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Marketing

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ginting
Words 2027
Pages 9
Ungkapan lama, "Semakin besar mereka, semakin sulit mereka jatuh," menggambarkan yang terjadi pada industri otomotif AS selama 10 tahun pertama abad ini. Lihatlah ford, Pada tahun 1998, perusahaan ikonik ini menyumbang 25 persen dari semua mobil dan truk yang terjual di seluruh dunia. Pickup F-series adalah kendaraan terlaris di planet ini, dengan lebih dari 800.000 unit yang keluar dari jalur perakitan. Ford Explorer mencapai slot teratas di pasar SUV musim panas. Dan Ford Taurus telah menjadi pesaing abadi untuk sedan terlaris. Ford # 2 di Fortune 500 (GM adalah # 1), dengan $ 153.000.000.000 pendapatan. Sebuah hargam saham yang kuat memberi nilai pasar Ford $ 73.000.000.000. Menurut Interbrand, merek Ford saja sudah merek paling berharga keenam di dunia, senilai $ 36.000.000.000. Tapi hanya dalam 10 tahun, posisi Ford tergulingkan. Pada tahun 2008, Pangsa pasar Ford duduk di hanya 14 persen. Pendapatan jatuh sebesar $ 146.000.000.000 dan perusahaan kehilangan $ 14.700.000.000, kerugian terbesar dalam sejarahnya.

Harga sahamnya telah anjlok ke hanya $ 2 per saham, menghapus 93 persen dari nilai pasar Ford. Dan Ford tidak lagi masuk kedalam top-10 merek. Ford turun ke posisi ke-49 pada top-100daftar interbrand, senilai hanya $ 7 miliar. Ford berada di ambang kehancuran. Ford bisa menyalahkan ketidak beruntungan pada fakta bahwa seluruhindustri otomotif telah terguncang oleh krisis ekonomi 2008. harga gas tinggi dan ekonomi global terlemah dalam lebih dari 70tahun telah membuat berantakan penjualan mobil. Tapi itu tidak akan menjelaskan penurunan drastis Ford di pangsa pasar atau besarnya kerugian relatif terhadap sisa industri. Ford dalam bentuk jauh lebih buruk dari pada kebanyakan perusahaan mobil.

Melihat kebelakang, jelasbahwa Ford telah mengalihkan fokusnya dari pasar.

Hal tersebut mengajibatkan ford terlalu bergantung pada konsumsi bahan bakar SUV dan tidak memperhitungkan Kualitas kendaraan yang rendah dan biaya operasi yang berlebihan. Dalam pencarian untuk melayani setiap pelanggan, perusahaan seperti Land Rover, Volvo, Aston Martin, dan

Jaguar-Ford telah kehilangan sentuhan dengan kebutuhan setiap pelanggan dalam segmen yang spesifik. Semua merek-merek mewah mereka juga menguras semua sember daya perusahaan. Akhirnya, inovasi perusahaan berada di titik terendah . Mark Fields, presiden Ford untuk Amerika,

menambahkan, "Kami dulu punya pepatah di perusahaan bahwa kita adalah

pengikut cepat. Yang berarti kita lambat. "

Sebuah Arah Baru

Bahkan dengan kondisi keuangan Ford yang tampak terburuk dalam beberapa tahun, strategi mereka sudah usang untuk membangkitkan perusahaan. Pada tahun 2006, Ford

telah membawa industri luar, Alan Mulally, untuk melakukan

CPR pada raksasa yang sakit. Saat iamengambil kendali sebagai CEO baru Ford, Mulally berwajah ceria dansegar memancarkan optimisme. "Saya di sini untuk menyimpan ikon Amerika dan global, "katanya.

Mulally harus langsung bekerja. Dia memotong biaya tenaga kerja hampir 22 persen, dan membawa perusahaan lebih sejalan dengan pemimpin industri mobil sekarang yaitu Toyota. Dia menutup pabrik yang tidak menguntungkan dan memotong beban operasional sebanyak mungkin. Pada tahun 2008, GM dan Chrysler

mengulurkan topi mereka untuk bailout dari pemerintah, Ford berhasil meningkatkan

kas dengan cara kuno yaitu meminjam dari bank sebesar $ 23.500.000.000. Dengan tetap mandiri secara finansial, ford terhindari dari opsi memberikan masyarakat Paman Sam suara dalam bagaimana perusahaan dijalankan. Sayajuga menghindari kebangkrutan, nasib yang menimpa dua dari perusahaan kita di Detroit.

Tapi langkah yang menempatkan Ford kembali di jalan utama adalah kerajinan yang dari pernyataan misi yang baik dan kuno. Mulally memerintahkan

kartu plastik kecil yang 200.000 karyawan Ford bisa membawa

didompet mereka dan menampilkan apa yang ia sebut "Perilaku yang diharapkan."

Harapan mereka benar-benar tepat dengan sepenuhnya percaya bahwa Mulally akan membuat perusahaan kompetitif lagi. Untuk Mulally,

ini adalah teks yang penting . "Ini aku," katanya. "Aku menulisnya. Itu yang saya

percaya. Anda tidak dapat membuat ini

focus terhadap brand ford

Menurut mulally "nobody buys a house of brands". yang membawa ford kedalam kejayaan adalah warisan dari keluarga ford. Mulally menyadari bahwa campuran dari perusahaan automotive seperti eksperimen yang gagal dan langsung dilepaskan oleh perusahaan seperyi jaguar, volvo, aston martin, dan land rover. dia bahkan melangkah lebih jauh. Mercury division ford selalu memiliki misi untuk menyediakan mobil dengan harga menengah yang cocok diantara model ford yang murah dengan yang lebih mahal dan mewah. tetapi mobil merk mercury adalah brand yang mati sehingga mullaly mempercayakan kepada brand axe

Bersaing di berbagai segmen pasar dengan produk yang benar-benar didefinisikan

Bahkan dengan dengan hanya divisi ford dan lincoln yang tersisa, mulally yakin bahwa ford dapat bersaing didalam semua industri utama seperti : mobil, SUV, truk besar, sedang, dan kecil. mulally senang menceritakan bagaimana dia memulai merubah product line ford : saya yiba disini, dan pada hari pertama saya mengatakan " mari kita lihat product line up" dan saat mereka menunjukannya saya berkata " dimana taurus?" mereka berkata "kami sudah tidak memproduksinya lagi". saya berkata "apa yang kamu maksud, kamu tidak memproduksi nya lagi?" lalu dis menjawab " penjualan mereka tidak bagus, jadi kita menghentikan produksinya". "kamu menghentikan Taurus" jawab saya. " berapa milliar dolar biaya untuk membangun brand loyalty untk sebuah nama?". "kami pikir merk tersebut sudah tidak layak jadi mungkin 500 ribu". saya berkata " kamu punya waktu sampai besok untuk untuk menemukan kendaraan dan pasang nama taurus disana,karena untk itlah saya kemari. Dan kamu mempunyai waktu 2 tahun untuk membuat mobil yang paling keren yang bisa kamu buat".

mulally mempunyai alasan yang masuk akal mengapa ia bersikeras untuk mempertahankan taurus. Merk tersebut adalah merk dengan penjualan terbaik keempat sepanjang sejarah perusahaan tersebut, dibawah model T, F-series, dan mustang. Tetapi berita terbesar mulally kepada departemen produk adalah perubahan menjadi "world cars" yang lebih kecil yang bisa terjual di seluruh dunia hanya dengan perubahan kecil. Ford telah mencoba ide mengenai world car berulang kali pada masa lalu tetapi selalu gagal. Hal tersebut sebagian besar disebabkan oleh divisi regional perusahaan tidak mampu memutuskan mobil apa yang akan dibuat. Sekarang mulally mengetahui konsep world car perusahaan di seluruh dunia. Jika hal tersebut bekerja, keuntungan dari pengurangan biaya yang didasarkan pada skala ekonomi terlihat jelas.

Sebagian kecil strategi mulally tentang produk dirasa sedikit aneh bagi sektor truk berat ford. " semua orang mengatakan anda tidak bisa menghasilkan uang dari mobil kecil" katanya. "yah, anda sebaiknya mengetahui betul bagaimana caranya menghasilkan uang, karena menghasilkan uang adalah tujuan dunia saat ini". Rencana mulally tidak hanya membuat lebih banyak small cars, tetapi juga untuk membuat small cars yang lebih bagus. model fiesta dan focus saat ini didesain di eropa dan keduanya adalah mobil pertama program mulally. Kendaraan yang lebih efisien juga akan membantu ford untuk memenuhi aturan pemerintah mengenai standard penggunaan bahan bakar

Market fewer nameplates

Menurut mulally, peraturan "more-is-better" bukanlah strategi branding yang bagus. Saat dia tiba di ford, perusahaan menjual 97 nameplates diseluruh dunia. Baginya, hal tersebut adalah indikasi bagaimana ford telah menjafi perusahaan yang tidak fokus dan tidak keren. "kita memiliki 97 nameplates, demi tuhan! bagaimana caranya kamu membuat mereka semua bagus? Apa kamu akan datang jam 8 pagi dan berkata 'dari jam 8 sampai siang, aku akan mengerjakan nomor 64 bagus? Lalu aku akan mengerjakan nomor 17 bagus setelah makan siang?' itu konyol! " Tujuan mulally adalah untuk menurunkan jumlah nameplates menjadi hanya 40 di tahun 2013, dengan demikian ford hanya memiliki 20, hal inilah yang ditakutkan mulally.

Menjadi Terbaik di Kelas di Kualitas, Efisiensi Bahan Bakar, Keselamatan, dan Nilai. Mobil-mobil yang lebih kecil tentu achievin tujuan efisiensi bahan bakar. Tapi Mulally memiliki budaya Ford sekali lagi berpikir sepanjang baris slogan lama, "Kualitas adalah Job One." Fokus ini telah dilunasi. Peringkat Ford di Consumer Reports lebih tinggi dari mereka yang pernah, menyaingi orang-orang dari Toyota dan merek Asia lainnya dalam survei kehandalan majalah. "Produk kami

lineup lebih kuat dari sebelumnya, dan kepemimpinan kami dalam kualitas, bahan bakar, keselamatan, desain cerdas, dan nilai yang beresonansi dengan konsumen, "kata Mulally, seakan membaca pernyataan misi sendiri.

Sebuah Keunggulan Kompetitif Baru

Dalam usahanya untuk mendefinisikan kembali citra Ford, pelanggan sensasi muda, dan bahkan merevolusi mobil sendiri, Mulally mungkin sangat baik telah menemukan sebuah keunggulan kompetitif yang akan membawa Ford ke dalam

masa depan. Dia ingin menghubungkan autos nya ke Internet dan untuk jiwa-jiwa orang-orang yang berselancar itu. "Lihat, itu keren untuk menghubungkan. Tapi itu keren masa lalu. Ini adalah alasan untuk membeli. Tech adalah mengapa orang-orang akan

membeli Ford! Kita akan menjadi keren, aplikasi paling berguna yang pernah Anda miliki, mulus menjaga koneksi Anda. "

Mulally berbicara tentang opsi Ford Sync. Singkatnya, kendaraan Syncequipped menghubungkan pengemudi untuk smartphone di saku melalui sistem kendaraan. Tidak seperti GM OnStar dan sistem serupa lainnya, Sync adalah sebuah antarmuka, bukan sistem yang tertanam ke mobil. Sistem lain yang usang pada saat mereka memukul showroom dan mereka tidak diupgrade. Dengan Sync, sambungan untuk apa driver teknologi membawa dengan mereka. Tapi Sync mengambil teknologi yang sudah ada dan membuat mereka lebih baik. Dengan dua panel LCD di kedua sisi speedometer, antarmuka pengguna yang lebih besar, di lapangan pengemudi visi, dan disesuaikan. Jika Anda tidak perlu tahu tentang iklim mobil tapi kau hilang, pembacaan iklim kontrol dapat digantikan dengan navigasi. Jika Anda berada di bentangan panjang jalan raya dan tidak perlu navigasi bantuan, layar dapat menghubungkan driver untuk kontrol telepon

atau musik (termasuk radio satelit dan bahkan Pandora). Driver bahkan dapat menonton video pada layar ini, tetapi hanya ketika mobil di taman. Sistem Sync terbaru juga membawa pengenalan suara untuk kokpit, mengubah mobil ke 2001: A Space Odyssey HAL 9000 (hanya tanpa keinginan jahat untuk mengambil alih alam semesta). Semua pengemudi harus lakukan adalah berbicara normal untuk mobil bukannya meraba-raba dengan tombol atau menavigasi melalui menu berbasis layar. Perintah sederhana seperti "Aku lapar" menghasilkan diucapkan saran restoran cocok dengan lokasi GPS. Jika driver adalah dalam mood untuk beberapa Dave Brubeck, "Saya ingin mendengar beberapa jazz," membawa setiap bagian dari jazz melekat mobil, apakah itu pada smartphone, tablet, atau iPod. Semua ini tidak hanya keren, "itu membuat Anda seorang sopir yang lebih baik," klaim

Mulally. Perintah pertamanya adalah, "Kami tidak akan melakukannya kecuali itu memungkinkan Anda menjaga mata Anda di jalan dan tangan Anda pada kemudi." Ini benar-benar akan membuat orang cenderung untuk meraba-raba dengan gadget berteknologi mereka atau bahkan melihat ke bawah untuk menyesuaikan radio. Sync sudah dalam pembangunan saat Mulally mengambil alih. Tapi dia mengejutkan semua orang ketika ia mengumumkan bahwa Sync akan menjadi masa depan perusahaan. Dan dia bersikeras bahwa itu tersedia di semua kendaraan Ford, bukan hanya produk mewah high-end. Dalam hal ini, Mulally melihat Sync sebagai cara untuk melakukan apa Henry Ford lakukan di awal. "Demokratisasi teknologi baru. Membuatnya tersedia untuk massa. "

Hari ini, penjualan Ford di pangsa pasar kembali meningkat.
Bahkan, Ford telah mencapai penjualan unit dan setidaknya salah satu pangsa pasar, selama tiga tahun terakhir berturut-turut-prestasi itu tidak tercapai sejak 1970. Ditengah fusion ford memiliki rekor tahun penjualan dan diakhiri beruntun empat tahun sampai 66 persen dan bahkan lebih menakjubkan mengingat penjualan untuk Toyota Camry dan Honda Accord turun 31 persen dan 28 persen, masing-masing, untuk periode yang sama. Tapi mungkin yang paling mendebarkan untuk Mulally, penjualan mobil kecil ford melonjak sebesar 25 persen tahun lalu , mendukung strateginya untuk menjual lebih banyak di segmen itu. Salah satu angka penjualan besar, bahkan pelanggan membayar lebih untuk Ford tanpa diskon yang besar dan bahkan itu yang dilakukan perusahaan selama bertahun - tahun. Dan semua ini berarti laba bersih adalah kembali menjadi laba kotor. Ford telah menghasilkan pendapatan selama tiga tahun terakhir ini, mendapatkan hampir $ 20 miliar.
Ford telah kembali ke jalur tapi jauh keluar dari apa yang mereka perkirakan. Karena tidak ingin suntikan dana dari pemerintah, sehingga ford memiliki waktu yang panjang untuk pergi melunasi beban utang yang berat. GM dan Chrysler yang bangkit dari kebangkrutan dengan pendapatan yang bersih dan siap untuk bangkit. Sementara Mulally khawatir tentang hal ini dan tentang kondisi ekonomi dunia, dia tetap optimis. "Untuk melayani dengan hidup dan saya sangat terhormat untuk melayani pelanggan Ford, karyawan, dealer, investor, pemasok, dan masyarakat, " katanya baru-baru ini dalam sebuah wawancara. "Kami memiliki mobil terbaik dan truk di dunia: kualitas, hemat bahan bakar, aman, cerdas, menyenangkan, dan terbaik "

1. Di manakah Anda akan menempatkan Ford dalam hal posisi kompetitif? Mengapa?

2.

Apakah Ford perusahaan yang berpusat pasar? Bagaimana bisa meningkat di pasar tersebut?

3. Bagaimana Ford berkontribusi keunggulan kompetitif? Apakah ini keuntungan yang berkelanjutan?

4. Dapat Mulally berhasil dengan mobil dunia kecil?

5. Apa rekomendasi lain yang akan Anda buat untuk Mulally dan Ford?…...

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...Omar Rochell Marketing MKT/421 April 7, 2011 Nikki Jackson Introduction Marketing is exposed to someone every day, even when they do not seem realize it. Driving down the roads you see billboards everywhere and that is part of marketing. Logos people were on their shirts and signs in the middle or on the sign of football fields are all part of marketing. Even when a child is marketing themselves to their parents to borrow the car or go to a party they are marketing themselves to their parents in exchange for the car or the party. A set of activities that will benefit both parties’ objectives is my own personal definition of marketing. This paper will be defining marketing in different perspectives. Discussing the importance of marketing in a organizational success will also be discussed with examples included from different organizations. As an organization it is important to know what marketing is and how to establish success. What is Marketing “Marketing is defined as the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that will have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.”(American Marketing Association, 2011) Marketing is a process that helps links the consumer, customer, and public to information that will help identify and market opportunities. Marketing research will generate, and evaluate different types of market actions, monitor marketing performance, and help......

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...How does Marketing affect the Global Economy Introduction: Nowadays, the development of global economy is closely related to the Marketing which involves some professional behaviour to sell or promote the goods. There are no possibilities to push the economic growth without the strategies of the Marketing, on the other hand, the Marketing cannot be separated from the global economy. During the financial crisis, the amounts of global transaction declined keeping company with the economic recession. In this case, it illustrates directly the interaction between the Marketing and the global economy. Not only does the Marketing play a fundamental role in the development of the micro companies’ economy, it is also irreplaceable for the progress of the society and the prosperity of the macro economy. However, it is hard to maintain the favourable condition between the Marketing and the global economy always. This essay is intended to explain what Marketing is and the affection to the global economy. Main body: Part 1: The conception and the meaning of the Marketing and the global economy A: The Marketing Philip Kotler once elaborated that Marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with other (1991). However, it is difficult to get an accurate principle of Marketing because of various interpretations from different researchers. To give some examples, referring......

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...Marketing is an expansive area of expertise that encompasses many different areas, skills and job descriptions. According to Merriam-Webster, broken down to its basic form, marketing is defined as: “The activities involved in making people aware of a company’s products and making sure that the products are available to be bought.” Working in a marketing position involves showcasing a company in a positive light, showing why customers should purchase products and drawing in a targeted audience to consider goods and services. But what does a marketer do? Unfortunately there isn’t one set job description for everyone in this position. But we connected with marketing pros to give you a sneak peek at three common types of marketing. Taking a closer look at these options will help you determine if this field is right for you. 1. Digital marketing Digital marketing is just what it sounds like: marketing that’s gone digital! This type of marketing utilizes the internet and all things technology to get the word out about products, services or companies. Digital marketing has a slew of benefits, according to Don Crow, CEO of Verge Pipe Media. He says two of the most obvious advantages are scale and cost. “Considering 70 percent of all phones today are smartphones, it's increasingly important that brands and organizations think about how to connect with consumers on this increasingly important digital device,” Crow explains. There are many jobs that fall under the......

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...BTEC LEVEL 3 BUSINESS P1-Describe how marketing techniques are used to market products in two organizations Introduction In this task (P1) I will describe and explain how different marketing techniques are used to market products in two different organizations. The first one being Cotswold wildlife park and the second organization being Tesco. Using these two organizations I will describe the marketing techniques that they used to market products. Marketing 1) Marketing is the action, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners and the society at large. http://www.ama.org/AboutAMA/Pages/Definition-of-Marketing.aspx 2) Marketing is the social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and values with others. http://www.marketingteacher.com/what-is-marketing/ 3) Marketing is traditionally the means by which an organization communicates to, connects with, and engages its target audience to convey the value of and ultimately sell its products and services. http://heidicohen.com/marketing-definition/ From the first definition of marketing, what I understand is that marketing is a process or activity that takes place by interacting directly to the customer or client. It is doing actions that will benefit the customer as well as the......

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...chapter 1 Marketing’s Role in the Global Economy When You Finish This Chapter, You Should 1. Know what marketing is and why you should learn about it. 2. Understand the difference between micro-marketing and macro-marketing. 3. Know why and how macromarketing systems develop. 4. Understand why marketing is crucial to economic development and our global economy. 5. Know why marketing special— ists—including middlemen and — facilitators—develop. 6. Know the marketing functions and who performs them. 7. Understand the important new terms (shown in red). www.mhhe. When it’s time to roll out of bed in the morning, does your General Electric alarm wake you with a buzzer—or by playing your favorite radio station? Is the station playing rock, classical, or country music—or perhaps a Red Cross ad asking you to contribute blood? Will you slip into your Levi’s jeans, your shirt from L. L. Bean, and your Reeboks, or does the day call for your Brooks Brothers interviewing suit? Will breakfast be Lender’s Bagels with cream cheese or Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes—made with grain from America’s heartland—or some extra large eggs and Oscar Mayer bacon cooked in a Panasonic microwave oven imported from Japan? Will you drink decaffeinated Maxwell House coffee—grown in Colombia—or some Tang instant juice? Will you eat at home or is this a day to meet a friend at the Marriott-run cafeteria—where you’ll pay someone else to serve your breakfast? After breakfast, will you head off to......

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