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Milestone

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MILESTONES OF DEVELOPMENT | INFANCY & TODDLERHOOD | AGE | PHYSICAL | COGNITIVE | LANGUAGE | EMOTIONAL/ SOCIAL | Birth -6 Months | Rapid height & weight gain. | Engages in immediate imitation and deferred imitation of adults facial expressions. | Engages in cooing and babbling. | Shows signs of almost all basic emotions (happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, disgust). | | Reflexes decline. | Repeats chance behaviors leading to pleasurable and interesting results. | Establishes joint attention with caregiver, who labels objects and events. | Social smile and laughter emerge. | | Sleep organized into a day-night schedule. | Aware of object permanence and other object properties in habituation-dishabituation tasks. | | Matches adults emotional expressions during face-to-face interaction. | | Holds head up, rolls over, and reaches for object. | Attention becomes more efficient. | | Emotional expressions become better organized and clearly tied to social events. | | Can be classically and operantly conditioned. | Recognition memory for people, places, and objects improves. | | I-self emerges. | | Habituates to unchanging stimuli; dishabituates to novel stimuli. | Forms perceptual categories based on objects and similar features. | | | | Hearing well developed; by the end of this period, displays greater sensitivity to speech sounds of own language. | | | | | Depth and pattern perception emerge and improve. | | | | 7 -12 Months | Sits alone, crawls, and walks. | Combines sensorimotor schemes. | Babbling expands to include sounds of spoken languages and, by the end of this period, sounds of the childs language community. | Anger and fear increase in frequency and intensity. | | Shows refined pincer grasp. | Engages in intentional, or goal-directed, behavior. | | Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety appear. | | Perceives larger speech units crucial to understanding meaning. | Finds object hidden in one place. | Uses preverbal gestures (showing, pointing) to communicate. | Uses caregiver as a secure base for exploration. | | Depth and pattern perception improve further. | Understanding of object properties and physical causality expands. | | Shows "clear-cut" attachment to familiar caregivers. | | | Engages in deferred imitation of adults actions with objects. | | Ability to detect the meaning of others= emotional expressions improves. | | | Recall memory for people, places, and objects improves. | | Engages in social referencing. | | | Groups stimuli into wide range of meaningful categories. | | | EARLY CHILDHOOD | 2 Years | Slower gains in height and weight than in toddler hood. | Make-believe becomes less dependent on realistic toys, less self-centered, and more complex. | Vocabulary increases rapidly. | Begins to develop self-concept and self-esteem. | | Balance improves, walking becomes better coordinated. | Can take the perspective of others In simple situations. | Sentences follow basic word order of native language; grammatical markers are added. | Cooperation and instrumental aggression appear. | | Running, jumping, hopping, throwing, and catching develop. | Recognition memory well developed. | Displays effective conversational skills, such as turn taking & topic maintenance. | Understands causes, consequences, and behavioral signs of basic emotions. | | Puts on and removes some items of clothing. | Aware of the difference between inner mental and outer physical events. | | Empathy increase. | | Uses spoon effectively. | | | Gender-stereotyped beliefs & behavior increase. | 3 -4 Years | Running, hopping, throwing and catching become better coordinated. | Notices transformations, reverse thinking, and has a basic understanding of causality in familiar situations. | Masters increasingly complex grammatical structures. | Emotional self-regulation improves. | | Galloping and one-foot skipping appear. | Classifies familiar objects hierarchically. | Occasionally overextends grammatical rules to exceptions. | Self-conscious emotions become more common. | | Rides tricycle. | Uses private speech to guide behavior in challenging tasks. | Understands many culturally accepted ways of adjusting speech to fit the age, sex, and social status of speakers & listeners. | Nonsocial activity declines and joint, interactive play increase. | | Uses scissors, draws first picture of a person. | Attention becomes more sustained and planful. | | Instrumental aggression declines and hostile aggression increase. | | Can tell the difference between writing and nonwriting. | Uses script to recall familiar experiences. | | Forms first friendships. | | | Understands that both belief and desire can determine behavior. | | Distinguishes moral rules from conventions. | | | Aware of some meaningful features of written language. | | Preference for same sex playmates strengthens. | | | Counts small number of objects and grasps cardinality. | | | 5 -6 Years | Body is streamlined & longer-legged with proportions similar to an adult. | Ability to distinguish appearance from reality improves. | Vocabulary increases to about 10,000 words. | Ability to interpret, predict, and influence others' emotional reactions improves. | | First permanent teeth erupt. | Attention continues to improve. | Has mastered many complex grammatical forms. | Relies more on language to express empathy. | | Skipping appears. | Recall & scripted memory improve. | | Has acquired many morally relevant rules and behaviors. | | Shows mature throwing & catching patterns. | Understands that letters and sounds are linked in systematic ways. | | Gender-stereotyped beliefs & behavior continue to increase. | | Ties shoes, draws more elaborate pictures, writes name. | Counts on and counts down, engaging in simple addition & subtraction. | | Grasps the genital basis of sex differences and shows gender constancy. | MIDDLE CHILDHOOD | 6 -8 Years | Slower gains in weight & height continue until adolescent growth spurt. | Thought becomes more logical, as shown by the ability to pass Piagetian conservation, class inclusion, and seriation problems. | Vocabulary increases rapidly throughout middle childhood. | Self-concept begins to include personality traits and social comparisons. | | Gradual replacement of primary teeth by permanent ones throughout middle childhood. | Understanding of spatial concept improves, as illustrated by ability to give clear, well-organized directions. | Word definitions are concrete, referring to functions & appearance. | Self-conscious emotions of pride & guilt are governed by personal responsibility. | | Writing becomes smaller & more legible. Letter reversals decline. | Attention becomes more selective, adaptable, and planful. | Language awareness improves. | Recognizes that individuals can experience amore than one emotion at a time. | | Drawings become more organized and detailed; include some depth cues. | Uses memory strategies of rehearsal and organization. | | Attends to more cues--facial, situational, and past experiences--in interpreting another's feelings. | | Organized games with rules become common. | Regards the mind as an active agent, capable of transforming information. | | Understands that access to different information often causes people to have differing perspectives. | | | Awareness of the importance of memory & the impact of psychological factors (attention, motivation, in task performance improves). | | Becomes more responsible & independent. | | | | | Distributive justice reasoning changes from equality to merit to benevolence. | | | | | Peer interaction becomes more prosocial, physical aggression declines. | 9 -11 Years | Adolescent growth spurt begins 2 years earlier in girls than in boys. | Logical thought remains tied to concrete situations. | Word definition emphasizes synonyms & categorical relations. | Self-esteem tends to rise. | | Gross motor skills of running, jumping, throwing, catching, kicking, batting, & dribbling are executed more quickly and with better coordination. | Piagetian tasks continue to be mastered in a systematic fashion. | Grasps double meanings of words, as reflected in comprehension of metaphors and humor. | Has an adaptive set of strategies for regulating emotion. | | Reaction time improves, contributing to motor skill development. | Memory strategies of rehearsal & organization become more effective. Begin to use elaboration. | Use of complex grammatical construction improves. | Can "step into another's shoes" and view the self from that person's perspective. | | Representation of depth in drawings expands. | Applies several memory strategies at once. | Adapts messages to the needs of listeners in complex communicative situations. | Later, can view the relationship between self & others from the perspective of a third, impartial party. | | | | Conversational strategies become more refined. | Appreciates the linkage between moral rules and social conventions. | | | | | Sense of unique domain of personal matters strengthens. | | | | | Peer groups emerge. | | | | | Becomes aware of more gender stereotypes, including personality traits and school subjects, but has a more flexible appreciation of what males & females can do. | | | | | Sibling rivalry tends to increase. | ADOLESCENCE | AGE | PHYSICAL | COGNITIVE | EMOTIONAL/ SOCIAL | 11 -14 Years | If a female, reaches peak of growth spurt. | Becomes capable of formal operational reasoning. | Moodiness and parent-child conflict increase. | | | Becomes better at coordinating theory with evidence. | Is likely to show increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior. | | | Can argue more effectively. | Less time with parents and siblings. | | | Becomes more self-conscious and self-focused. | Spends more time with peers. | | | Becomes more idealistic and critical. | Friendships are based on intimacy and loyalty. | | | Metacognition and cognitive self-regulation continue to improve. | Peer groups become organized around cliques. | | | | Cliques with similar values unite forming crowds. | | | | Conformity to peer pressure increases. | 15 -20 Years | If female, completes growth spurt. | Is likely to show formal operational reasoning on familiar tasks. | Combines features of the self into an organize self-concept. | | If male, reaches peak then completes growth spurt. | Masters the components of formal operational reasoning sequential order on different types of tasks. | Self-esteem tends to rise. | | If male, voice deepens. | Becomes less conscious and self-focused. | Is likely to be searching for an identity. | | If male, adds muscle while body fat declines. | Becomes better at everyday planning and decision-making. | Is likely to engage in societal perspective taking. | | If male, motor performances increase dramatically. | | Is likely to have a conventional moral orientation. | | May have had sexual intercourse. | | Importance of cliques and crowd declines. | | | | Has probably started dating. | | | | Conforms to peer pressure may decline. | EARLY ADULTHOOD | 20 -30 | Years Athletic skills that require speed of limb movement, explosive strength, and gross body coordination peak early in this decade and then decline. | If college educated, dualistic thinking (dividing information, values, & authority into right and wrong) declines in favor of realistic thinking (viewing all knowledge as embedded in a framework of thought). | Leaves home permanently.Strikes to make a permanent commitment to an intimate partner.Usually constructs a dream, an image of the self in the adult world that guides decision-making. | | Athletic skills that depend on endurance, arm –-hand steadiness, and aiming peak at the end of this decade and then decline. | | If in a high-status career, acquires professional skills, values, and credentials (for women, may be delayed and take a longer time). | | Declines in touch sensitivity; respiratory, cardiovascular, and immune system functioning; and elasticity of the skin begins and continues throughout adulthood. | | Begins to develop mutually gratifying adult friendships and work ties. | | As basal metabolic weight gain begins in the middle of this decade and continue through middle adulthood. | | May cohabit, marry, and bear children. | | As basal metabolic rate declines, gradual weight gain begins in the middle of the decade and continues through middle adulthood. | | Sibling relationships become more companionate. | | | | As people move in and out of relationships, loneliness peaks early in this decade and then declines steadily throughout adulthood. | 30 -40 Years | Declines in vision, hearing, and the skeletal system begin and continue throughout adulthood. | As family and lives expand, the cognitive capacity to juggle many responsibilities simultaneously improves. | Reevaluates life structure and tries to change components that are inadequate. | | In women, fertility problems increase sharply in the middle of this decade. | Creatively (generating useful original products) often peaks. | Establishes more stable niche within society through family, occupation, and community activities (for women, career consolidation may be delayed). | | Hair begins to gray and thin in the middle of this decade. | | | | Sexual activity declines, probably due to demands of daily life. | | | MIDDLE ADULTHOOD | 40 -50 Years | Accommodative ability of the lens of the eye and color discrimination declines; sensitivity to glare increases. | Consciousness of aging increases. | Desire to give to and guide the next generation intensifies. | | Sharp hearing loss at high frequency occurs. | A variety of crystallized and fluid abilities assessed by intelligence tests stabilize. | Modifies components of the life structure, focusing on personally meaningful living. | | Hair continues to gray and thin. | The fluid ability of processing speed, assessed on reaction time tasks, declines; adults compensate by taking large chunks of information into working memory and throughout practice & experience. | Tries to reconcile four opposing tendencies with the self: young/ old; creation/ destruction; masculinity/ femininity; engagement/ separateness. | | Lines on the face become more pronounced, and skin loses elasticity and begins to sag. | On complex tasks, ability to divide and control attention declines; adults compensate through practice and experience. | Possible selves become fewer in number and are more modest and concrete. | | Weight gain continues, accompanied by a rise in fatty deposits in the torso, whereas fat beneath the skin declines. | Amount of information that can be retained in working memory diminishes due to decline in use of memory strategies. | Introspection increases as people contemplate the second half of life. | | Loss of lean body mass (muscle and bone) occurs. | Retrieving information from long-term memory becomes more difficult. | Self-acceptance, autonomy, and environmental mastery increases. | | In women, production of estrogen drops, leading to short ending of, & irregularity in, the menstrual cycle. | General factual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and knowledge related to one's occupation remain unchanged or increases. | Coping strategies become more effective. | | For men, quantity of semen and sperm declines, Intensity of sexual response declines, but sexual activity drops only slightly; stability is more typical than dramatic change. | Gains in practical problem solving and expertise occur. | Gender identity becomes more androgynous: "masculine" traits increase in women, and "feminine" traits increase in men. | | Proportion of women with no sexual partner increases dramatically. | Creativity shifts from a focus on generating unusual products to integrating experience and knowledge into unique ways of thinking and acting. | May launch children. | | Rates of cancer and cardiovascular disease increase, at a higher rate for women. | If in vocation offering challenge and autonomy, shows gains in cognitive flexibility. | May enlarge the family network to include in-laws. | | | | May become a kin keeper, especially the mother. | | | | May care for parent with illness or disability. (caregiver) | | | | Sibling bonds may strengthen. | | | | Number of friends generally declines. | | | | Job satisfaction increases. | 50 -60 Years | Lens of the eye loses its accommodative ability entirely. | Changes in cognition described in the 40-50 year continue. | Emotional and social changes continue. | | Hearing loss extends to all frequencies but remains greatest for highest tones. | | Re-evaluates life's structure and tries to change components that are inadequate. | | Skin continues to wrinkle and sag; age spots appear. | | Becomes concerned with "passing the torch". Desires that positive aspects of the culture survive. | | Menopause occurs, usually between ages 50-55. | | May become a grandparent. | | Continued loss of bone mass, accelerating esp. for women after menopause. Leads to high rate of osteoporosis. | | Parent-to-child help-giving declines, and child-to-parent help-giving increases. | | Due to collapse of disks in the spinal column, height may drop by as much as one inch. | | Sex difference in parental care giving declines. | | | | May retire. | LATE ADULTHOOD | 60 -80 Years | Neurons die at a faster rare, but the brain compensates through growth of new synapses. | Processing speed continues to decline; crystallized abilities are largely sustained. | May become a great-grandparent. | | Autonomic nervous system performs less well, impairing adaptation to hot and cold weather. | Amount of information that can be retained in working memory diminishes further; memory problems are greatest on complex tasks requiring deliberate processing. | May retire. | | Declines in vision continue. In terms of increased sensitivity to glare and impaired color discrimination, dark adaptation, depth perception, and visual acuity. | Modest forgetting of remote memories occurs. Use of external aids for prospective memories occurs. | More likely to vote and be knowledgeable about politics. | | Declines in hearing continue throughout the frequency of the range. | Retrieving words from long-term memory and planning what to say become more difficult. | | | Taste and odor sensitivity may decline. | Information is more likely to be remembered in terms of ideals (gist) than details. | | | Touch sensitivity declines on the hands, particularly on the fingertips, less so on the arms. | Traditional problem solving declines; everyday problem solving remains adaptive. | | | Declines in cardiovascular and respiratory functions leading to greater physical stress during exercise. | May hold one of the most important positions in society, such as chief executive officer, religious leader, or Supreme Court justice. | | | Aging of the immune system increases risk for a variety of illnesses. | May excel at wisdom. | | | Sleep difficulties increase, especially for men. | Can improve a wide range of cognitive skills through training. | | | Graying & thinning of the hair continue; the skin wrinkles further and becomes more transparent as it loses its fatty layer of support. | | | | Height loss (due to loss of bone mass) s continues, leading to rising rates of osteoporosis. | | | | Intensity of sexual response & activity declines, although most healthy married couples report regular sexual enjoyment. | | | 70 -80 Years | Physical changes described in the 60-80-year range continue. | Cognitive changes described above continue. | Emotional and social changes described previously continue. | | Mobility diminishes due to loss of muscle and bone strength and joint flexibility. | Fluid abilities decline further; crystallized abilities begin to drop as well. | As relatives and friends die, may develop friendships with younger individuals. | | | | Relationships with adult children become more important | | | | Frequency and variety of leisure activities decline. |…...

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...Milestone 3: Freedom Travel Company DeVry University The solution recommended to Freedom Travel is a powerful web based cloud management system that would assist in managing financial loans and agent quotes that would give the company the tools needed for regular business practices. For example, this tool would help with quoting, account status and back-office functions that integrate with Freedom Travel’s existing agency management system. In implementing this new technology, additional business practices would include the delivery of real time status and payment updates as soon as they are applied to Freedom Travel’s account. Also their online subscription would be more cost effective than buying and maintaining the software. As mentioned before, the pay for the service by the month based on the number of loans you have would help with cash flow. Freedom Travel would have the option to seamlessly integrate with the cloud services management systems which would make it easy for them to work with their finance company. This comprehensive software package is designed to help Freedom Travel sell and retain commercial accounts by streamlining processes from lead development to sales to customer support. It would be flexible and easy to use and will deliver the advanced tools Freedom Travel needs to capitalize on opportunities, increase efficiency, speed up response times, and ensure customer satisfaction.  Easily integrated application will deliver industry profiles,...

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