of food preparations. Ordinarily, used cooking oil is discarded. This waste oil pollutes and clogs canals and sewerage systems.Selected ReferencesThe Feasibility of Cocos nucifera Oil as an Additive for Quality Candles. Bato Balani Volume 15 Issue 1, Junior. pp. 16-18. Candles, Waxes, Oils. Microsoft Encarta 2004Further clarification of the procedures and results should be directed to the researchers and adviser.ResearchersLauriedette Ann D. ConcepcionJoane F. LibrandaAnna Carmela R. SantiagoAdviserMrs. Racquel C. DiazTalavera National High School Cassava starch as an effective component for Ideal Biodegradable Plastic | Inventions have evolved and continue to evolve such that after several years of study, research and experimentation reach great developments. With continuing efforts to investigate the constituents of Philippine plants, we have pursued investigation of starch of the cassava plant (Manihot esculenta). Cassava tubers were gathered, ground and squeezed to extract starch. Starch obtained was weighed and divided into three equal parts; 80 grams in T1, T2 and T3.Treatments also consisted of 60 ml plastic resin glue and resin with 50 grams of flour catalyst for T1, 100 grams for T2 and 150 grams in T3. The components in every treatment were mixed, stirred and then poured in silk screen with oil and then sun-dried. Test for capacity to carry weight indicated T3 as the best. For its ability to hold water, all products passed but for biodegradability, T1 gave the best results. The tensile and bending properties had been tested using the Universal Testing Machine and Analysis showed that T3 had the greatest tensile strength while T2 had the greatest bending property. Using ANOVA single Factor, results showed that there was significant difference among the three treatments in bending and tensile strength. However, for biodegradability test there was no significant difference. The final phase of the study determined the effectiveness of cassava starch as component of biodegradable plastic. Results confirmed that cassava starch is ideal as tests proved its worth.Further clarification of the procedures and results should be directed to the researchers and adviser.ResearchersDaryl S RomeroMary Ann L. TinajaClarissa L. CacheroAdviserGregor BurdeosBayugan National Comprehensive High ShoolBayugan, Agusan Del Norte Insecticidal Property of Acacia Seeds and Bark Against Termites | Insecticidal Property of Acacia (Samanea saman) Seeds and Bark Against Termites (Coptotermes vastator). A study on the insecticidal property of Acacia seeds and bark against termites was conducted to find out if these could be used against termites. The experiment was conducted at the laboratory of the Bureau of Soils in Lipa City and in Lumbang National High School from September to October 2005. The effort was initiated to enrich the laboratory activities in Chemistry and Biology for high school students.It especially attempted to answer the following questions: * How can insecticides be prepared from Acacia seeds and bark? * How effective is the Acacia insecticide in combating or killing termites (Coptotermes vastator); * Are there significant differences in the effectiveness of the ethanolic Acacia extract and commercial insecticide (Solignum) in combating termites? * What are the implications of the use of Acacia seeds as insecticide on the environment and human health?Ethanolic extracts were prepared from the seeds and bark of Acacia collected from areas surrounding Laurel farm in Lumbang, Lipa City. These extracts were used as samples in the qualitative analysis and preliminary screening for insecticidal property against termites. The screening of the ethanolic extracts from Acacia seeds and bark revealed the presence of saponin, tannins, alkaloids, reducing agents – glycosides, carbohydrates, which have the capacity to kill termites. The one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used in comparing the means of the effect of the ethanolic extracts against termites. Results were positive, showing the experimental sample to be comparable to Solignum.Further clarification of the procedures and results should be directed to the researchers and adviser.ResearchersP-Jay D. LatorreAdviserMs. Beatriz R RubicoLumbang National High School | | | |…...

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