Free Essay

Itc E-Choupal Review

In: Business and Management

Submitted By mehtahir
Words 1379
Pages 6
ITC E-Choupal Review
1. What was ITC's motivation for creating the eChoupal?
ITC's main motivation behind creating eChoupal was to generate more sales in agriculture. The International Business Division (IBD), which was the agricultural division of ITC, was lagging behind other divisions (tobacco, retail, etc.) of the company. IBD had grossed Rs. 450 crore, while other ITC's other divisions had a total of Rs. 7701 crores in sales.
ITC also wanted to increase efficiency in various aspects of the agricultural business. For example, farmers did not have access to appropriate tools that may help them achieve the maximum financial benefits. Farmers did not have access to quality inputs (pesticides, herbicides, etc.), or information on weather reports that may help improve their crop quality as well as the process of bringing it into the market. Because of this, farmers lost 60-70% of the potential value of their crop and the yield was only about a third to a quarter when compared to the global standards.
ITC wanted to address the entire issue by helping the farmers earn their fair share, and improving the trading service. ITC wanted the farmers to have access to all the information, and have them make decisions on how they wanted to sell their crop. ITC enabled this by creating a Hub is each village which enabled them to attain information relating to weather, crops, best practices, and all their questions could be answered by an expert in the field.
2. What are the old and new physical flows and information flows in the channel?
In the old system, the main source of physical flow and information flow in the channel was via the Mandi, where the farmers and villagers would gather to discuss information on various topics. In the old system, farmers would go to the market (often a day's worth of travel), and then try to sell their crop to the CA. At any given day, there would be atleast 1,000 farmers in the market, which made it very demanding for the farmers to sell their crop.
In the new system, information flowed into the channel via the eChoupal. This system gave farmers access to information relating to their local network (i.e., activities around their area with respect to crop selling), and also information on weather, best practices etc. This was a more reliable source of information they could receive, when compared to Mandi. The information provided farmers with risk management and risk mitigation tools to maximize the growth of good quality crops. The ITC eChoupal helped the farmers market their products better and also raised awareness of competitive pricing of their crops.
3. What principles did ITC employ as it built the newly fashioned supply chain?
ITC's main platform was to ensure that all the systems and information are kept transparent to the end user. They also wanted to build trustworthy and confident relationship with the farmers and the Sanchalaks. ITC ensured that the farmers are given a good platform to make an informed decision. To do this, ITC ensured all the Sanchalaks and properly trained, since the Sanchalaks are the people who would enable eChopal network to function properly. The Sanchalaks served as a link to connect the ITC and the farmers. Hence, ITC ensured that the Sanchalaks were honest. The Sanchalaks had to take an oath that they would not engage in any wrongful activities.
ITC also believed in equal access of their system to everyone, and again, keeping the whole process transparent. The web site was accessible to anyone, including the government, to cross-check ITC's prices at any time. To make the farmers and people more confident about the system, they ensured the government also buys into the system. By having the government accept the initiative, ITC ensured that the eChoupal was a legitimate tool that the people could use and trust.
The ITC never made the farmers enter a contact or try to persuade them into a "deal". They left the final decision to be made by the farmers, which also gave the people freedom to think and act. ITC's philosophy was to be honest and gain the trust of the people and they will eventually come back and gain their business and maintain a good working relationship with the farmers and the people.
What barriers did ITC face in embarking on this project?
ITC faced three important barriers in embarking this project. They are:
1. ITC had to attain the trust of the farmers who would be using the eChoupal. Many of the farmers had not been exposed to computers and the World Wide Web. Having the farmers placing their trust and using this system would be a hard task. The farmers may look upon this initiative suspiciously. However, with time, the farmers became more familiar with the eChoupal and their benefits (e.g., information on increasing crop yield, etc.) and started to trust the system.
2. ITC was trying to undertake a big initiative to develop a different means of selling the crop. They were trying to ensure the buying and selling becomes more efficient and easier for the farmers by creating more options. In doing so, they were replacing the Mandis. The initiative would have received some opposition from the government.
3. Setting up the proper infrastructure in the villages would have been a difficult task for the ITC. Most of the villages may not have even carried phones, which would mean ITC would have to undertake all the construction work involved with creating and setting up computer stations at each of the villages.
As Mr. Sivakumar, how do you plan to proceed to develop this platform for the future? The eChoupal platform developed has helped both the farmers and the ITC create a more organized means of conducting agricultural business. There are several steps Mr. Sivakumar can take in the future to further develop this platform.
1. The platform can be transformed into a consultancy service where experts can offer good opinions and reasonable solutions to questions raised by the farmers. This would be made an exclusive service where farmers who are richer will be paying for the service. This plan would enable the platform to become more substantial and professional.
2. With more and more farmers joining this platform in India, the platform can become a national pride and can used as a central database to store and communicate information. This methodology can be applied to other agricultural practises in India (i.e., in other states) for different crops.
3. The input from the farmers can be used to develop the platform. Based on regional/ local information collected on the system from each community, distinctive practises could be adopted in the system to make the system more effective in that particular region. An added benefit to this would be that the community would become closer and would trust the system even more.
Which of the structured interview techniques for information requirements determination would work best in your organization? Why?
One of the techniques for information requirements determination that can be used in my organization (Weston Foods) is Critical Success Factors. This technique can be used is because one of the drivers of success is accurate forecasting based on upcoming promotions. Better forecast means supply chain can tune plants so they are able to easily meet capacity and reduce the amount of cuts in the order. To be able to forecast, history and knowledge of the product can be used, as well as the market appeal of the product in various regions.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of RFID?
Advantages
• There are cost savings potential - by implementing RFID, there is less labour involved
• At the customer end, there are faster checkouts and potentially fewer stock-outs
• It’s a fully automated data capture that keeps track of valuable assets and equipment
• When compared to a bar code, the RFID does not need to be in the line of sight. The tag can withstand harsh environments and has a long range reading ability
Disadvantages
• There are physical limitations when using a RFID - it can only be read though liquid or metal
• The RFID systems are typically more expensive and larger than barcode systems
• The RFID systems can be harder to understand…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Itc E-Choupal

...ITC-eChoupal By Group 9: Pradeep Fernandes Shreya Shetty Jenniefer Dias Muneet Narang Navyesh Kambli P Contents:      Choupal: Tradition About ITC Traditional supply chain Problems faced by traditional supply chain Problems faced by traditional practices:       Discuss the business benefits of echoupal Initiative Discuss the success factors for the ITC Initiative “E-choupal” What are the changes bought in the supply chain through echoupal? Role of samyojak What is the role of technology in their supply chain? Identify Key strategic intentions of the initiative Choupal: Tradition A village of Dahod, Bhopal in India’s central state of Madhya Pradesh was dominated by soybean workers.   Followed traditional way of harvesting crops and selling in the local market. The word choupal is a Hindi word which constituted an informal assembly or a meeting place where knowledge could be shared and captured. About ITC:         It is a large agricultural export business unit which comprised of various commodities. Two-third of its business consisted of soybean and its derivatives. MP was said to be the “soyabowl” where farmers contributed 4 million of India’s 5 million tons of soybean crop. 80% - soymeal ( high protein extract for poultry) 20% - edible oil (domestic purpose) Current value chain ITC was lagging behind compared to other commodities. Y.C Deveshwar – ITC chairman S.Shivakumar the Chief Executive pondered the choupal......

Words: 979 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

E-Choupal Case

...soybean was still very isolated and managed in the same traditional way as the farmers’ ancestors did. This led to a clear opportunity for ITC, to help improve the supply chain model where both the farmers and ITC where loosing profits, this adding up to the fact that the agricultural commodities division was behind in sales compared to other divisions of the company. Among the inefficiencies found through the supply chain were: 1)The presence of an intermediary called the Commission Agent who performed an unfair practice by purchasing the soybean at a lower market price to then resell it at a higher price to the processors reducing its profit margin, 2) Farmers were losing money throughout the supply chain, around 60-70% of potential crop value, as they had to pay for bagging, weighting and transport even if they didn’t close the sell and they used to lose 0.5% of his original lot because of inaccurate weighting scales, 3)This instability of income turned into a risk averse attitude from the farmers where they didn’t want to invest in their current methods to get higher quality products which would turn into higher value and profits for both the farmer and ITC. This situation motivated ITC to create e-Choupal. Most of the previously stated problems where behind three major factors: Lack of transparency, trust and information. e-Choupal aimed to address these challenges by creating an information platform where computers with Internet access were installed in rural areas in...

Words: 1720 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

E-Commerce Ch 1 Review

...than electronic commerce, can be a better way to sell items that rely on personal selling skills. 3. Briefly describe the specific activities that a motorcycle manufacturer might include in B2B electronic commerce for its supply management or procurement operations. The Company might sell its finished product to customers on the web , which would be B2C electronic commerce. It might also purchase the material it uses to make the speakers from other companies on the Web, which would be B2B electronic commerce. Businesses often have entire departments devoted to negotiating purchase transactions with their suppliers. These departments are usually named Supply Management or Procurement Thus, B2B electronic commerce is sometimes called e-procurement. 4. What are the main functions of a value-added network? is an independent firm that offers connection and transaction-forwarding services to buyers and sellers 5. Many business analysts have discussed the concept of the first-mover advantage. What are some of the disadvantages of being a first mover? must invest large amounts of money; the combination of high uncertainty and the need for large investments; 6. What is a shipping profile, and why is it an important consideration for firms making online sales? is the collection of attributes that affect how easily that product can be packaged and delivered; 7. What are transaction costs, and why are they important? are the total of all costs that a buyer and......

Words: 536 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Strategic Analysis of Itc

...About ITC * The Company was founded in year 1790 by Henry Overton Wills. It’s current headquarter is in Kolkata. * It is the largest producer of Cigarettes in India with maximum brands of all range. * In the list of world most reputable companies ITC position at 95. * ITC is one of India's foremost private sector companies with a market capitalisation of nearly US $ 9 billion and a turnover of US $ 3 billion. * Rated among the World's Leading Companies by Forbes magazine, ITC ranks third in pre-tax profit among India's private sector corporations.Only Indian FMCG company on Forbes Global 2000 ranking. * ITC has a diversified presence in Cigarettes, Hotels, Paperboards & Specialty Papers, Packaging, Agri-Business, Branded Apparel, Packaged Foods & Confectionery, Greeting Cards and other FMCG products * ITC's diversified status originates from its corporate strategy aimed at creating multiple drivers of growth anchored on its time-tested core competencies: unmatched distribution reach, superior brand-building capabilities, effective supply chain management and acknowledged service skills in hoteliering. * ITC's FMCG businesses have one of the largest retail networks in the country, consisting of over 2 million retailers. ITC employs over 31,000 people at more than 60 locations across India * ITC has powerful brands like Wills, John Players, Hotel Grand Maratha, Sunfeast. * ITC have a very successful CRS activity called......

Words: 907 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

E-Security Review

...E-SECURITY REVIEW 2008 Submission from Microsoft Australia Introduction Microsoft Australia welcomes the opportunity to participate through this Submission in the Whole-of Government Review of E-Security. A periodic review of the E-Security framework, in light of the quickly evolving threat landscape, is both timely and appropriate. Over the last thirty years there have been dramatic advances in information technology - the development of the microprocessor, the rise of the personal computer, the emergence of the Internet - which have revolutionised the way information is created, stored, shared, and used. Today, powerful, affordable and diverse devices, together with expanding broadband networks, create a powerful opportunity for connectivity for individuals and communities. Over the past two decades, rapid advances in software, IT services, and communications have enabled many traditionally separate and disparate infrastructures and business operations to become more connected. Through this connectivity virtually every aspect of society has experienced a transformation. Businesses and governments have been able to manage and streamline their operations. Individuals have been offered ready access to multiple sources of information thereby expanding knowledge and choice. Across every field of endeavour – commercial, social, scientific and philanthropic – the power of information has been increased and the transaction costs of engagement have been lowered. Our broad reliance...

Words: 13936 - Pages: 56

Premium Essay

Itc Stretagic Managment

...------------------------------------------------- History and Evolution | ITC was incorporated on August 24, 1910 under the name Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited. As the Company's ownership progressively Indianised, the name of the Company was changed from Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited to India Tobacco Company Limited in 1970 and then to I.T.C. Limited in 1974. In recognition of the Company's multi-business portfolio encompassing a wide range of businesses - Cigarettes & Tobacco, Hotels, Information Technology, Packaging, Paperboards & Specialty Papers, Agri-business, Foods, Lifestyle Retailing, Education & Stationery and Personal Care - the full stops in the Company's name were removed effective September 18, 2001. The Company now stands rechristened 'ITC Limited'. The Company’s beginnings were humble. A leased office on Radha Bazar Lane, Kolkata, was the centre of the Company's existence. The Company celebrated its 16th birthday on August 24, 1926, by purchasing the plot of land situated at 37, Chowringhee, (now renamed J.L. Nehru Road) Kolkata, for the sum of Rs 310,000. This decision of the Company was historic in more ways than one. It was to mark the beginning of a long and eventful journey into India's future. The Company's headquarter building, 'Virginia House', which came up on that plot of land two years later, would go on to become one of Kolkata's most venerated landmarks. Though the first six decades of the Company's existence...

Words: 1706 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

E-Choupal

...IT for Change Case Study e-Choupal – An Initiative of ITC IT for Change 2008 This case study is part of a research project that sought to analyse how different telecentre models approach development on the ground, proceeding to elaborate a typology based on the cornerstones of participation and equity. To conduct this assessment, four telecentre projects were examined: the Gujarat government’s E-gram project, the corporate-led venture by ITC called e-Choupal, the private enterprise model of Drishtee, and the community-owned telecentres of the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF). Two main criteria were used in selecting the case studies – the diversity of ownership models, and the requirement of a sufficient scale of the intervention. In addition to the field research conducted in 2008 using qualitative methods, the research also built on secondary sources. A review of the literature in the field of Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICTD) showed that while telecentres are viewed as contributing positively to development in general, they are largely not really seen as a space for catalysing transformative social change. Instead, there remains in the notion of telecentres for development a perpetuation of market-led approaches, wherein telecentres are viewed as a strategic means for expanding markets in rural areas, especially for corporates. In this approach, poor communities are repositioned as an opportunity for business, with ICTs as the......

Words: 2548 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

E-Learning Literature Review

...e-learning - A Review of Literature Prepared by Tim L. Wentling Consuelo Waight James Gallaher Jason La Fleur Christine Wang Alaina Kanfer Knowledge and Learning Systems Group UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN September 2000 Funded by Allstate Insurance Company Sears, Roebuck and Company Eastman Kodak Company 1 UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN Table of Contents Topic Page I Defining e-Learning 3 II Strategic importance of e-Learning 6 III Organizational Culture and e-Learning 8 IV Trainers in an e-Learning environment 10 V Understanding distributed learners 13 VI Evaluation of e-Learning 19 VII Cost effectiveness of e-Learning 30 VIII Selected e-Learning comparison studies 34 IX Global issues in e-Learning 41 X e-Learning industry trends and delivery technologies 48 XI. References 60 2 A Review of Definitions Economic, social and technological forces continue to change the global economy, and the way of life in organizations and the world. In specific, these forces have and continue to revolutionize teaching and learning in organizations. Urdan & Weggen (2000) related that technology, the rapid obsolescence of knowledge and training, the need for just-in-time training delivery, and the search for cost-effective ways to meet learning needs of a globally distributed workforce have redefined the processes that......

Words: 16343 - Pages: 66

Premium Essay

Itc Corporate Presentation

...ITC Limited One of India’s Most Admired and Valuable Companies A Profile  One of India’s most Admired and Valuable company - Market Capitalisation: over US$ 40 Billion  A USD 8 Billion enterprise by Revenue - ~58% of Net Revenue from non-Cigarette segments  Leading Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) marketer in India - Established several world-class brands in the last 10 years  10 year Value addition ~ Rs. 2.2 lakh crore (US$ 43 billion) with ~75% accruing to the Exchequer - Among the top tax payers in the country (Private sector) - Excise payments represent ~7% of Government of India’s total Excise collection  ITC & its Group Companies employ over 31,000 people directly; supports livelihoods of ~6 million people  A global exemplar in sustainable business practices - Only Company in the world of comparable dimensions to have achieved the global environmental distinction of being Carbon positive (10th Year), Water positive (13th Year) and Solid waste recycling positive (8th Year) 2 ITC Performance Track Record Rs. cr. 1995-96 2014-15 19-yr Cagr 95-96 to 14-15 Gross Revenue 5,115 49,965 12.7% Net Revenue 2,536 36,083 15.0% PBT 452 13,998 19.8% PAT 261 9,608 20.9% Capital Employed 1,886 32,420 16.1% ROCE % 28.4 43.4 Market Capitalisation 5,571 2,60,865 Total Shareholder Returns % 22.4% 24.3% Market Cap and TSR based on FY-end prices for......

Words: 3382 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Itc E-Choupal

...mandis. The ITC group which was one of India's foremost private sectors saw the need to address these inefficiencies and therefore gave birth to a system called the E-choupal. The ITC, on implementing the E-choupal sought to improve the supply distribution chain by payment method and all in all, eliminate the inefficiencies that the mandis system posed. For example the organizational structure had to be reconstructed to lessen the number of intermediaries in the distribution chain. Payment methods were made more efficient and farmers were equipped with current information as to the price of there produce as a result of access to a computer. The case illustrates the role of globalization as it relates to the democratization of technology, finance and information and how it aids in the reduction of poverty in a third world country. It also illustrates the importance of large companies (private Sector) mainly in their corporate and social responsibility in the economic development of the country it which it operates. This paper aims to highlight any areas of inefficiency the e-Choupal may posses and give possible solutions. Problems with the e-Choupal System The ITC sought to eliminate the inefficiencies imposed by the mandis system by creating the E-choupal. It conducted its re-engineering process by introducing the use of technology as a new method of conducting business. The use of the computer was incorporated in the day to day activities of the e-choupal. Farmers......

Words: 959 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

E-Choupal

...DOCUMENTOS PARA APERTURA DE CUENTA COMERCIAL CON DIGNATARIOS O FIRMANTES EXTRANJEROS            Entrevista personal Pacto Social y sus modificaciones Certificación de Registro Público Copias de pasaporte completos de todos los dignatarios, accionistas y firmantes 1 carta de firma de abogados en Panamá 2 cartas de referencias bancarias para cada uno de los extranjeros 2 Carta de referencia personal para cada uno de los extranjeros (1 del país de origen y 1 de Panamá) 2 Cartas de Referencias comerciales de la compañía 2 cartas de Referencias bancaria de la compañía (si las tienen) Perfil de la Empresa (carta membretada con la actividad de la empresa) Curriculum vitae de cada uno de los extranjeros Documentos que entrega el banco:  Solicitud de Apertura de Cuenta  Acta de Junta Directiva  Resolución General  Declaración Jurada  Reglamento de Cuenta  Tarjetas de Firmas (2 tarjetas para cada 3 firmantes, solo Tinta Negra, idéntico a la cédula )  Referencias de APC  Cuestionario Conociendo a su cliente para cada uno de los extranjeros firmantes y dignatario de la sociedad  Tarjeta para Retención de Est. De Cta. Para Banca en Línea:   Acta de Junta Directiva Solicitud Si la compañía está constituida en el extranjero requiere:    Certificado de Constitución de la Sociedad (Certificate of Incorporation) y sus modificaciones Certificación de Registro Público o Documentos que evidencien la composición actual...

Words: 353 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Itc Limitee

...3/17/2016 3/17/2016 ITC LIMITED: INDIA FIRST Case analysis ITC LIMITED: INDIA FIRST Case analysis Kabita khanal Roll no. 14206 MBA 4th term South Asian Institute of Management Kabita khanal Roll no. 14206 MBA 4th term South Asian Institute of Management ITC LIMITED: INDIA FIRST Introduction: ITC Ltd (ITC) was incorporated on August 24, 1910, under the name Imperial Tobacco Company of India Ltd. to make cigarettes and tobacco. It was started as the consolidation of British Americal Tobacco (BAT) which was an umbrella organization. The manufacturing in India started in 1907 but later in 1912, local sourcing and processing of tobacco was started. Followed by manufacturing of tobacco, packaging and printing requirements were met by setting up a packaging and printing facility in 1925. Gradually, ITC has diversified its presence in Cigarettes, Hotels, Paperboards & Specialty Papers, Packaging, Agri-Business, Packaged Foods & Confectionery, Information Technology, Branded Apparel, Personal Care, Stationery, Safety Matches and other FMCG products. The company is rapidly gaining market share even in its nascent businesses of Packaged Foods & Confectionery, Branded Apparel, Personal Care and Stationery. ITC is largest Agri products exporter from India. Latest initiatives taken by company has paid well for its growth, Company diversified into clothes retailing, agri products, Body and Hair care...

Words: 2694 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

E-Commerce Review

...1. Have you been involved in any e-commerce transactions? If so, tell us about your experience. If not, describe the reasons why you have not participated in e-commerce transactions or the barriers you have encountered. I have particiated in various e-commerce transactions, such as purchasing movie tickets, electronics, and music/dvd's online (C2B). I found that this was the best way to purchase anything new that was coming out, as I hate waiting in line for stuff knowing that there is a possabilitiy of it selling out. Specifically, in the case of purchasing movie tickets it was great becuase I could pick the seats in the theatre and avoid lineups, and so on. I have also been involved in the selling of items though Kijiji, UsedOttawa.com, craigslist, and Ebay. I have found them to be safe, reliable, and I liked the exposure I got whicha helped me to sell my stuff (C2C). 2. a) Why might Godiva.com have made such a strong commitment to e-business, despite the lack of action by its competitors? I believe that Godiva saw the internet as a viable option to reach out to consumers in different markets, this way it could help them to save in the long term in the need for stores and inventory that might spoil. It could have also been percieved that they want to continue to be the industry leader, and that if they get on the net now, they will be a recognizable face in gthe future. With the e-biz, they are able to maintain their product price, and not have to worry about......

Words: 349 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Itc in Rural India

...ITC In Rural India: Case Study By Group X2 Indian context- * 88 % of rural population lived on less than $2/day * NGO’s provided assistance to the poor & voiceless * Foreign investment was discouraged * Great effort was devoted to improve agriculture * Organized sector labour was privileged compared to the poorest people * Government announced rural jobs program to lift 60 million people out of poverty * The IT sector grew rapidly as foreign companies aggressively outsourced services to India * Indian companies rarely competed abroad because of government restrictions * To increase rural presence, HUL started “Project Shakti” which was very successful * ITC launched “e-choupal” to enter into agri-business division & interact directly with the farmers * Retail sales in India was around $250 billion in 2006, which was estimated to rise by 15-18 % by 2016 * Despite widespread poverty, the poor provided significant markets for products like tea, oil, bulb, footwear, bicycles & radios * FMCG accounted for 80% of all Indian consumer spending Opportunities and challenges presented by the India’s rural market Opportunities:- 1. Majority of the Indian population is from rural areas. So in rural market the consumer base is very large. 2. In the category of consumable and durable products, there are lot of products whose rural share is more than that of urban share. This provides a great opportunity for the companies to focus on...

Words: 1243 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Itc in Rural India

...CASE ANALYSIS: ITC IN RURAL INDIA * GROUP K2 INDIAN CONTEXT: India is a secular state, majority being Hindus. A large chunk of the Indian population still continues to live in the rural areas, their major occupation being agriculture. After independence, Indian economic strategy favoured production of capital goods which lead to development of industrial base. Private sector had to obtain manufacturing licenses for other industries With changing times and conditions, various economic reforms were introduced. Tracing back to 1973, Government asked all the multinationals to dilute foreign equity to 40% except under special circumstances. Many multinationals left the country, yet a few others continued by using the benefits available. The advantages with respect to the demographics were low cost labour, abundance of technically trained staff. By eighties, India had a good industrial environment with respect to the standards of the developing countries. The government control and restrictions was still very high. With the use of new seeds, fertilizers, pesticide and irrigation methods, India became self sufficient in food. India had a very strong Informal or Unorganized sector mainly cottage industries as they were exempted from many restrictions as compared to large or organized firms. Organized sector Labour unions were very strong in India and were politically active. By 1990, GDP was 3.5%, which was largely limited because of the stringent policies of the......

Words: 1884 - Pages: 8