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Philippine History

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1. ABORIGINAL 2.1 RELIGION
Like the Hellenic religion of Ancient Greece, the early religion of the Filipinos was polytheistic. They worshipped different deities that have different domains and functions, often related to the daily lives of the believers. Bathalang Maykapal was superior to all other deities for he was believed to be the creator of earth and of man. Other deities were: Idiyanale, the god of agriculture; Lalahon, goddess of harvest; Balangaw, a rainbow god; Mandarangan, the god of war; Diyan Masalanta, god of love; Agni, the fire god; and many others. Objects of nature were to be respected. Old trees were considered “divine”. Anitos and diwatas, equivalent to our saints today, were offered prayers and food. Sacrificial rituals were performed by priests or priestesses called baylana or katalona. They believed in the immortality of the soul and in life after death. 2.2 SOCIO-POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
The forms of government during this time were aristocracy (in which power is in the hands of a small, privileged, ruling class) and plutocracy (in which society is ruled and dominated by the small minority of the wealthiest citizens). These privileged people were the nobles. They were the chieftains of the barangay, along with their families. They enjoyed rights that were not usually enjoyed by the other members of the society. In the Tagalog region, they usually carried the title of Gat or Lakan. They wielded tremendous influence in the society. Next to the nobles were the freemen called mahadlika by the Tagalogs. The lowest class in the society was the alipins. They were the servants and slaves. There are two classes of alipins: Aliping Namamahay (householder), are those who enjoyed rights and privileges to land, had his or her own house that are usually within the domain or territory of his or her master. Aliping Sagigilid (hearth slave), refers to those alipin not enjoying rights and privileges. Purchased slaves and those captured from wars belong to this subclass. A sagigilid was highly dependent with his or her master, since had to provide him or her with food and shelter. The master had control over the sagigilid that he can easily sell his slave to another master. A sagigilid could buy his freedom in gold - for 30 golds, he or she can be freed from his or her master; and for 90 pesos, and he or she can be promoted to the next upper class.

2.3 SOCIAL RELATIONS
Personalism refers to a broad array of movements and tendencies that privilege individual subjects over abstract systems. There were barangays but they were not united as one nation.
1.4 ECONOMY
Agriculture was their main source of livelihood. They also did poultry, stock-raising, fishing, mining, lumbering and shipbuilding, and weaving to sustain their needs.
1.5 OWNERSHIP and JUSTICE
During these times, the laws, either customary or written, dealt with various subjects such as inheritance, divorce, usury, partnership, crime and punishment, property rights, family relations, adoptions, and loans.
In the barangay, the chieftain acts as judge and the barangay elders as jury. Trials were held publicly and immediately. To create a law, the chieftain of the barangay shall call the elders of the community and discuss what he had in mind. If the elders approve, a public announcer called umalohokan shall be ordered to announce the new rules to the people within the barangay.
Their judicial process was traditional, in the sense that it was rooted in their belief that God in his infinite wisdom always took the side of the innocent. To determine innocence, several ordeals were carried out by the suspects. Whoever refused, or whoever is in the worst shape after the performing the tasks shall be deemed guilty.
1.6 EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Even before the colonizers came, early Filipinos already had their own system of writing. Baybayin is an ancient pre-colonial Philippine writing system. It is a member of the Brahmic family of India and is recorded as being in use in the 16th century. They wrote on barks of trees, leaves, and bamboo tubes using their knives and daggers as pens and colored saps as ink. Early chroniclers, who came during the first Spanish expeditions to the islands, noted the proficiency of some of the natives, especially the chieftain and local kings, in Sanskrit, Old Javanese, Old Malay, and several other languages.
They utilized irrigation ditches to increase productivity in the field of agriculture. The prime example of this is the world-famous Banaue Rice Terraces.

2. ISLAMIC
In the 14th century, Arab traders from Malay and Borneo introduced Islam into the southern islands and extended their influence as far north as Luzon. Islam was brought to the Philippines by traders and proselytizers from the Indonesian islands. By the 16th century, Islam was recognized in the Sulu archipelago and spread from there to Mindanao. It had reached the Manila area by 1565. 3.4 RELIGION
Islam is a monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a book considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God and by the teachings and normative example of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God.
The word "Islam" means "submission," reflecting the religion's central tenet of submitting to the will of God.
The single most important belief in Islam, and arguably the central theme of Islam, is that there is one God. The Muslim name for God is Allah, which is simply Arabic for "the God."
Muslims believe that God is the all-powerful Creator of a perfect, ordered universe. He is transcendent and not a part of his creation, and is most often referred to in terms and with names that emphasize his majesty and superiority. Among the 99 Beautiful Names of God in the Qur'an are: the Creator, the Fashioner, the Life-Giver, the Provider, the Opener, the Bestower, the Prevailer, the Reckoner, the Recorder, the King of Kingship and the Lord of the Worlds.
The sacred text of Islam, the Qur'an, was written in Arabic within 30 years of Muhammad's death. Muslims believe it contains the literal word of God as gradually revealed to Muhammad by the Angel Gabriel over the course of 20 years.

3.5 SOCIO-POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
In every Islamic society, ‘Ulama’ and Sufis were the teachers and leaders. The ulama were the scholars knowledgeable about the Muslim hadith, law, and theology. Their primary function was instruction and judicial administration. The Sufis were the scholars, reformers, preachers, and miracle-working holy men. 3.6 SOCIAL RELATIONS
The social relations during this time became cultic as they were unified by their religion.
2.4 ECONOMY
The Mindanao region is fertile and known to be rich in agricultural plantation, marine and mineral resources, More than half of the country’s rain forests are found in Mindanao. Mainland Mindanao has substantial mineral deposits. Gas and oil are dominant in the Sulu Sea. With its agricultural crops, marine products like seaweed and fish, these huge resources of the southern islands have sustained the people from Mindanao since the early times. There was also a barter system in which they traded goods with their neighbors. Domestic commerce among barangays and islands was prevalent.
2.5 OWNERSHIP AND JUSTICE
Unlike Christianity, Islam does not separate religion from state, and many Muslims argue it is apolitical Islam not political Islam that requires explanation and that is an historical fluke of the "short-lived heyday of secular Arab nationalism between 1945 and 1970”. They follow the moral code and religious law of a Islam called the Sharia. It deals with all aspects of day-to-day life, including politics, economics, banking, business law, contract law, sexuality, and social issues. There is not a strictly codified uniform set of laws that can be called Sharia. It is more like a system of several laws, based on the Qur'an, Hadith and centuries of debate, interpretation and precedent.
2.6 EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Education was traditional though their religion requires the Muslim Filipinos to study Arabic language and writing. 3. HISPANIC
3.1 RELIGION
The Spaniards succeeded in introducing Christianity to the Filipinos, though they failed to convert the majority of the people from Mindanao, where the Moslems staved off the Spanish efforts.
3.2 SOCIO-POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
There were five principal social classes in the Philippines: the Peninsulares, Insulares, Clase Media, Chinese, and the Indio. The Spaniards born in Spain were called Peninsulares. They were the wealthiest and most politically influential by virtue of their being the foremost encomienderos, thus, owning vast tracts of lands and most of the inhabitants therein. The Insulares were the Philipine-born Spaniards. Though still of pure Spanish blood, they were derisively called Filipinos by the Peninsulares. They took important positions in the Spanish government in the Philippines. The Clase Media or the middle class had three subclasses: mestizos de Espanol (Spanish mestizos), principalia, and the mestizos de Sangley (Chinese mestizos). Mestizos are borne from mixed marriages of Spanish and any of the other classes, mostly local natives; or half-breeds of a mixed Chinese-native marriage. They constitute the local officials, owned some tracts of land and mostly controlled the retail trade. The principalia were the noble and educated class in the towns of colonial Philippines. The Chinese had been in the Philippines long before the Spaniards occupied the archipelago due to the trade between Chinese and the natives. Chinese settlements had been in Manila and the Spaniards tolerated them for their trading and manufacturing skills. Together with the Indios, however, the Chinese occupied the lowest base and majority of the social totem pole.
Ethnocentrism is the belief of superiority of one’s personal ethnic group, but it can also develop from racial or religious differences. This society was ethnocentric because the people who lived in the Philippines classified themselves in the society according to their races. It can also be aristocratic or plutocratic because the upper three wealthiest classes ruled the society.

3.3 SOCIAL RELATIONS
Having one religion, social relations became cultic. It was also legalistic because there already was a due process. There were laws that dictate how you should treat your neighbors.
3.4 ECONOMY
The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade was the main source of income in the Philippines during its early years of colonization. The Galleon Trade brought silver from New Spain and silk from China by way of Manila. Through this, the Philippines earned from buying silk from China and reselling it to New Spain. They also buy American silver and resell these to China.
The economic system was regalian, wherein the royal people enjoyed enormous wealth. It can also be feudalistic, the holding of land in exchange for service or labour, as evidenced by the indios who were slaved off when they cannot reclaim their lands. Gold and other metals were very valuable and therefore make it mercantilistic, too.
3.5 OWNERSHIP AND JUSTICE
During the Spanish colonization, there were formal written laws. The Church and the State were unified therefore their laws were based on the teachings of the Church. There were also royal decrees from the King of Spain.
3.6 EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
The earliest schools in the Philippines were in compliance with Charles V’s decree of July 17, 1550, which provided that indios in all the Spanish dominions were to be taught the conqueror’s language. Because of this, they started constructing formal schools in the Philippines. But because they did not want to be identified with the indios, they made the educational system aristocratic. The schools were exclusive for the elite (the peninsulares, insulares, and the clase media).

4. NATIONALIST I (LIBERALIST) 5.7 RELIGION
Christianity was still the main religion, though religion became open as the liberalists who have seen the different culture in different countries have learned that there exist religions other than Christianity. They compared religions and accepted that the Church was not at all perfect. 5.8 SOCIO-POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
This society was said to be egalitarian; that all people are equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities. But in fact, it really was an elitist society, believing that certain persons or members of certain classes or groups deserve favored treatment by virtue of their perceived superiority, as in intellect, social status, or financial resources. 5.9 SOCIAL RELATIONS
The rise of the ilustrados would not cause the inquietude of the friars were it not for the fact that many of them were being influenced by liberal ideas emanating from the mother country. The revolt in Spain, which had deposed Isabella II, succeeded in establishing a Provisional Republic, which for about two years (1868-1870) put liberalism in the saddle. Under the republic, General Carlos Maria de la Torre, a fierce liberal, was appointed the Governor-General of the Philippines. He encouraged free and open discussion of political and social problems. He abolished strict censorship of the press. He encouraged Filipinos to speak out boldly for the political rights. He openly affirmed his support of the Filipinization of the clergy and the secularization of the parishes held by the friars. 5.10 ECONOMY
During this time, there were Marxist dreams of being a capitalist country. But the fact that the Spanish monarchy and hacienda style colonial rule over the America and the Philippines was built upon concentration of wealth and land ownership to a very limited few makes it a feudal economy. At the time of Rizal, the Spanish empire, power of the king, and this hacienda system was in steep decline, disorganized, and had degraded into a feudal type system with local governors, military leaders, plantation owners, and bishops competing violently with one another for land, power, wealth, and rights to exploit local peasants. The industrial revolution of this era created the luxury of leisure and time for education which inspired the peasants to despise and oppose this dysfunctional, corrupt, feudal Spanish hacienda system in favor of the new concepts of self-rule or democracy. 5.11 OWNERSHIP AND JUSTICE
The justice system during this time was very faulty. Injustices among the indios were prevalent. The lands of the indios were exploited. This and many other cruel actions paved way to liberalist reformists who went against the Spaniards. 5.12 EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Educational system remained the same as the system during the Hispanic times, though many middle class families send their children to study in the Europe where they observed liberalist ideas.

5. AMERICANIST 6.13 RELIGION
The 333 years of Spanish colonization made the Christian religion very difficult, if not impossible to banish away. The religion was the same, though the American missionaries introduced Protestantism and a number of people were converted. 6.14 SOCIO-POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
The social classes during the American Period were the small number of cosmopolitan upper class and the large number of lower class. Middle class was an ambiguous term to determine one’s social standing. The lower and middle class were mostly seen in urban than rural areas. The society was said to be egalitarian or equal, but they practiced elitism and ethnocentrism, where they were classified according to their race and there is discrimination among the “inferior” race.

6.15 SOCIAL RELATIONS
Social relations remained libertarian and legalistic but they also promoted individualist thinking. This is evident as the Americans prepared us for our independence during the Commonwealth. 6.16 ECONOMY
The economic development during the American period was rather typical colonial. The Philippine economy was strongly related to and depending on the United States. The Philippine economy was focused on mining and exporting crops. Industrial growth took place. 6.17 OWNERSHIP AND JUSTICE
The Philippines became a democratic government and it was divided into three branches to avoid monopolization of power. 6.18 EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Education became a very important issue for the United States colonial government, since it allowed it to spread their cultural values, particularly the English language, to the Filipino people. Volunteer American soldiers became the first teachers of the Filipinos. Part of their mission was to build classrooms in every place where they were assigned. The American soldiers stopped teaching only when a group of teachers from the U.S. came to the Philippines in June 1901. They came aboard the ship "Sheridan." In August 1901, 600 teachers called Thomasites arrived. Their name derived from the ship they traveled on, the USS Thomas.

6. NATIONALIST II (SOCIALIST) 7.19 RELIGION

7.20 SOCIO-POLITICAL ORGANIZATION 7.21 SOCIAL RELATIONS
Socialism is characterized by social ownership and control of the means of production and cooperative management of the economy, and a political philosophy advocating such a system. The proletarian people or the wage-earners valued only for their labor-power. 7.22 ECONOMY
In September 1972, Marcos declared martial law, claiming that the country was faced with revolutions from both the left and the right. He gathered around him a group of businessmen, used presidential decrees and letters of instruction to provide them with monopoly positions within the economy, and began channeling resources to himself and his associates, instituting what came to be called "crony capitalism." By the time Marcos fled the Philippines in February 1986, monopolization and corruption had severely crippled the economy. 7.23 OWNERSHIP AND JUSTICE
“Never in the country’s history have there been so many decent Filipinos in confinement and behind bars. Likewise
Never in the country’s history, he recalled, "have there been so many decent Filipinos in confinement and behind bars." Likewise, "never in our history" have fugitives been hunted by the PC and AFP intelligence and special units all over the country. "They have become fugitives because they dared exp 7.24 EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Protest Literature Protest literature—at other times, in other contexts, referred to as revolutionary literature, literature of engagement, combat literature, committed literature, literature of resistance, proletarian literature, people's literature, socially conscious literature, and perhaps a Philippine contribution to the taxonomy, the literature of circumvention (simply defined as "a body of works that expressed social and political protest in veiled terms")—has had a long history in the Philippines.…...

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Philippines

...Philippines Ask any Filipino how many islands there are in the Philippines and you will invariably receive the answer in the form of another question, “High tide or low tide? The most common figure given is 7,107 during low tide and 7,100 during high tide, but nobody knows where these numbers come from. The official figure from the Department of Tourism is 7,107 islands. Known as the “Pearl of the Orient Sea” and the “Green Necklace of the Pacific” for the natural beauty of its string of islands sprawled like a necklace of gems against the backdrop of the vast blue Pacific Ocean, the Philippines was named Islas Filipinas (Philippine Islands) by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos when he claimed the group of islands for Spain in 1543. The name is in honor of Prince Phillip, who would later become Prince Philip II of Spain. The Republic of the Philippines (Fig.1) is an archipelago of more than 7,000 islands located southeast of mainland Asia and positioned along the Ring of Fire on the southwestern edge of the Pacific Ocean. Different bodies of water surround the country - South China Sea to the west, Sulu Sea to the Southwest, Celebes Sea to the south, and the Philippine Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east. The country is separated from Taiwan on the north by the Luzon Strait and from Malaysia on the southwest, by the Balabac Strait., The country’s overall land area is slightly larger than the size of Arizona. Although the country consists of thousands of islands,......

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...Introduction to the Philippines Separated from its Southeast Asian neighbours by the West Philippine Sea, the Philippines has always been a little different. As the only Asian nation colonized by the Spanish, this lush archipelago of dazzling beaches, year-round sun and warm, turquoise waters remains predominantly Roman Catholic, and culturally – a blend of Islamic, Malay, Spanish and American influences – it ofen feels light years away from the mainland, with a string of elegant colonial towns that have more in common with Latin America than the rest of Asia. It’s an enticing mix: all over the archipelago you’ll discover tantalizing food, friendly people and exurberant festivals. And the variety is astonishing: you can surf, islang-hop or dive pristine coral reefs in the morning and in the same day visit mysitical tribal villages, ancient rice terraces and jungle-smothered peaks. Indeed, the Philippines is often underrated and misunderstood by travelers and its Asian neighbours, casually, dismissed as a supplier of maids, tribute bands, mail-order brides and corrupt politicians, epitomized by the gaudy excesses of Imelda Marcos. Don’t be a put off: while poverty and corruption remain serious problems, the Philippines is far more complex –and culturally rich –than the stereotypes suggest. The Filipino people are variously descended from early Malay settlers, Muslim Sufis from the Middle East, Spanish conquistadors and friars, and later Chinese traders. It’s an old cliché, but...

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History of Labour Union in the Philippines

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History of the Philippine Nursing

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