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Management

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MANAJEMEN STRATEGIK * Manajemen strategik: apa yang dilakukan manajer untuk mengembangkan strategi suatu organisasi. Melibatkan fungsi manajemen dasar ( plan, organize, control, lead) * Strategi organisasi: rencana mengenai bagaimana sebuah organisasi akan melakukan bekerja, menang bersaing, memuaskan pelanggan agar mencapai tujuan organisasi. * Istilah. Model bisnis: desain bagaimana perusahaan akan menghasilkan uang. * Fokus model bisnis: 1. Apakah pelanggan menghargai apa yang telah disediakan perusahaan 2. Apakah perusahaan dapat menghasilkan uang dengan hal tsb.
Contoh: Dell sang pelopor model bisnis baru yaitu menjual komputer scr langsung kpd konsumen melalui internet, bukan melalui peritel komputer. Apa yang dilakukan Dell dihargai oleh pelanggan dan tentunya perushaan mendapatkan uang dari kegiatan tsb. * Mengapa manajemen strategik penting? 3 alasan: 1. Dapat membedakan seberapa baik kinerja perusahaan 2. Fakta bahwa manajer di semua jenis dan ukuran organisasi menghadapi situasi yang berubah. 3. Karena organisasi bersifat kompleks dan beragam. * Proses menajemen strategik
Analisis SWOT
Analisis SWOT
Analisis internal:
-Kekuatan
-kelemahan
Analisis internal:
-Kekuatan
-kelemahan

* - Langkah 1: Mengidentifikasi misi, tujuan, dan strategi organisasi saat ini
Misi: pernyataan tentang tujuan organisasi
Mengidentifikasi misi membuat manajer mengidentifikasi apa yang harus dilakukan organisasi dalam bisnis.
Misal: misi l’oreal adalah”hak uutk menjadi cantik dari hari ke hari”, misi facebook “utilitas sosial yang menghubugkan Anda dengan orang di sekitar Anda”
Mengidentifikasi tujuan dari strategi penting karena manajer akan mempunyai dasar untuk melihat apakah mereka perlu berubah. * - Langkah 2: melakukan analisis ekternal
Peluang: tren positif dalam lingkungan ekternal
Ancaman: tren negatif * -Langkah 3: melakukan analisis internal. Bertujuan memberikan informasi mengenai sumber daya dan kapabilitas khusus perusahaan.
Sumber daya: aset organisasi yang digunakan untuk mengembangkan, membuat, dan mengantarkan produk kepada pelanggannya (yang dimiliki perusahaan)
Kapabilitas: keterampilan da kapabilitas dalam melakukan aktivitas kerja yang diperlukan dalam bisnis (bagaimana mengerjakannya)
Kompetensi inti: Kapabilitas menciptakan nilai yang utama bagi organisasi yang menentukan senjata kompetitifnya.
Kekuatan: aktivitas organisasi yang dikerjakan dengan baik/ sumber daya yang unik
Kelemahan: aktivitas organisasi yang tidak dikerjakan dengan baik/ sumber daya yang diperlukan tapi belum punya. * Analisis ekternal dan internal disebut analisis SWOT(kekuatan, kelemahan, peluang, dan ancaman organisasi) * Setelah menganalisa SWOT manajer siap memformulasikan strategi yang tepat: * Menggali kekuatan organisasi dan peluang eksternal * Melindungi organisasi dari ancaman ekternal * Memperbaiki kelemahan yang kritis * - Langkah 5: mengimplementasikan strategi
Setelah diformulasikan, strategi harus diimplementasikan * -Langkah 6: mengevaluasi hasil
Menilai hasil strategi sebelumnya dan menentukan apakah diperlukannya perubahan. * STRATEGI KORPORASI
Manajer tingkat atas biasanya bertanggungjawab atas strategi korporasi
Manajer tingkat menengah atas strategi kompetitif
Manajer tingkat bawah atas strategi fungsional * Strategi korporasi adalah strategi organisasi yang menspesifikasikan bisnis apa yang akan dan ingin digeluti dan apa yang ingin dillakuan perusahaan dengan bisinis ini. * Jenis strategi korporasi(3): pertumbuhan, stabilitas, dan pembaharuan 1. Strategi pertumbuhan: strategi korporasi yang digunakan ketika suatu organisasi ingin mengembangkan jumlah pasar/ produk yang akan ditawarkan, baik dengan bisnis yang sudah ada maupun bisnis baru.
- Strategi pertumbuhan mengingkatkan pendapatan, jumlah karyawan, pangsa pasar.
- Organisasi tumbuh menggunakan: konsentrasi, integrasi vertikal, integrasi horizontal, atau diversifikasi

* Konsentrasi: organisasi bertumbuh yang berfokus pada lini bisnis utama dan meningkatakan produk atau pasar
Contoh: Satyam Computer Service India berfokus pada pemberian konsultasi dan teknologi informasi kepada industri otomotif dgn penjualan tahunan lebih dari 2 miliar

* Integrasi vertikal * Integrasi verikal backward: organisasi menjadi pemasok bagi diri sendiri sehingga dapat mengendalikan input
Contoh: eBay memiliki pembayaran online sendiri yang membantu menyediakan transaksi yang lebih aman dan mudah mengendalikan kesalahan. * ForwardL organisasi menjadi distributor bagi dirinya sendiri sehingga dapat mengendalikan output
Contoh: Apple punya lebih 200 toko ritel di seluaruh dunia untuk distribusi produk

* Integrasi horizontal: perusahaan tumbuh melalui penggabungan dengan kompetitor
Contoh: l’Oreal produsen kosmetik Prancis yang mengambil alih Body Shop * Diversifikasi: sebuah perusahaan bergabung dengan perusahaan lain dalam industri yang berbedan namun berhubungan. 2. Strategi Stabilitas: strategi dimana organisasi terus melakukan apa yang sedang dilakukan. Strategi ini organisasi tidak bertumbuh tapi juga tidak tertinggal di belakang. 3. Strategi pembaharuan: strategi untuk mengatasi menurunnya kinerja, permasalahan.
2 jenis strategi pembaharuan:
-Pengurangan biaya : strategi jangka pendek dalam masalah kinerja minor
-Pemutarbalikan : ketika masalah semakin serius * BAGAIMANA STRATEGI KORPORASI DIKELOLA?
Dalam mebuat strategi menajer menggunakan matriks portofolio korporasi. Matriks yang membantu memahami bisnis yang berbeda dan menyusun kerangka untuk mengalokasikan sumber daya.

Sumbu horizontal menggambarkan pangsa pasar (rendah atau tinggi)
Sumbu vertikal mengindikasikan pertumbuhan pasar yang diantisipasi (rendah atau tinggi)

* Perusahaan dievaluasi dengan analisis SWOT dan ditempatkan pada salah satu dari empat kategori. * STRATEGI KOMPETITIF: strategi tentang bagaimana organisasi akan bersaing dalam bisnis. * SBU ( Strategic business units): bisnis tunggal organisasi yang bersifat independen dan memformulasikan strategi kompetitifnya sendiri * Keunggulan kompetitif: faktor yang membedakan organisasi melalui keunggulan unik perusahaan. Keunggulan unik berasal dari kompetensi inti organisasi dan dari sumber daya perusahaan yang tidak dimiliki perusahaan pesaing.
Contoh: Ryannair mempunyai keunggulan kompetitif karena keterampilannya memberikan apa yang diinginkan para penumpang(kenyamanan dan layanan yang murah) * Organisasi yang meningkatkan kualitas dan keandalan produk, maka organisasi tersebut memiliki keunggulan yang kompetitif * Perushaan selain meningkatkan kualitas, perusahan perlu mempertahankan keunggulan kompetitifnya supaya tahan lama. * 5 Model Kekuatan Kompetitif: cara untuk menganalisa industri dan menentukan peraturan persaingan. Menetukan daya tarik dan profitabilitas industri. Lima faktor: 1. Ancaman pendatang baru
Seberapa mungkin masuknya pesaing baru dalam industri? 2. Ancaman penganti
Seberapa mungkin produk industri lain bisa menggantikan produk indutri kita? 3. Daya tawar pembeli
Seberapa besar daya tawar yang dimiliki pembeli? 4. Daya tawar pemasok
Seberapa besar daya tawar yang dimiliki pemasok? 5. Persaingan saat ini
Seberapa sengit persaingan antarpesaingdalam industri saat ini?

* Memilih strategi kompetitif. 3 Strategi kompetitif Porter 1. Kepemimpinan biaya : bersaing atas dasar memiliki biaya terendah dalam industri 2. Diferensiasi: bersaing atas dasar memiliki produk yang unik yang dimiliki secara luas oleh pelanggan. Misal: IKEA berdokus pada sedain penuh gaya dengan harga murah. 3. Fokus: bersaing dalam segmen yang sempit, baik dengan keunggulan biata maupun keunggulan diferensiasi. Misal: Bang & Olufsen dari Denmark penjualannya berfokus pada peralatan audio yang mahal. * Strategi fungsional: strategi yang digunakan untuk mendukung strategi kompetitif * MASALAH MANAJEMEN STRATEGIK SAAT INI * Fleksibilitas strategik: kapabilitas untuk menyadari perubahan lingkungan ekternal yang utama, berkomitmen pada sumber saya secara cepat, dan menyadari ketika keputusan strategik tersebut tidak behasil. Penting karena manajemen selalu diperhadapkan kepada ketidakpastian. Kayak hubungan annisa kurniawati. * Strategi e-business: berbasis online. Cost leader dapat menggunakan e-business untuk menurunkan biaya. strategi klik-dan-bata (clicks and bricks) yang menggabungkan lokasi online dan tokotradisional. * Strategi layanan pelanggan: perusahan memberikan apa yang diinginkan pelanggan, berkomunikasi secara efektif dan memberikan pelatihan pelayanan pelanggan kepada karyawan. Contoh New Balance pembuat sepatu altetik, memberikan produk yang sangat unik kepada pelanggan: sepatu lebar yang beragam * Stategi inovasi: menggunakan penekanan inovasi organisasi (riset ilmiah, pengembangan produk, pengembangan proses) dan penetapan waktu inovasi (penggerak pertama atau pengikut) * Penggerak pertama ( first mover): organisasi yang pertama kali membawa inovasi produk ke pasar atau meggunakan inovasi proses yang baru. *…...

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