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The Use of Nonmonetary Incentives as a Motivational Tool in Sportsmore by Tshepang Tshube
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THE USE OF NONMONETARY INCENTIVES AS A MOTIVATIONAL TOOL IN SPORTS

664 argued that an athlete’s motivation is very critical, but what is more critical is the understanding of what exactlymotivates athletes. Having a clear understanding of what motivates athletes accords the coach an opportunity todesign appropriate motivational climate in order to realize an athlete’s physical talent.Motivation and the use of rewards as a motivational tool for success have been widely studied in sports psychology (Ambrus & Egorov, 2009; Browning & Burr, 2009; Bucciol, Montinari, & Piovesan, 2011; Crifo etal., 2004; Dommeyer, Curt, Hirao, Ikeda, Linkletter, & Watanabe, 2010; Gould, Feltz, Horn, & Weiss, 1982;Hellandsig, 1998; Mallett & Hanrahan, 2004).A former NBA (National Basketball Association) basketball star, Tim Hardaway, was promised a huge bonus if he made a lot of assists in games. The bonus was entirely based on passing the ball. Hardaway passedthe ball a lot, particularly towards the end of the season. When interviewed, the former start admitted that to gethis bonus he had sometimes passed even when he should have shot the ball. He was highly driven by themonetary bonus. Hardaway is a typical example of the effects of rewards in sports.Given incentives, athletes will do what they are told to do in order to get the monetary incentive. “Showme the medal” was a slogan introduced by the Chinese Sports Department in order to best capture the spirit of the Chinese sports apparatus. Leung and Yang (2006) observed that following China’s relatively poor showingin the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, the National Sports Administration in 1991 gave 16 sports “key Olympic sport”status, which implied favorable treatment in funding and other forms of institutional support. Athletes were promised a lot of incentives for winning medals. Following the adjustments in how China rewarded nationalathletes, athletic success brought fame and financial bonuses for Chinese athletes and potential upward mobilityfor coaches and officials. China had won only five gold medals at the 1988 Seoul Olympics. China moved fromfive gold medals to 16 gold medals at the 1992 Barcelona and Atlanta respectively. The incentive rewards arenot only evident in China, athletes in different tournaments earn a substantial amount of financial prizes. TheAll England Club awarded a total of £14,600,000 ($25,318) in prize money to competitors at the 2011Championships. The Men’s and Ladies’ Singles Champions each received £1,100,000. Chan, Courty, and Hao(2009) confirmed that prize money has been significantly used to motivate athletes to win. Nearly $21 millionin prize money was awarded in international track and field competitions in 2004. The literature has alsoshowed that not only money motivates athletes to win in sports, there may be other rewards that athletes valueand appreciate (An example would be athletes being honoured to have dinner with the president of the country).Providing athletes with special incentives creates a positive environment for the athletes. A positiveenvironment gives an opportunity for athletes to exert more effort hence to win medals. Hill and Pavetti (2000)showed that low income working parents often have difficulty in devoting enough time and money to pleasurable activities with their family. Providing social and tangible nonmonetary incentives such as a ticket toa movie or an amusement park, summer camp for children, etc., may have great value for athletes. Giving suchfree tickets to athletes’ families can be a motivation for athletes to win medals. This will give parents anopportunity to watch their kids as a result of getting free tickets. On the other hand, athletes would probablyhesitate to spend a cash incentive of the same value for these kinds of activities rather than necessities. Nonmonetary incentives provide a tangible symbol of achievement and it becomes something physical to showoff (Yavuz, 2004). These incentives are more relevant in a middle income country like Botswana, wherefamilies do not have a budget for recreational activities. Extending incentives that include parents is a goodgesture that athletes in Botswana value.Palomino and Rigotti (2002) analyzed the dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional THE USE OF NONMONETARY INCENTIVES AS A MOTIVATIONAL TOOL IN SPORTS

665 sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for therights to televise it. Athletes in Botswana have significantly agreed that they are motivated by both monetaryand nonmonetary incentives. Televised games are also a motivation given the situation in Botswana wheresoccer and sometimes volleyball and netball are the only sports that are broadcasted live. Other sports need to be accorded the same opportunity in order to enjoy the same publicity. To affirm that monetary incentives playa significant role in motivating players to win, Palomino and Rigotti (2000) observed that in professional sports,revenue sharing increases future demand for the sport, hence increasing the revenues of the league and its players. The authors further argued that revenue sharing is based on the idea that if there are no prizes for winning, the teams’ profits are independent of the competition’s outcome. In other words, without a prize, thereare no monetary incentives for a team to win. Mallett and Hanrahan (2004) investigated what drives someathletes to achieve at the highest level while other athletes fail to perform to their physical potential. One of thequestions that Mallett and Hanrahan (2004) asked was “Why does the ‘fire’ burn so brightly for some eliteathletes and not for others?” The research answered these questions to get a good understanding of an athlete’smotivation. Athletes’ personal goals and highly driven hunger for achievement are the primary determinant for success. It is therefore crucial for sports organizations to understand athletes’ goals in order to provide relevantincentives. A very strong sense of self-belief was discovered as a significant factor in influencing behavior andthe need for success in athletes. It is worth noting that self-confidence and self-efficacy are some of the mostcited factors that are associated with athletic performance. Feltz (1985) showed that self-confidence plays acritical role in athletes’ success. Lack of self-confidence seems to be closely associated with athletic failure.Confidence is therefore a very significant factor in distinguishing unsuccessful athletes from those that aresuccessful. Mallett and Hanrahan (2004) observed that athletic identity also plays a significant role in athletes’achievement. Athletic identity is defined as the degree to which an individual identifies with the athlete’s role(Brewer, 1993). Athletes with high identity tend to be highly motivated, spend more time with their team mates,and see their future defined by sports.
Hypotheses
The main hypothesis for this study was that the perceptions of Botswana athletes (athletes of Botswana)on the value of nonmonetary incentives as a motivational tool in sports are not significant.The following sub-hypotheses were tested:(1) Botswana athletes place no significant value on the role of social and tangible nonmonetary incentivesas a source of motivation;(2) There is no significant age difference in the percieved value of social and tangible nonmonetaryincentives;(3) There is no significant gender difference in the percieved value of social and tangible nonmonetaryincentives;(4) Athletes’ perceptions of the value of social and tangible nonmonetary incentives do not vary by sport.
Method
A total of 370 Botswana junior (13

18 years old) and elite (19 years old and above) athletes (190 malesand 180 females) from various clubs in Botswana participated in the study by completing a surveyquestionnaire. An online statistical software sample size calculator was used to determine the sample size. THE USE OF NONMONETARY INCENTIVES AS A MOTIVATIONAL TOOL IN SPORTS

666
Based on a population size of approximately 1,146 athletes, a sample size of 400 participants was needed toconduct a survey with a confidence level of 95% and a confidence interval of +/–4. Six major sports inBotswana were given first preference to participate in the study: soccer, athletics, netball, volleyball, boxing,and karate. These sports are the Botswana National Sports Council’s key sports, and they have more popularityand following than any other sport in the country. Some of these sports included players that participated atOlympic level. The study had a total of 10 sports, of which six came from the major sports. Simple randomsampling was used to select the remaining four sports. Names of the remaining sports were put in a box and theresearcher picked four from the box.Athletes were further stratified to select each athlete from each sport. There were two strata: gender andcategory. Junior athletes represented one strata of the category while senior athletes represented the other.Gender balance was observed. Forty athletes from each sport participated in the study, 20 males and 20 females.The age range of athletes in the junior category ranged from 13 to 18, while the senior athletes were 19 andabove. A total of 40 athletes from each of the 10 sports were then selected using the convenience samplingmethod to participate in the study.
Procedure
Data collection was through a questionnaire survey administered by the researcher during competitions,training camps, and in schools. Athletes from the selected codes train and compete throughout the year, andthey were readily available and willing to participate in the study. Both written and verbal instructions were provided for the survey questions. Subjects were also informed of purpose of the study by a consent letter,which was attached to the questionnaire. Respondents were asked to complete the survey anonymously.Completion of the survey took approximately 15 minutes.The questionnaire used in the study was constructed by the researcher to meet the specific demands of theresearch. The language was made simple so that it would be understandable to athletes including those who donot have a high school education. The questionnaire had three sections: The first section was on socialnonmonetary incentives; the second section was on tangible nonmonetary incentives and monetary incentives;and the last section solicited demographic information. Respondents were asked the extent to which availableincentives motivate them to win medals. A total of 24 questions were answered by participants using a 4-pointLikert type response scale ranging from “1 = Strongly disagree” to “4 = Strongly agree”. The reliability of thequestionnaire was calculated using Cronbach’s Alpha estimate, which is the statistical procedure for reliabilityanalysis. The reliability statistics for the tangible nonmonetary incentives and monetary incentives was 0.844,and for social nonmonetary incentives it was 0.739. The questionnaire was pilot tested on 10 athletes in sportsthat did not participate in the study. Appropriate revisions were made where necessary for the validity of theinstrument. The questionnaire was also reviewed by two professors in sports psychology and one professor insports management.
Results
The problem this study investigated was Botswana athletes’ perceptions of the use of monetary andnonmonetary incentives as a motivational tool in sport. What included in the study was determining the extentto which athletes perceive tangible and social-nonmonetary incentives as motivational tools. Since the mainhypothesis for this study is the perceptions of Botswana athletes on the value of nonmonetary incentives as a THE USE OF NONMONETARY INCENTIVES AS A MOTIVATIONAL TOOL IN SPORTS

667 motivational tool in sports, the following sub-hypotheses were tested:H1: Botswana athletes place no significant value on the role of social and tangible nonmonetary incentivesas a source of motivation.The survey results, however, indicated that all types of incentives (social, tangible, and monetary) were perceived to be significantly motivating Botswana athletes to win medals ( p
< 0.01). The null hypotheis wasrejected. Social incentives were the least important while monetary incentives were most important. All typesof incentives were significantly different from one another. Monetary incentives had the highest mean ( M
=3.31,
SD
= 0.96), followed by tangible nonmonetary incentives ( M =
2.90,
SD
= 0.98) , and lastly socialnonmonetary incentives ( M =
2.42,
SD
= 0.92). A standard scale of 1

4 designed by the reseracher was used inthis study ( M
= 2.5). Both monetary and tangible incentives were above the mean while social incentives were below the mean. A one sample t -test was conducted to assess monetary incentives signicance ( DF
= 368,
p…...

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