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Pierre Bourdieu

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PIERRE BOURDIEU

*1930, frz. Soziologe, Kulturphilosoph, Zeitkritiker beschäftigte sich mit vielen „Nichtigkeiten“ des Alltags (Fotos, Kleidung)
Geschmäcker  rein gesellschaftlich  ihre Verschiedenheit ist berechenbar und nicht zufällig

Intellektuelle in der Gesellschaft
„als Beherrschte Teil der Herrschenden“, d.h. sie sitzen zwar nicht am Schalthebel der Macht  gehören jedoch als Meinungsführer dennoch zu den Herrschenden

Theorie der Praxis theoretischer Hintergrund:
Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Levi-Strauss
Bourdieu setzt sich v.a. mit Levi-Strauss, dem Begründer des Strukturalismus auseinander
Strukturalismus: es besteht ein enger Zusammenhang zwischen den Sprachstrukturen und der Kultur einer Gesellschaft; allen Kulturen liegt eine bestimmte Kultur zugrunde  es gibt soziale Phänomene
Abgrenzung vom Objektivismus
Bourdieu grenzt sich vom Strukturalismus Levi-Strauss’ ab (Objektivismus)
B. strebt soziologischen Strukturalismus an (als Gegensatz zum symbol. Strk.)
Symbolischer Strukturalismus (Objektivismus): Versuch, symbolische Systeme in den Griff zu bekommen (Sprache, Literatur)
Soziologischer Strukturalismus:
Zusammenhang zwischen der Struktur der symbolischen Systeme und den gesellschaftlichen Strukturen suchen
Es gibt nicht Gesellschaft und dann den Symbolismus
 Gesellschaft ist zwangsläufig symbolisch, weil die Menschen verschieden sind
 Diese Unterschiede lassen sich nicht allein auf der symbolischen Ebene klären neben den objektivistischen Strukturen (Scheidungsrate, Häufigkeit von Museumsbesuchen, ...) sind eben auch die sozial ungleichen Strukturen wichtig
Strukturen sind nicht von vornherein vorhanden, die handelnden Individuen machen die Strukturen aus (Bsp.: ein Ministerium ist nicht die handelnde Instanz, es ist der Minister)
Abgrenzung vom Subjetivismus
Bourdieu grenzt sich vom Subjektivismus Satres ab (Sozialphänomenologie)
Er sei unzureichend, weil zu sehr politisch voreingenommen
Er beinhaltet jedoch nicht so viele „Fehler“ wie der Objektivismus für B. ist das Wissen der Akteure Ausgangspunkt jeder sozialen Erkenntnis der praktische Sinn ist die Schaltstelle zwischen Wissen und praktischem Handeln für B. hat die Wahrnehmung der sozialen Welt eine objektive und subjektive Seite

Zusammenfassung:
Soziologie ist für B. mehr als eine Rekonstruktion objektiver Beziehungen. Sie orientiert sich ebenso an den subjektiven Erfahrungen und Orientierungen der Akteure in ihrem ‚Feld’. Allerdings geht B. davon aus, dass die Entfaltungsmöglichkeiten des Individuums begrenzt sind: das Individuum ist für ihn v.a. Habitus-Träger.
Habitus
Erscheinungsbild; das Auftreten eines Menschen
Hier kommt das zum Vorschein, was den Menschen zum gesellschaftlichen Wesen macht  seine Zugehörigkeit zu einer bestimmten Gruppe oder Klasse und die Prägung, die er durch die Zugehörigkeit erfährt („niemand kann aus seiner Haut“  dauerhafte Dispositionen)
Habitus: Bindeglied zwischen der Geschichte und der gesellschaftlichen Eingebundenheit einerseits und dem konkreten Verhalten, Denken des Individuums  entsteht v.a. durch familiäre Sozialisation
Habitus = Klassenhabitus
Mechanik zwischen der Klassenzugehörigkeit eines Menschen auf der einen Seite und seiner Wahrnehmung und seines Handelns auf der anderen Seite
 Habitus = kollektives Klassen-Unbewußtsein
Klasse wird bestimmt durch Beruf, Berufsrolle, kulturelles Kapital
Außerdem haben auf den Habitus Einfluss:
Geschlecht, soziale Stellung, Herkunft, ethnische Zugehörigkeit
Bourdieu erweitert folglich den Klassenbegriff und nennt ihn sozialer Raum

Kapitalbegriffe
Kapital nach Marx: Eigentum an Produktionsmitteln dessen Besitzer Lohnarbeit ausbeutet
B. weitet aus: nicht nur ökonomisches K., denn dies sei nur ein spezieller Fall des Austausches
1. ökonomisches K. materieller Besitz von Geld und Eigentum gesellschaftliche und politische macht hängt jedoch von subtileren Mechanismen ab ökonomisches K. garantiert allein noch keine Macht erst wenn es mit den beiden anderen Kapitalformen einhergeht, kann jemand Macht ausüben
2. kulturelles K.
v.a. Bildungskapital  durch schulische Ausbildung erworben je höher die Bildungstitel sind, desto mehr kulturelles Kapital durch familiäre Tradition vererbbar („Studium hat in unserer Familie Tradition“) mitbestimmend für Habitus (einschließlich Sprache und Kleidung) hoher Erkennungswert dient der Abgrenzung nach außen und der Selbstvergewisserung nach innen ökonomisches K. bietet das notwendige Fundament für das kulturelle K.
Ausprägung des Kulturellen K.
Inkorporation
Verinnerlichen  Zeit erforderlich, teilweise unbewusst (Kind in Museum) objektiviert Bsp.: Kauf von Bildern  eng an ökonomisches K. geknüpft
Institutionalisierung
Schulische Titel (Bsp.: Abi)  „Zeugnis für kulturelle Kompetenz“
Sinn des Titels: umwandeln in ökonomisches K.
3. soziales Kapital
Beziehungen, auf die jemand zurückgreifen kann
Rein symbolisch, immateriell
„Kapital an Ehre und Prestige“
 bedeutet eine Kreditwürdigkeit außerhalb des ökonomischen K. aufgrund einer Gruppenzugehörigkeit geringe ökonomische Macht wird durch hohes soziales K. verschleiert
 KAPITALE SIND GEGENSEITIG KONVERTIERBAR

Die feinen Unterschiede – Geschmack
Geschmack als Ausdruck der Klassenlage
Nie etwas individuelles und schon gar kein persönlicher Verdienst  gesellschaftlich
Bsp.: es ist nicht zufällig, wie jemand isst
Kulturelle Bedürfnisse als solche gibt es nicht  sie sind sozialisationsbedingt
3 Geschmacksdimensionen legitimer Geschmack (Bildungsbürgertum, „Wohltemperiertes Klavier“)
Geschmack der herrschenden Klasse (Intellektuelle und Bourgeoisie)
Musische Bildung und Kompetenz von Bedeutung
Soziale Abgrenzungen (Bsp.: sich über Busladung von „einfachen“ Museumsbesuchern lustig machen)
Sicherheit im Umgang mit Kultur
Fähigkeiten zur ästhetisierenden Kommunizierung
Unterschiede werden als „Kontrastfolie“ gebraucht mittlerer (Angestellter, „Rhapsody in Blue“) und populärer (Arbeiter; „An der schönen Donau“) Geschmack strikte Orientierung an Funktion
 naturalistische und realistische Darstellungen in der Kunst werden bevorzugt
„hübsch“, „niedlich“ „reizend“  nicht unbedingt „schön“
Essen  Notwendigkeitsgeschmack (legitim: Luxusgeschmack)
Sondergruppen
Kleinbürgertum
Emporkömmlinge, denen es nie gelingen wird, sich in die Gruppe des guten Stils einzugliedern (weder durch Protest noch durch Überanpassung)
Orientiert sich am legitimen Geschmack…...

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