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Macromolecules and Their Parts

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Submitted By chrismanguno
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There are four macromolecules that make up all living things. These macromolecules are proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. All of these macromolecules are formed from functional groups. The functional group hydroxyl is found in every macromolecule. All of these macromolecules except for lipids are hydrophilic. All of these macromolecules are broken down into monomers by hydrolysis reactions.
Proteins have methyl groups, amino groups, and carboxyl groups. Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Proteins functions are determined by how they are folded. Proteins with a primary structure have no function. Proteins with a secondary structure are in the shape of an alpha helix but still have no function. Once a protein achieves tertiary structure that protein has a function. Quaternary structures in proteins are made of many motifs and have the most advanced functions of all the structures, many of them being enzymes due to their three dimensional structure. However, a protein can become unfolded, and once it does it cannot be reversed, this is called denaturation and makes the protein loose its functions. All proteins and polypeptides are links of amino acids held together by peptide bonds. Peptide bonds are formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group and the amino groups in two atoms react which causes dehydration synthesis.
Carbohydrates have carbonyl groups, and are organic compounds every time due to the presence of a carbon atom and also have hydrocarbons due to the vast number of hydrogen atoms and carbon atoms. Carbohydrates are made of polysaccharides which are made of disaccharides which are made of monosaccharaides. There are two major types of carbs, structural and energy storage. The two major structural carbohydrates are chitin and cellulose. Cellulose helps plants keep their shape and structure. Chitin is fund in crustaceans and…...

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