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P&Id Symbols

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P&ID SYMBOLS
ISA Symbols and Loop Diagrams

P&IDs
Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams or simply P&IDs are the “schematics” used in the field of instrumentation and control (Automation)
The P&ID is used to by field techs, engineers, and operators to better understand the process and how the instrumentation is inter connected.
Most industries have standardized the symbols according to the
ISA Standard S5.1 Instrumentation Symbol Specification.

• Piping & Instrumentation Drawing (original)
• Process & Instrumentation Diagram (also used)
• Process Flow Diagram – PFD (simplified version of the P&ID)

Temperature Process
Using pictorial diagrams may be informative however it is not practical or CAD friendly especially in a multi-loop process.
Temperature Controller and Recorder

Temperature
Transmitter

Steam
Pneumatic
Control Valve
Heat Exchanger

Building the P&ID
The P&ID will use symbols and circles to represent each instrument and how they are inter-connected in the process.
Temperature Controller and Recorder

Temperature
Transmitter
Thermometer

Temperature
Sensing Bulb

Pneumatic
Control
Valve

Tag Numbers
Tag “numbers” are letters and numbers placed within or near the instrument to identify the type and function of the device.
TRC
206

TI
206

TT
206

Temperature
Sensing Bulb

FCV
206

Tag Descriptors
The first letter is used to designate the measured variable

The succeeding letter(s) are used to designate the function of the component, or to modify the meaning of the first letter.

X Y Z
123

Pressure

Indicator

Level

Recorder

Flow

Controller

Temperature

Transmitter

Tag Numbers
Tag “numbers” are letters and numbers placed within or near the instrument to identify the type and function of the device.
Temperature Recording Controller
TRC
206

TI
206

Temperature Transmitter
TT
206

Temperature Indicator
Temperature
Sensing Bulb

FCV
206

ISA S5.1 Identification Letters

Examples

Instrument Location
The presence or absence of a line determines the location of the physical device. For example no line means the instrument is installed in the field near the process.

X Y Z

X Y Z

X Y Z

123

123

123

No Line

Solid Line

No Line

The instrument is mounted in the field near the process,
(close to the operator)

The instrument is mounted in the control room
(accessible to the operator) The instrument is mounted out of sight
(not accessible to the operator) Shared Displays/Shared Control
Some instruments are part of a Distributed Control
System (DCS) where a specific controller or indicator can be selected from many others but shown in one location (like a terminal screen)

In the control room

In the plant

Not accessible

Summary of instrument type & location

Piping and Connection Symbols
These symbols are used to identify how the instruments in the process connect to each other.
And what type of signal is being used. (electrical, pneumatic, data, etc) Valve Symbols

P&ID Example
Temperature Controller and Recorder

TRC
206
Temperature
Transmitter

TT
206
TCV
206

Steam
Pneumatic
Control Valve
Heat Exchanger

TI
206

S

P&ID Exercise
FIC

TIC

1

YIC

2
TY

3

FT

TT
1
2
3

P&ID Exercise
FIC –
Flow Indicating Controller
TIC
Temperature Indicating Cont.
YIC
PLC Indicating Controller
TY
Temperature Computer
Output
FT
Flow Transmitter
TT
Temperature Transmitter

Process Flow Diagram - PFD
A PFD shows less detail than a P&ID and is used only to understand how the process works…...

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