Free Essay

Personal Info

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By sampathpslreddy
Words 1320
Pages 6
chicago state universitu | Advanced TCP/IP Intranetworking Architecture | Homework#5 | | Palreddy sampath | 900680689 |

|

8.6 KEY TERMS:
Cache Table
A sender usually has more than one IP datagram to send to the same destination. It is inefficient to use the ARP protocol for each datagram destined for the same host or router. The solution is the cache table. When a host or router receives the corresponding physical address for an IP datagram, the address can be saved in the cache table. This address can be used for the datagrams destined for the same receiver within the next few minutes. However, as space in the cache table is very limited, mappings in the cache are not retained for an unlimited time.

Inverse Replay message
The inverse request and inverse reply messages can bind the physical address to an IP address in a PVC situation .When a PVC is established for a router, the router sends an inverse request message. The router at the other end of the connection receives the message (which contains the physical and IP address of the sender) and sends back an inverse reply message (which contains its own physical and IP address).

Queue
ARP package maintains a set of queues, one for each destination, to hold the IP packets while ARP tries to resolve the hardware address. The output module sends unresolved packets into the corresponding queue. The input module removes a packet from a queue and sends it, with the resolved physical address, to the data link layer for transmission.

Dynamic Mapping
In dynamic mapping, each time a machine knows the logical address of another machine, it can use a protocol to find the physical address. Two protocols have been designed to perform dynamic mapping: Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP). ARP maps a logical address to a physical address; RARP maps a physical address to a logical address. Since RARP is replaced with another protocol and therefore deprecated,
Proxy ARP
A technique called proxy ARP is used to create a subnetting effect. A proxy ARP is an ARP that acts on behalf of a set of hosts. Whenever a router running a proxy ARP receives an ARP request looking for the IP address of one of these hosts, the router sends an ARP reply announcing its own hardware (physical) address. After the router receives the actual IP packet, it sends the packet to the appropriate host or router.

Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
At the beginning of the Internet era, a protocol called Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
(RARP) was designed to provide the IP address for a booted computer. RARP was actually a version of ARP that we discussed in Chapter 8. ARP maps an IP address to a physical address: RARP maps a physical address to an IP address. However, RARP is deprecated today for two reasons. First, RARP used the broadcast service of the data link layer, which means that a RARP server must be present in each network. Second, RARP can provide only the IP address of the computer.
8.7 SUMMARY
1. Delivery of a packet to a host or router requires two levels of addresses: logical and physical. A logical address identifies a host or router at the network level. TCP/IP calls this logical address an IP address. A physical address identifies a host or router at the physical level.
2. Mapping of a logical address to a physical address can be static or dynamic. Static mapping involves a list of logical and physical addresses; maintenance of the list requires high overhead.
3. The address resolution protocol (ARP) is a dynamic mapping method that finds a physical address given a logical address. An ARP request is broadcast to all devices on the network. An ARP reply is unicast to the host requesting the mapping.
4. In proxy ARP, a router represents a set of hosts. When an ARP request seeks the physical address of any host in this set, the router sends its own physical address. This creates a subnetting effect.
5. ATMARP is a protocol used on ATM networks that binds a physical address to an IP address. The ATMARP server’s mapping table is built through the use of the inverse request and the inverse reply messages. An ATM network can be divided into logical subnetworks to facilitate ATMARP and other protocol operations.
6. The ARP software package consists of five components: a cache table, queues, an output module, an input module, and a cache-control module. The cache table has an array of entries used and updated by ARP messages. A queue contains packets going to the same destination. The output module takes a packet from the IP layer and sends it either to the data link layer or to a queue. The input module uses an ARP packet to update the cache table. The input module can also send an ARP reply. The cache-control module maintains the cache table by updating entry fields.

8.8 PRACTICE SET:
4. What is the broadcast address for Ethernet?
A broadcast address is an IP address that is used to target all systems on a specific subnet network instead of single hosts. In other words broadcast address allows information to be sent to all machines on a given subnet rather than to a specific machine.The broadcast address of any IP address can be calculated by taking the bit compliment of the subnet mask, sometimes referred to as the reverse mask and then applying it with a bitwise

6.A router with IP address 195.5.2.12 and Ethernet physical address AA:25:AB:1F:67:CD has received a packet for a destination with IP address 185.11.78.10. When the router checks its routing table, it finds out the packet should be delivered to a router with IP address 195.5.2.6 and Ethernet physical address AD:34:5D:4F:67:CD.
a. Show the entries in the ARP request packet sent by the router. Assume no subnetting

8. Show the contents of ATMARP packets (request and reply) exchanged between a router and a server. The IP address of the router is 14.56.12.8/16 and the IP address of the server is 200.23.54.8/24. Choose two arbitrary 20-byte physical addresses.Use hexadecimal values in filling the fields.
10. An ATMARP packet must also be carried in cells. How many cells are needed to carry an ATMARP packet discussed in this chapter?

4)
The following are four different cases in which the services of ARP can be used (see
Figure 8.5).
❑ Case 1: The sender is a host and wants to send a packet to another host on the same network. In this case, the logical address that must be mapped to a physical address is the destination IP address in the datagram header.
❑ Case 2: The sender is a host and wants to send a packet to another host on another network. In this case, the host looks at its routing table and finds the IP address of the next hop (router) for this destination. If it does not have a routing table, it looks for the IP address of the default router. The IP address of the router becomes the logical address that must be mapped to a physical address.
❑ Case 3: The sender is a router that has received a datagram destined for a host on another network. It checks its routing table and finds the IP address of the next router. The IP address of the next router becomes the logical address that must be mapped to a physical address.
❑ Case 4: The sender is a router that has received a datagram destined for a host in the same network. The destination IP address of the datagram becomes the logical address that must be mapped to a physical address.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Info Tech

...Moving to Brazil List Contact the appropriate embassy or consulate for information relevant to expatriates relocating to the country, including: * Visas and permits * Vaccines for family members * Restrictions or taxes on shipped household items * Taxes involved in shipping your car * Vaccines and quarantines for pets * Insurance File Applications for Passports, Visas and (international driving permit needed for brazil) Permits Do this early as this process takes time to complete. It is also wise to renew early if any of these documents is set to expire in the near future. Gather Important Documents Be sure to request official copies of important personal documents and allow at least several weeks to receive them. Arrange for official translations if required. Suggested items include: * Birth and marriage certificates * Naturalisation, passport, green card, proof of citizenship, etc. * Social security cards * Vaccination, medical and dental records * Insurance policies * Academic records and diplomas * Employment records * Proof of residency (utility bill, statement, etc.) Living will and testament International Moving and Shipping Companies Contact international moving and shipping companies to obtain quotes for transportation of belongings. Since it could take over a month for goods to arrive, plan ahead when scheduling your shipment. Health Insurance Any vaccinations......

Words: 1225 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Info

...inductive, and informal. Your Answer: False Right Answer: True 8. AD Hominem Fallacy Your Answer: is used when a person justifies a course of action because "everyone else is doing it." This argument is often used when peer pressure (fear of rejection or promise of affection) causes a person to defend their action or inaction. Right Answer: literally means "To the Man." This fallacy seeks to discredit a person's argument by attacking their personal character, origin, associations, etc., rather than their ideas. It is often used when one person realizes that he cannot defend his beliefs, so he attempts to win an argument in a popular way through personal or humorous attacks. 9. Bandwagon Fallacy Your Answer: literally means "To the Man." This fallacy seeks to discredit a person's argument by attacking their personal character, origin, associations, etc., rather than their ideas. It is often used when one person realizes that he cannot defend his beliefs, so he attempts to win an argument in a popular way through personal or humorous attacks. Right Answer: is used when a person justifies a course of action because "everyone else is doing it." This argument is often used when peer pressure (fear of rejection or promise of affection) causes a person to defend their action or inaction. 10. Is/Ought Naturalist Fallacy Your Answer: occurs when one makes a judgement on the bases of one or even a few samples. This argument is used when a conclusion is made......

Words: 1847 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Info

...GENERAL ATTRIBUTES ( all info that is in black is in my own words and can be straight put on the leaflet) time management Time management – so that a good job can be done at your workplace and keep your employer happy is by managing your time. This has in it things like getting to work on time and completing the task in the time that’s has been given to you to finish in. Time management is also really important as you have to make sure that you don’t waste needed company time by going to your personal issues that are not to do with the job. but, if you get to work on time every day or maybe early, as well as completing the task on time; it is valued by the employer as this shows you motivation towards your job and the employer know that you are willing to do a great job. In order to make the best use of your time at your workplace, you need to manage your time effectively. You can do this is several ways; these are couple of good ways of managing your time:          Take control of your time – you can do this by using a diary which would help you to remember which task has to be done by what time.          Protect your time space – this is by handling interruptions, making sure that when you get to work, you’re in your work zone and not get interrupted by other activities taking place around you.          Electronic online diary is another way of managing your time as you can keep a record of meetings, appointments etc and the advantage of this is that the......

Words: 1184 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Info

...NOTICE REGARDING USE OF CONSUMER REPORTS IN THE APPLICATION PROCESS FOR EMPLOYMENT PURPOSES In connection with your application for employment or for other employment purposes, Allstate or one of its subsidiaries or affiliates may seek to obtain a consumer report (for example, credit, criminal, educational and/or employment records), which may include an investigative consumer report. An investigative consumer report may contain information regarding your character, general reputation, personal characteristics, or mode of living as obtained from personal interviews with sources such as your neighbors, friends, or associates. If an investigative consumer report is requested, you have the right to request a complete and accurate disclosure of the nature and scope of the investigation requested and a written summary of your rights under the Fair Credit Reporting Act or applicable state statute. Upon written request to Allstate or one of its subsidiaries or affiliates, and within 5 business days of such request, you will be informed as to whether such a report was requested, and if so, the name and address of the reporting agency to whom the request was made. You may then request and promptly receive from all such consumer reporting agencies copies of any investigative consumer report procured by Allstate or one of its subsidiaries or affiliates as well as a written summary of your rights under the Fair Credit Reporting Act or applicable state statute. Your signature below......

Words: 335 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Info

...financial consequences of a possible loss, paying the insurance premium for this service. The insurers take the liability to cover the losses in case of a probable harmful event and issue a special document testifying the power of the contract - the insurance policy. Information is crucial for market exchange to occur - consumers have to possess the information about supply and prices, vendors - about demand and paying ability of their clients. Modern economic theory attributes to the market an important innovative function too - the market encourages vendors to create new products and bring them to the market in response to the emerging demand for them. Security for the future strongly influences the welfare of people by making better the personal well-being and by allowing for more risk taking activities unfolding the entrepreneurial spirit in an environment where insurance against harmful loss is available. Role of Information Technology in Insurance Sector The insurance industry has a particular dependence on information technology. Insurance was one of the first industries to apply computers transaction processing -- to handle the vast number of claims, reserve estimates, payments, codes, etc. required. Examples of this data processing commitment began in the 1950's. Not long into the information revolution, the need to make sense out of this mass of data was recognized. Hence the origins of Management Information Systems (MIS) in the 1970's. The goal of MIS......

Words: 290 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Company Info

...COMPANY INFORMATION 1. Company Name- Executive Technologies Ltd. Address- House 183 Road 69, Gulshan Avenue, Gulshan-2, Dhaka-1212. Email- info@etlbd..net 2. Company Name- Jeans Express Ltd., Address- 49/A CDA’S, Fouzderhat Heavy Industrial Area, Sagarika Road, Pahartali, Chittagong. Email- info@laxlingerie.com 3. Company- Developer Email- abcmarks.sg@gmail.com 4. Comapany- Join Venture Address- House#84 (2nd Fl.), Road#7/A, Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1209 Email- career1205@gmail.com 5. Company- Abony Knitwear Ltd. address- Md. Muslim Uddin, Deputy Manager, R & D, Aboni Knitwear Ltd., Tetuljhara Union, Hemayetpur, Savar, Dhaka. Email- muslimuddin@babylon-bd.com 6. Company- Manufacturing Email- bdmfgcomp@gmail.com 7. Company- Leading indenting house at Banany Email- careeratssl@gmail.com 8. Company name- cititech Email- sisto@citechco.net Phone- 0192 3522 729 9. Company- manufacturing Email- hr@belbd.com 10. Company- garments Email- antrims3@bdcom.net 11. Company- sweater company Email- hnnath@technohaven.com 12. Company- multinational company Email- aa20467@gmail.com 13. Company- Covanta Bangladesh Email- sbarua@covantaenergy.com 14. Company- eversmart bd ltd. Address- Human Resources Manager, EVER SMART BANGLADESH LTD., Begumpur, Mirzapur, Gazipur-1740, Bangladesh. 15. Company- woven factory ...

Words: 7367 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

Info Technology

...interests to determine who to advertise what content to. Social media, dating sites and shopping sites all use given registration information to learn more about consumers. The more companies know about people, the better they can decide who their potential customers should be and how to reach them. Social media is communication through online communities. The use of social media in marketing has become very popular over the last few years. This is a very effective way to promote content by increased visibility. Using these platforms also allows for more involvement with the customers to build more trusting relationships with them. Customer relationship management refers to software that records and analyzes all kinds of useful data. This info can be obtained in many different ways by either the company or a third party. It is used to understand the customers and their buying habits. We recommend opening a Facebook and Twitter account, using those accounts to hyper target and creating a CRM database. We chose these specific technologies because they are fairly simple to implement and would be the most helpful for our company. Introduction The purpose of this report is to review and analyze new information technologies that can assist with marketing in the company. As of this year, there are over 950 companies that provide marketing software (Brinker 2014). Everyday, marketing professionals are looking for new ways to grow their business and technology has......

Words: 2150 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Google Error Leaks Website Owners' Personal Info

...identification of a particular individual. Level 1 : Pseudonymous transaction – triggers transactions that do not require a person to be identified but do require a means for further contact to deliver a product or service. For example, a note from someperson@internet.ca can not be readily translated into an individual’s name, but it may be sufficient to request information, to provide some services, or on-going follow up. Level 2 : Identified transaction – triggers transactions that require that a person be specifically identified. The nature of the transaction may require confirmation of a person's identity (e.g., name, address, birth date, etc.) and/or data linking the person to a transaction (e.g., invoice number, personal health number, etc.). Level 3 : Verified transaction – triggers transactions that require: the person to be specifically identified; verification of the integrity of the data exchanged and the exchange itself; and, the creation of sufficient evidence to indicate that the person agreed to be bound by the transaction. For example, a note signed with a digital certificate, audit trails and security logs may provide sufficient evidence that a specific person intended to conduct a transaction. Please describe Authentication requirements for each Use Case or Business Function in terms of the criteria described above. Please use the following table. Add more rows as necessary. |Use Case / Business Function Name ...

Words: 5662 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Info

...categories: organizational power (legitimate, reward, coercive) and personal power (expert and referent). Generally, the personal sources of power are more strongly related to employees’ job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job performance than are the organizational power sources. One source of organizational power—coercive power—is negatively related to work outcomes. However, the various sources of power should not be thought of as completely separate from each other. Sometimes leaders use the sources of power together in varying combinations depending on the situation. A new concept of power, referred to as “empowerment,” has become a major strategy for improving work outcomes. What comes to mind when you think of the term “power”? Does it elicit positive or negative feelings? In both research and practice, power has been described as a dirty word. Consider the Enron scandal (McLean & Elkind, 2003). Certainly it is easy to think of leaders who have used power for unethical or immoral purposes (Brown, 2006; Flynn, 2011; Price, 2009). That said, people who have power, deny it; people who want power, try not to look like they are seeking it; and those who are good at acquiring it are secretive about how they got it (Robbins & Judge, 2011). Great leaders have the following in common: they have a vision to achieve largescale ideas that they dream of accomplishing, and they have the personal power to enact it (Gibson, Ivancevich, Donnelly, &......

Words: 3709 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Info

...High(temporal(resoluAon •  Chemicals:(Smell(and(Taste •  InerAal(acceleraAons(of(the( head:(VesAbular •  Cell(deformaAons:(Touch(and( PropriocepAon((muscle,(tendon,( and(joint(receptors) Information Processing 2 1 * RepresentaAon •  Neural(code,(thought,(cogniAon:(AcAvaAon( of(a(specific(set(of(neurons(or(neural( networks( –  A(series(or(paLern(of(acAon(potenAals( represents (or( codes(for (thoughts,( percepAons,(acAons,… Introduction to Movement * 3 Human •  Second(and(third(stages(of( informaAon(processing –  Response(selecAon((decision) Input Stimulus Identification Response Selection Response Programming –  Response(Programming((acAon) Output Information Processing 4 2 * Results(of(Info(Processing •  Motor(Program:(Set(of(motor(commands(that(is( prePstructured(at(the(execuAve(level(that(defines( the(essenAal(details(of(the(skilled(acAon –  Specifies(what(to(do,(when(to(do(it,(and(for(how(long(to( do(it. Information Processing * 5 Output •  The(response(produced –  OpenPloop(system:(Output( based(solely(on(motor(program –  ClosedPloop(system:(Results(of( output(yield(sAmuli,(which(are( fed(back(into(system(and( influence(output Input Stimulus Identification Response Selection Response Programming Output Information Processing 6 3 * RT(&(Response(SelecAon • ......

Words: 262 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Memento Info

.../Users/yolannsabaux/Desktop/MEMENTO INFO .php Saved: 19/03/14 12:17:44 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! *** ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Page 1 of 7 Printed For: Yolann Sabaux MEMENTO *** 2 3 ! [HTML] 4 5 PAGE TYPE 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Titre ! ! 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! BALISES PRINCIPALES 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 - Paragraphe Paragraphe A la ligne: TITRE mise en évidence bloc (note css: #xxx {} ) bloc (note css: .xxx {} ) 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 - xxx - lien - Liste: - () ! ! ! ! xxxx ! ! ! ! xxxx ! ! ! () ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! EXEMPLE TABLEAU Nom Âge Pays 43 44 45 46 47 48 Carmen 33 ans Espagne /Users/yolannsabaux/Desktop/MEMENTO INFO .php Saved: 19/03/14 12:17:44 49 50 51 52 53 54 Page 2 of 7 Printed For: Yolann Sabaux Michelle 26 ans États-Unis 55 56 57 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! [CSS] ! p { ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! BASE EXEMPLES 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 color: blue; ( color: rgb(r,g,b); ) font-size: 16 px; (ou: font-size: x-small/small/ medium/ large/ x-large/ xx-large) font-family:...

Words: 471 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Info System

...globalization. 3. A) Information system is a set of interrelated components that collect or retrieve process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization. Information systems may also help managers and workers to analyze problems, visualize complex subjects and create new products. Three activities in an information system: produce the information that organization need to make decisions, control operations, analyze problems and create new products/services. Three activities are input, processing, and output. Input –captures or collects raw data from within the organization or from its external environment. Processing-convert this raw input into a meaningful form. Output-transfers the processed info to the people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be used. Information system also required feedback, which is output that is returned to appropriate members of the organization to help them evaluate or correct the input stage. B) Organizations-information systems are an integral part of the organization, key elements of an organization are people, structure, business processes, politics, and culture; Management-to make sense out of the many situations faced by organizations, make decisions and formulate action plans to solve organizational problems. Information technology can play a powerful role in helping managers design and deliver new products and services and redirecting and redesigning their......

Words: 1759 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Info

...Twitter Smart Card Twitter 070314_1200 Social Networks - Do’s and Don’ts • • • • • • Only establish and maintain connections with people you know and trust. Review your connections often. Assume that ANYONE can see any information about your activities, personal life, or professional life that you post and share. Ensure that your family and friends take similar precautions with their accounts; their privacy and sharing settings can expose your personal data. Avoid posting or tagging images of you or your family that clearly show your face. Select pictures taken at a distance, at an angle, or otherwise concealed. Never post smartphone photos and don’t use your face as a profile photo, instead, use cartoons or avatars. Use secure browser settings when possible and monitor your browsing history to ensure that you recognize all access points. Managing your Twitter Account Twitter is a social networking and microblogging site whose users send and read text-based posts online. As of June 2014, the site has approximately 230 million daily active users, generating 500 million Tweets and 2.1 billion search queries daily. Stream of Tweets from people you follow Use Settings to manage visiblity Each Tweet is time stamped Following are people you subscribe to; Followers subscribe to your tweets; Private Tweets will only be visible to followers you approve Tweets “Tweets” are short text-based messages - up to 140 characters - that users post to Twitter. “Tweet” can refer to...

Words: 725 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Info

...PUPPY SALES . Skip Module Navigation Links Personal Information | | Student | | Financial Aid | | | | | | This is not an official transcript. Courses which are in progress may also be included on this transcript. | Institution Credit    Transcript Totals    Courses in Progress Transcript Data | STUDENT INFORMATION | Birth Date: | 25-OCT | Curriculum Information | | | | | | | Current Program | | | | | | | Associate of Applied Science | | | | | | | Program: | Richmond Med Asstng AAS | | | | | | | Campus: | Richmond | | | | | | | Major: | Medical Assisting | | | | | | |   | | | | | | | | | | | | Secondary | | | | | | | Technical Certificate | | | | | | | Program: | Richmond Med Asstng TC | | | | | | | Campus: | Richmond | | | | | | | Major: | Medical Assisting | | | | | | | Major Concentration: | Phlebotomy | | | | | | |   | ***Transcript type:Unofficial is NOT Official *** |   | DEGREE AWARDED | Sought: | Associate of Applied Science | Degree Date: |   | Curriculum Information | | | | | | | Primary Degree | Program: | Richmond Undeclared AAS | Campus: | Richmond | Major: | Undeclared | Major Concentration: | School of Health Sciences |   | Sought: | Associate of Applied Science | Degree Date: |   | Curriculum Information | | | | | | | Primary Degree | Program: | Richmond Med Asstng AAS | ...

Words: 945 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Info 620

...Running head: SkyDive Chicago Closing Case: CH 13 James Tabb Jr INFO 620: Management of Information System Jongbok Byun Ashford University Skydive Chicago is one of the best resorts present in the United States today. At the resorts they have decorated skydivers to assist you with making your jumps. This company is a provider of skydiving instructions with various competitions as any other business. The company needs to ensure that it keeps up with technology to stay competitive in the market and to expand and be prepared for the future. When discussing the information systems of the company. One must understand that these systems consist of the resources needed to deliver functions and information to this organization. The benefit of the information system is you will have central access, easy backup, distribution of information, record keeping, tax preparation, and assist the organization with identifying the customers and their traits. Summoned up; you can say that the information system provides the best information that a person needs to perform their tasks more efficiently. Along with the hardware, software, networks, and data management or information technology as we call it. With these things combined these components work together to achieve a common set of goals. All information systems are tailored for each organization to fit their specific needs. All......

Words: 1436 - Pages: 6