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Media Manipulation

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Actividades

Trabajo: ¿Es libre la libertad de expresión?

Ian Buruma es profesor universitario y autor de reconocido prestigio internacional.

Lee este artículo suyo (traducción: David Meléndez Tormen, LA VANGUARDIA, 29/03/09), que comienza así:

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“El obispo Richard Williamson tiene opiniones muy peculiares y francamente odiosas: que no hubo asesinato de judíos en cámaras de gas durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, que las Torres Gemelas fueron derribadas por explosivos estadounidenses, no por aviones, el 11-S del 2001, y que los judíos luchan por dominar el mundo “para preparar el trono del Anticristo en Jerusalén”.

En él reflexiona sobre la dinámica y el alcance de la libertad de expresión en las sociedades democrática. Resulta interesante porque plantea cuestiones de fondo en el ejercicio de dicho derecho bajo un marco democrático y constitucional.

Redacta un comentario de 1.000 palabras sobre las ideas de Ian Buruma. Él sugiere que la libertad de expresión tiene límites. ¿Cuáles son? ¿Compartes esos límites? ¿Conoces algún caso parecido? ¿Y en España?

Con la redacción tendrás que demostrar qué entiendes por libertad de expresión.

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El artículo está disponible en el aula virtual o en la siguiente dirección web:
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http://www.almendron.com/tribuna/24443/es-libre-la-libertad-de-expresion/

La libertad de expresión es un derecho fundamental, es un derecho humano, señalado en el artículo 19.º de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos de 1948, y las constituciones de los sistemas democráticos también lo señalan. Es uno de los derechos fundamentales en las democracias liberales, significa que debemos convivir con opiniones que consideramos reprobables. Sin embargo, los derechos humanos , y en particular la libertad de excepción, son fenómenos multidimensionales y bastante complejos.

Los derechos humanos, sus raíces sociales y propósito son los conceptos conflictivas durante toda la evolución histórica, social y cultural de la humanidad; pasan a través de miles de años y son constantemente un objeto del pensamiento político, legal, así como de la ética, religión, filosofía. Por lo tanto, el concepto del derecho a la libertad de excreción se vuelve más amplio. Pero es un derecho humano fundamental, y una persona no puede llevar a cabo sus actividades sólo con el conocimiento consciente de lo que está pasando en el mundo. Adicionalmente, la comprensión consciente sólo es posible si existe una verdadera libertad de prensa y la libertad de pensamiento. Pero si hablamos de la situación actual, el concepto de la libertad de prensa se extiende por una gran variedad de medios de comunicación: periódicos, revistas, radio, televisión y radiodifusión por cable. Por último, hay los medios de comunicación en Internet con un acceso inmediato.

La libertad de expresión es la posibilidad garantizado por el Estado de expresar libremente sus opiniones y creencias sobre una variedad de temas sociales a través de la palabra oral o escrita, en las reuniones, concentraciones, y otros medios. El derecho a la libertad de expresión, como se indica en los instrumentos internacionales, comprende la libertad de opinión y de buscar, recibir y difundir información e ideas por cualquier medio y sin injerencia de autoridades públicas y sin consideración de fronteras. La libertad de expresión es la base de muchos otros derechos y libertades, por ejemplo, el derecho a participar en las elecciones, el derecho de petición, la libertad de conciencia, el derecho a la educación, la libertad de creación y otros.

La libertad de expresión es extremadamente importante para la manifestación de la libertad humana. Pero esta libertad no puede ser absoluta, sin límites. La palabra, como el principal medio de comunicación humana, tiene un efecto profundo en la conciencia y el comportamiento de las personas. Se puede crear y destruir, llamar al progreso social y violencia, enriquecer el mundo interior del hombre y humillar la dignidad personal. Pero todo esto necesita ciertas restricciones morales y legales asociados a la aplicación de la libertad de expresión.

Hay establecidas normas internacionales contra el abuso de la libertad de expresión, de información, de expresión. Se notan , por ejemplo, en el numero 3 de artiluco 19 del Pacto Internacional de Derechos Civiles y Políticos, articulo 29 de la Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos; pero el más desplegado formulado en la sección 2, articulo 10 Convenio Europeo de Derechos Humanos. Se afirma: " El ejercicio de estas libertades, que entrañan deberes y responsabilidades, podrá ser sometido a ciertas formalidades, condiciones, restricciones o sanciones, previstas por la ley, que constituyan medidas necesarias, en una sociedad democrática, para la seguridad nacional, la integridad territorial o la seguridad pública,la defensa del orden y la prevención del delito, la protección de la salud o de la moral, la protección de la reputación o de los derechos ajenos, para impedir la divulgación de informaciones confidenciales o para garantizar la autoridad y la imparcialidad del poder judicial. "

No todo el mundo tiene las mismas creencias, cuando se trata de religión, por tanto, cuando las personas están hablando sobre su religión , no están dando cuenta de que las otras personas pueden sentirse incómodos. Aunque otros pueden ignorar el tema, las personas religiosas se van a un extremo hablando sobre su dios. Algunos se ofenden por una religión. Por ejemplo, el ataque del 9 de setiembre de 2001 la gente llegó a la conclusión que eran musulmanes quien lo hizo, y por lo tanto todos los musulmanes fueron objeto de odio entre el pueblo estadounidense.

En mi opinión, la libertad de expresión es un tema muy controvertido, porque en realidad es difícil determinar lo que puede o no puede ser expresado. Las libertades establecidos sirven para la protección de las personas. Al igual una persona no tiene derecho a perturbar la paz de los demás sólo porque tiene el "derecho" a expresarse. Es decir, la libertad de una persona termina donde empieza la de otra.…...

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