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Programming Languages

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Assignment 1: Exploring Programming Languages 1970’s
Pascal- created by Nicklaus Wirth Designed in 1968-1969 and published in 1970 Intended to teach students structured programming. Used to introduce as undergraduate courses. The first compiler was designed in Zurich for the CDC 600 mainframe computer.
Small Talk- Created by Alan Kay, Dan Ingalls, Adele Goldberg Appeared/created in 1972 Was designed to underpin the new world of computing by the human computer symbiosis. For educational use. Influenced by Logo and Sketchpad.
Scheme- Created in 1975 Designed Guy L. Steele and Gerald Jay Sussman Was influenced by Lisp, ALGOL, and MDL. Designed to choose lexical scope and was the first to require implementations to perform tail call optimization which gives stronger support for functioning programming. Once was one of the first to support first class continuations.
SQL- Created in 1974 Designed by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce
Influenced by Data log. Designed to manipulate and retrieve data stored in IBM’s original quasi-relational database management system.
ML - Created by Robin Milner & others at university of Edinburgh Created in 1973 Motivated by or inspired by ISWIM

1980’s
Ada- Designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bull Appeared in 1980 Ada was originally targeted at embedded and real-time systems. To supersede the hundreds of programming languages then used by the DOD. Ada was originally targeted at embedded and real-time systems.
Common Lisp- Appeared in 1984 Designed by Scott Fahlman, Richard P. Gabriel, Dave Moon, Guy Steele, and Dan Weinreb Was developed to standardize the divergent variants of Lisp which predated it, thus it is not an implementation but rather a language specification. Several implementations of the Common Lisp standard are available,
Eiffel- Appeared in 1986 Designed by Bertrand Meyer Design by contract tightly integrated with other language constructs. Automatic memory management, typically implemented by garbage collection. Inheritance, including multiple inheritance, renaming, redefinition, "select", non-conforming inheritance, and other mechanisms intended to make inheritance safe.
Erlang- Appeared in 1986 Designed by Joe Armstrong The name "Erlang" has been understood as a reference to Danish mathematician and engineer Agner Krarup Erlang, and simultaneously as a syllabic abbreviation of "Ericsson Language". Erlang was designed with the aim of improving the development of telephony applications.
Perl- originally developed by Larry Wall in 1987 Designed as a general-purpose UNIX scripting language to make report processing easier. Since then, it has undergone many changes and revisions. The Perl languages borrow features from other programming languages including C, shell scripting, AWK, and sed.

1990’s
Haskell- Designed by Simon Peyton Jones, Lennart Augustsson, Dave Barton, Brian Boutel, Warren Burton, Joseph Fasel, Kevin Hammond, Ralf Hinze, Paul Hudak, John Hughes, Thomas Johnsson, Mark Jones, John Launchbury, Erik Meijer, John Peterson, Alastair Reid, Colin Runciman, Philip WadlerDeveloped in 1990 Interest in lazy functional languages grew: by 1987, more than a dozen non-strict, purely functional programming languages existed. At the conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture (FPCA '87) in Portland, Oregon, a meeting was held during which participants formed a strong consensus that a committee should be formed to define an open standard for such languages. The committee's purpose was to consolidate the existing functional languages into a common one that would serve as a basis for future research in functional-language design.
Python- Designed in by Is a widely used general-purpose, high-level programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability, and its syntax allows programmers to express concepts in fewer lines of code than would be possible in languages such as C.
Visual Basic- Designed by Microsoft in 1991
Visual Basic was derived from BASIC and enables the rapid application development (RAD) of graphical user interface (GUI) applications, access to databases using Data Access Objects, Remote Data Objects, or ActiveX Data Objects, and creation of ActiveX controls and objects. A programmer can create an application using the components provided.
Ruby- Appeared in 1995; 19 years ago Designed by Yukihiro Matsumoto Matsumoto describes the design of Ruby as being like a simple Lisp language, with an object system like that of Smalltalk, blocks inspired by higher-order functions, and practical utility like that of Perl.

Lua- Appeared in 1993 Designed by Roberto Ierusalimschy, Waldemar Celes, and Luiz Henrique de Figueiredo Lua's historical "father and mother" were the data-description/configuration languages SOL (Simple Object Language) and DEL (data-entry language).They had been independently developed at Tecgraf in 1992–1993 to add some flexibility into two different projects. Interactive graphical programs for engineering applications at Petrobras Company).

The 2000’s
ActionScript Appeared in 1998 by Gary Grossman Developer Macromedia (now Adobe Systems)
ActionScript was initially designed for controlling simple 2D vector animations made in Adobe Flash (formerly Macromedia Flash). Initially focused on animation, early versions of Flash.
Its content offered few interactivity features and thus had very limited scripting capability. Later versions added functionality allowing for the creation of Web-based games and rich Internet applications with streaming media.

C♯- Appeared in 2000 Designed by Microsoft its development team is led by Anders Hejlsberg
The language, should provide support for software engineering principles such as strong type checking, array bounds checking, detection of attempts to use uninitialized variables, and automatic garbage collection.
Groovy- Appeared in 2003 Designed by James Strachan Is an object-oriented programming language for the Java platform. It is a dynamic language with features similar to those of Python, Ruby, Perl, and Smalltalk. Used as a scripting language for the Java Platform, is dynamically compiled to Java Virtual Machine.

Scala- Appeared in 2003 Designed by Martin Odersky An object-functional programming and scripting language for general software applications, statically typed, designed to concisely express solutions in an elegant, type-safe and lightweight manner. Scala has full support for functional programming It cleans up what are often considered poor design decisions in Java and adds a number of other features designed to allow cleaner, more concise and more expressive code to be written.
Go- Appeared in 2009 Designed by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson.
It is a statically-typed language with syntax loosely derived from that of C, adding automatic memory management, type safety, some dynamic-typing capabilities, additional built-in types such as variable-length arrays and key-value maps, and a large standard library.…...

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