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Management and Information Systems

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Rifky
Words 1774
Pages 8
Rifky Hamdani
XI IPA 2

Tugas Komputer

ESSAY
1. Sebutkan pengertian dari Program Komputer !
2. Sebutkan contoh-contoh Software Bahasa Pemrograman ! ( minimal 5 )
3. Sebutkan Langkah-langkah membuka Program Borland C++ !
4. Sebutkankan tipe data pada program C++ !vi
5. Sebutkan pengertian Variabel !
6. Sebutkan pengertian dari Konstanta !
7. Sebutkan Operator-operator pada C++
8. Sebutkan kegunaan perintah dibawah ini !
#include
cin cout getch()
9. Siapakah pembuat program C++ , dan sebutkan tujuan utama dibuatnya program C++ !
10.Perintah atau lambang yang digunakan untuk mengeksekusi kode program yang sudah dibuat dengan C++ adalah
Klik Debug –> Run
Atau CTRL + …….

Jawaban 1. Program komputer adalah kumpulan dari instruksi-instruksi yang memandu komputer untuk menjalankan tugas tertentu. 2. Visual Foxpro,Java,C++,Pascal, dan Pyton 3. Klik tombol start pilih All Program Borland C++ klik Borland C++ 4. Tipe data bilangan bulat:
-Char
-Int (integer)
-Short(Short Integer)
-Long(long Integer)
Tipe data bilangan real:
-float(real)
-double(real double)
-Long double
Tipe data unsigned Tipe data bilangan bulat:
-unsigned char
-unsigned int(integer)
-unsigned short(short integer)
-unsigned long(long integer) 5. Variabel Merupakan suatu tempat untuk menampung data atau konstanta di memori yang mempunyai nilaiAStau data yang dapat berubah – ubah selama proses program . 6. Konstanta menyatakan suatu nilai yang bersifat tetap. 7. Assignation ( = )

Operator Assignation digunakan untuk memberikan nilai ke suatu variabel. contohnya :

a=5

Pernyataan di atas berarti kita memberikan nilai integer 5 ke variabel a. Sisi kiri operator disebut lvalue (left value) dan sisi kanan disebut rvalue (right value). lvalue harus selalu berupa variabel dan rvalue atau sisi kanan dapat berupa konstanta, variabel, hasil dari suatu operasi atau kombinasi dari semuanya.

Aturan yang paling penting pada assigning (operasi sama dengan) adalah aturan kanan-ke-kiri: Operasi assignment selalu terjadi dari kanan ke kiri, dan tidak pernah sebaliknya.

a = b

Pernyataan ini memberikan arti variabel a (lvalue) di beri harga b (rvalue).
Contoh penerapannya begini : a = 10; //berarti a bernilai 10 b = 4; //berarti a bernilai 10 dan b bernilai 4 a = b; //berarti a bernilai 4 dan b bernilai 4. Ingat aturannya, Kanan ke Kiri. b = 7; //berarti a bernilai 4 dan b bernilai 7.
Bagaimana, sudah paham belum? jangan bilang tidak paham ya sobat. hehehe
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Operator Aritmatika
Operator aritmatika yang dapat digunakan di C++ ada 5, yaitu : * + Penjumlahan * - Pengurangan * * Perkalian * / Pembagian * % Modulo atau modulus
Wah pasti tidak perlu di jelaskan satu persatu sobat juga pasti sudah paham. Mungkin yang sedikit bingung adalah operator ( % ) atau modulo. Modulo adalah operasi yang memberikan sisa dari pembagian dua nilai. Misalnya begini: a = 11 % 3
Variabel a akan bernilai 2. Nilai 2 didapat dari sisa pembagian 11 dibagi 3. Coba saja di cek kalau tidak percaya. Tetapi jangan menggunakan kalkulator, karena hasilnya akan bilangan desimal. Capek deh.
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Increase ( ++ ) and Decrease ( -- )

Di C++ kita dapat memperpendek operasi :
Increase (++) a++; a+=1; a=a+1; Decrease (--) a--; a-=1; a=a-1; Masih bingung? begini sobat. Misalnya a=3; a++; maka nilai a yang baru adalah 4. Nah paham kan?

Operator Increase (++) dan Decrease (--) dapat digunakan sebagai prefix atau suffix. Dengan kata lain dapat dituliskan sebelum identifier variabel (++a) atau sesudahnya (a++). Operator increase yang digunakan sebagai prefix (++a), begini perbedaannya:

Contoh 1
(Prefix) | Contoh 2
(Surfix) | B = 3;
A = + + B;
// A berisi 4, B berisi 4 | B = 3;
A = B + +;
// A berisi 3, B berisi 4 |

Pada contoh 1, B ditambahkan sebelum nilainya diberikan ke A. Sedangkan contoh 2, Nilai B diberikan terlebih dahulu ke A dan B ditambahkan kemudian.
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Relational operators ( ==, !=, >, <, >=, <= )

Untuk mengevaluasi antara 2 ekspresi, dapat digunakan operator Relasional di atas. Hasil dari operator ini adalah nilai Boolean yaitu hanya berupa True atau False, atau dapat juga dalam nilai int, 0 untuk mereprensentasikan "false" dan 1 untuk merepresentasikan "true". == | Sama dengan | ! = | Tidak sama dengan | > | Lebih besar dari | < | Kurang dari | > = | Lebih besar dari atau sama dengan | <= | Kurang dari atau sama dengan |

Contoh :
(7 == 5) // evaluates to false atau hasil perbandingan salah.
(5 > 4) // evaluates to true atau hasil perbandingan benar.
(3 != 2) // evaluates to true atau hasil perbandingan benar.
(6 >= 6) // evaluates to true atau hasil perbandingan benar.
(5 < 5) // evaluates to false atau hasil perbandingan salah.

Selain menggunakan konstanta numerik seperti di atas, kita dapat menggunakan ekspresi yang valid, termasuk variabel. Misalkan a = 2, b = 3 dan c = 6 :

(a == 5) // "evaluates to false" karena a tidak samadengan 5.
(a*b >= c) // "evaluates to true" karena (2*3 >= 6) adalah benar.
(b+4 > a*c) // "evaluates to false" karena (3+4 > 2*6) adalah salah.
((b=2) == a) // "evaluates to true".

Hati-hati! Operator = (satu tanda sama) adalah tidak sama dengan operator == (dua tanda yang sama), yang pertama adalah operator penugasan (memberikan nilai pada haknya untuk variabel di sebelah kiri) dan yang lainnya (= =) adalah operator kesetaraan yang membandingkan apakah kedua ekspresi dalam dua sisi itu adalah sama satu sama lain.
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Logic operators ( !, &&, || )

Operator Logika digunakan untuk menghubungkan dua buah operasi relasi menjadi sebuah ungkapan kondisi. Hasil dari operator logika ini menghasilkan nilai numerik 1 (True) atau 0 (False).

! | Operator logika NOT | && | Operator logika AND | || | Operator logika OR |

Operator logika NOT ( ! )
Operator logika NOT akan memberikan nilai kebalikkan dari ekspresi yang disebutkan. Jika nilai yang disebutkan bernilai BENAR maka akan menghasilkannilai SALAH, begitu pula sebaliknya.
Misalnya :
Jika nilai a = 3 pada a + 4 < 10 :
Pada ekspresi relasi akan bernilai 1 (true), karena 7 < 10, sedangkan jika digunakan operator NOT akan menjadi !(a + 4 < 10) dan bernilai 0 (false).

Operator logika AND ( && )
Operator logika AND digunakan untuk menghubungkan dua atau lebih ekspresi relasi, akan dianggap BENAR, bila semua ekspresi relasi yang dihubungkan bernilai BENAR.
Lihat :
Operator && a | b | a && b | true | true | true | true | false | false | false | true | false | false | false | false |

Contohnya :
Ada 3 relasi, yaitu a + 4 < 10 ; b > a + 5 ; c - 2 >= 4 ; . Jika a = 3 ; b = 3 ; c = 7 ; . maka penggunaan operator logika AND seperti berikut :

* a + 4 < 10 ==> 3 + 4 < 10 ==> 7 < 10 ==> Benar * b > a + 5 ==> 3 > 3 + 5 ==> 3 > 8 ==> Salah * c - 2 >= 4 ==> 7 - 2 >= 4 ==> 5 >= 4 ==> Benar
Jika menggunakan Operator Logika AND pada ketiga relasi di atas akan bernilai Salah ( 0 ), karena ada satu relasi yang bernilai Salah, maka semuanya akan bernilai Salah. a + 4 < 10 && b > a + 5 && c - 2 >= 4 ==> Salah ==> 0 nol

Operator logika OR ( || )
Operator logika OR digunakan untuk menghubungkan dua atau lebih ekspresi relasi, akan dianggap BENAR, bila salah satu ekspresi relasi yang dihubungkan bernilai BENAR dan bila semua ekspresi relasi yang dihubungkan bernilai SALAH,maka akan bernilai SALAH.
Operator || a | b | a || b | true | true | true | true | false | true | false | true | true | false | false | false |

Contonya saya buat masih sama seperti pada kasus Operator Logika AND ( && ).

* a + 4 < 10 ==> 3 + 4 < 10 ==> 7 < 10 ==> Benar * b > a + 5 ==> 3 > 3 + 5 ==> 3 > 8 ==> Salah * c - 2 >= 4 ==> 7 - 2 >= 4 ==> 5 >= 4 ==> Benar
Jika menggunakan Operator Logika OR pada ketiga relasi di atas akan bernilai Benar ( 1 ), karena jika ada satu relasi saja yang bernilai Benar, maka semuanya akan bernilai Benar. a + 4 < 10 || b > a + 5 || c - 2 >= 4 ==> Benar ==> 1

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Conditional operator ( ? )

Conditional operator atau operator bersyarat akan mengevaluasi ekspresi dan memberikan hasil tergantung dari hasil evaluasi (true atau false). Sintaks :

condition ? result1 : result2

Jika kondisi true maka akan menghasilkan result1 , jika tidak akan menghasilkanresult2.

Perhatikan :
7==5 ? 4 : 3 // hasil 3, karena 7 tidak sama dengan 5.
7==5+2 ? 4 : 3 // hasil 4, karena 7 sama dengan 5+2.
5>3 ? a : b // hasil bernilai a, karena 5 lebih besar dari 3. a>b ? a : b // hasil tergantung nilai variabel mana yang lebih besar, a atau b.
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Bitwise Operators ( &, |, ^, ~, <<, >>)

Operator Bitwise memodifikasi variabel menurut bit yang merepresentasikan nilai yang disimpan, atau dengan kata lain dalam representasi binary.

operator | asm equivalent | Keterangan | & | AND | Bitwise AND | | | OR | Bitwise Inclusive OR | ^ | XOR | Bitwise Exclusive OR | ~ | NOT | Unary complement (bit inversion) | << | SHL | Shift Left | >> | SHR | Shift Right |

_____________________________________________

Explicit type casting operators

Type casting operators memungkinkan untuk mengkonversikan tipe data yang sudah diberikan ke tipe data yang lain. Ada beberapa cara yang dapat dilakukan dalam C++, yang paling popular yaitu tipe baru dituliskan dalam tanda kurung ().

Contoh : int i; float f = 3.14; i = ( int ) f;
Contoh diatas, mengkonversikan nilai 3.14 menjadi nilai integer (3). Type casting operator yang digunakan ( int ).
_____________________________________________

Precedence of operators ( Prioritas pada operator )

Maksudnya operasi yang di dahulukan terlebih dahulu. Misal :

a = 4 + 8 / 2 ;
Jawaban atau nilai a adalah 8. Mengapa bukan 6 ? Ya karena pada C++ pengerjaan operasi di lakukan dari level yang tinggi ke level yang lebh rendah.

Berikut ini adalah prioritas operator dari tinggi ke rendah : Level | Operator | Description | Grouping | 1 | :: | scope | Left-to-right | 2 | () [] . -> ++ -- dynamic_cast static_cast reinterpret_cast const_cast typeid | postfix | Left-to-right | 3 | ++ -- ~ ! sizeof new delete | unary (prefix) | Right-to-left | | * & | indirection and reference (pointers) | | | + - | unary sign operator | | 4 | (type) | type casting | Right-to-left | 5 | .* ->* | pointer-to-member | Left-to-right | 6 | * / % | multiplicative | Left-to-right | 7 | + - | additive | Left-to-right | 8 | << >> | shift | Left-to-right | 9 | < > <= >= | relational | Left-to-right | 10 | == != | equality | Left-to-right | 11 | & | bitwise AND | Left-to-right | 12 | ^ | bitwise XOR | Left-to-right | 13 | | | bitwise OR | Left-to-right | 14 | && | logical AND | Left-to-right | 15 | || | logical OR | Left-to-right | 16 | ?: | conditional | Right-to-left | 17 | = *= /= %= += -= >>= <<= &= ^= |= | assignment | Right-to-left | 18 | , | comma | Left-to-right | 8. #include=sebagian proses dari bagian kompilator,kompilator dari C++ menjalankan program yang dinamakan preprosesor cin=Fungsi cin merupakan sebuah objeck didalam C++ digunakan untuk memasukkan suatu data dapat berupa teks ataupun angka. cout=adalah sebuah object dari p pustaka perangkat lunak standart C++ yang di gunakan untuk mencetak string ke piranti output standart getch()=fungsi getch() ini hanya digunakan untuk menghentikan suatu proses yang berjalan. Namun kegunaan fungsi getch() sebenarnya lebih dari itu, fungsi getch sebenarnya merupakan fungsi yang digunakan untuk membaca input dari keyboard. 9. Program C++ diciptakan oleh Bjarne Stroustroup dari laboratorium Bell,AT&T pada tahun 1983.Tujuan utama C++ di buat adalah untuk meningkatkan produktivitas pemrograman dalam membuat aplikaasi.

10. pilih menu Build > Compile atau Ctrl +. F7.…...

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...the transformation. This requires both the thinking and analysis to compare current state to desired state and define the gap, and the execution capabilities to make the requisite changes happen. Other definition of organizational strategy is a plan for interacting with the competitive environments to achieve organizational goals (Daft, 1995, p. 49). To achieve the organizational strategy, the organization need to come up with some new technology that might help the organization. Technology is one of the central and most significant elements that related to effective operations management in an organization. Internet technology has a direct impact on companies, customers, suppliers, distributors and potential new entrants into an industry (Porter, 2001). Internet technology adoption and use contribute to the creation of competitive advantages (Del Aguila-Obra et al., 2002). Other than that information technology (IT) also can provide some help for organization. Alberto Carneiro, (2006), state in his journal that IT are related to financial services, manufacturing, transport, central government, consultancy, computer manufacturing, retail or wholesaling and publishing because they are depending on all the capacities of IT. The aim of this study is to recognize the technology and the factors that affecting adoption of technology in organization to achieve organizational strategy. A brief introduction telling about the organizational strategy and the technologies.......

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Management Information System and Management

...and use of computer-based information systems that help businesses achieve their goals and objectives. Development:  Information systems are built for business professionals (you) to use.  You need to take an active role in specifying system requirements and in managing development projects to ensure that the system meets your needs and the organization’s needs. Use:  You need to learn how to use to accomplish your goals.  You have responsibilities for protecting security of system and data.  You have responsibilities for backing up data.  You will help in recover systems and data. • What is a System? Definition: A system is a group of components that interact to acheive some purpose (human body/ car)  System Thinking: look to all the components and try to find the best solution.  One-Dimension Thinking: not all the components are taken into consideration; we end up taking the wrong decision.  Example: Morocco, government has decided to make the legislation about the traffic tougher. But we still have many accidents. It was not the best decisions. They should have had adopted a system thinking by increasing the policemen salaries, improving infrastructures, making sure that people who get their driving license deserve it, basing the fines on the income of the drivers like they did in Finland. • What is IS? Definition: an assembly of hardware, software, data, procedures, and people that interact to produce information. 5 components framework:......

Words: 4270 - Pages: 18