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Porter

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Las 5 Fuerzas de Porter
Por: Rocío Herrera Ma. Belén Baquero

Agenda
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Cinco Fuerzas de Mercado Barreras de Entrada de Productos Sustitutos ¿Cuándo se utiliza el análisis de las 5 fuerzas de Porter?

Introducción
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En 1980 por Michael E. Porter en su libro Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. El punto de vista de Porter es que existen cinco fuerzas que determinan las consecuencias de rentabilidad a largo plazo de un mercado o de algún segmento de éste. Se basa en la idea de que la empresa debe evaluar sus objetivos y recursos frente a cinco fuerzas que rigen la competencia industrial

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Las 5 fuerzas
1.Amenaza de Los nuevos competidores

3.- poder de Negociación De los proveedores

2.- Rivalidad entre competidores

4.- poder de Negociación De los clientes

5.- Amenaza de Servicios y Productos Sustitutivos

1.- Amenaza nuevos competidores
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El mercado o el segmento no son atractivos dependiendo de si las barreras de entrada son fáciles o no de franquear por nuevos participantes, que puedan llegar con nuevos recursos y capacidades para apoderarse de una porción del mercado.

2.- La rivalidad entre los competidores.
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Para una corporación será más difícil competir en un mercado o en uno de sus segmentos donde los competidores estén muy bien posicionados, sean muy numerosos y los costos fijos sean altos, pues constantemente estará enfrentada a guerras de precios, campañas publicitarias agresivas, promociones y entrada de nuevos productos.

3.- Poder de negociación de los proveedores.
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Un mercado o segmento del mercado no será atractivo cuando los proveedores estén muy bien organizados gremialmente, tengan fuertes recursos y puedan imponer sus condiciones de precio y tamaño del pedido. La situación será aún más complicada si los insumos que suministran son claves para nosotros, no tienen sustitutos o son pocos y de alto costo.

4.- Poder de negociación de los clientes.
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Un mercado o segmento no será atractivo cuando los clientes están muy bien organizados, el producto tiene varios o muchos sustitutos, el producto no es muy diferenciado o es de bajo costo para el cliente, lo que permite que pueda hacer sustituciones por igual o a muy bajo costo.

4.- Poder de negociación de los clientes.
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A mayor organización de los compradores, mayores serán sus exigencias en materia de reducción de precios, de mayor calidad y servicios y por consiguiente la corporación tendrá una disminución en los márgenes de utilidad. La situación se hace más crítica si a las organizaciones de compradores les conviene estratégicamente sindicalizarse.

5.- Amenaza de ingreso de productos sustitutos.
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Un mercado o segmento no es atractivo si existen productos sustitutos reales o potenciales. La situación se complica si los sustitutos están más avanzados tecnológicamente o pueden entrar a precios más bajos reduciendo los márgenes de utilidad de la corporación y de la industria. Para éste tipo de modelo tradicional, la defensa consistía en construir barreras de entrada alrededor de una fortaleza que tuviera la corporación y que le permitiera, mediante la protección que le daba ésta ventaja competitiva, obtener utilidades que luego podía utilizar en investigación y desarrollo, para financiar una guerra de precios o para invertir en otros negocios.

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5.- Amenaza de ingreso de productos sustitutos.
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El mercado o el segmento no es atractivo dependiendo de si las barreras de entrada son fáciles o no. Para un corporación será más difícil competir en un mercado o en uno de sus segmentos donde los competidores estén muy bien posicionados, sean muy numerosos y los costos fijos sean altos, pues constantemente estará enfrentada a guerras de precios, campañas publicitarias agresivas, promociones y entrada de nuevos productos.

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Barreras de entrada PS
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Porter identificó seis barreras de entrada que podían usarse para crearle a la corporación una ventaja competitiva: Economías de Escala Diferenciación del Producto Inversiones de Capital Desventaja en Costos independientemente de la Escala Acceso a los Canales de Distribución El Know - How Política Gubernamental

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

1.Economías de Escala
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Sus altos volúmenes le permiten reducir sus costos, y dificulta a un nuevo competidor entrar con precios bajos. Hoy, por ejemplo, la caída de las barreras geográficas y la reducción del ciclo de vida de los productos, nos obliga a evaluar si la búsqueda de economías de escala en mercados locales nos resta flexibilidad y nos hace vulnerables frente a competidores más ágiles que operan globalmente.

2. Diferenciación del Producto
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Asume que si la corporación diferencia y posiciona fuertemente su producto, la compañía entrante debe hacer cuantiosas inversiones para re posicionar a su rival. Hoy la velocidad de copia con la que reaccionan los competidores o sus mejoras al producto existente buscando crear la precepción de una calidad más alta, erosionan ésta barrera.

3. Inversiones de Capital
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Considera que si la corporación tiene fuertes recursos financieros tendrá una mejor posición competitiva frente a competidores más pequeños, le permitirá sobrevivir más tiempo que éstos en una guerra de desgaste, invertir en activos que otras compañías no pueden hacer, tener un alcance global o ampliar el mercado nacional e influir sobre el poder político de los países o regiones donde operan. Hoy en día en la mayoría de los países del mundo se han promulgado leyes anti monopólicas tratando por lo menos en teoría de evitar que las fuertes concentraciones de capital destruyan a los competidores más pequeños y más débiles.

4. Desventaja en Costos independientemente de la Escala
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Sería el caso cuando compañías establecidas en el mercado tienen ventajas en costos que no pueden ser emuladas por competidores potenciales independientemente de cual sea su tamaño y sus economías de escala. Esas ventajas podían ser
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las patentes, el control sobre fuentes de materias primas, la localización geográfica, los subsidios del gobierno, su curva de experiencia.

5. Acceso a los Canales de Distribución
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En la medida que los canales de distribución para un producto estén bien atendidos por las firmas establecidas, los nuevos competidores deben convencer a los distribuidores que acepten sus productos mediante – reducción de precios – y aumento de márgenes de utilidad para el canal, – compartir costos de promoción del distribuidor, – comprometerse en mayores esfuerzos promocionales en el punto de venta, etc, – lo que reducirá las utilidades de la compañía entrante. .

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Cuando no es posible penetrar los canales de distribución existentes, la compañía entrante adquiere a su costo su propia estructura de distribución y aún puede crear nuevos sistemas de distribución y apropiarse de parte del mercado

6. Curva de aprendizaje o experiencia:
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El know-how o saber hacer de toda empresa marca una importante limitación a los posibles competidores que tienen que acudir de nuevas a ese mercado concreto

7. Política Gubernamental
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Las políticas gubernamentales pueden limitar o hasta impedir la entrada de nuevos competidores expidiendo leyes, normas y requisitos. Los gobiernos fijan, por ejemplo,
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normas sobre el control del medio ambiente o sobre los requisitos de calidad y seguridad de los productos que exigen grandes inversiones de capital o de sofisticación tecnológica y que además alertan a las compañías existentes sobre la llegada o las intenciones de potenciales contrincantes.

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Hoy la tendencia es a la desregularización, a la eliminación de subsidios y de barreras arancelarias, a concertar con los influyentes grupos de interés político y económico supranacionales y en general a navegar en un mismo océano económico donde los mercados financieros y los productos están cada vez más entrelazados.

¿Cuándo se utiliza el análisis de las 5 fuerzas de Porter?
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Cuando deseas desarrollar una ventaja competitiva respecto a tus rivales. Cuando deseas entender mejor la dinámica que influye en tu industria y/o cual es tu posición en ella. Cuando analizas tu posición estratégica y buscas iniciativas que sean disruptivas y te hagan mejorarla. Pero Internet ha cambiado algunas de las bases de las que partía Porter en 1980 para cada uno de los 5 factores. Porter mismo, a lo largo de estos años ha ido modificándolas y adaptándolas al mundo actual.

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