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Programming Lenguages

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By xhizuz
Words 2012
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ro1970’s
Pascal is an influential imperative and procedural programming language, designed in 1968–1969 and published in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a small and efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring.
A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985.
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C is a general-purpose programming language initially developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973 at AT&T Bell Labs. Like most imperative languages in the ALGOL tradition, C has facilities for structured programming and allows lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations. Its design provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions, and therefore it has found lasting use in applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language, most notably system software like the Unix computer operating system.
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Prolog is a general purpose logic programming language associated with artificial intelligence and computational linguistics.
Prolog has its roots in first-order logic, a formal logic, and unlike many other programming languages, Prolog is declarative: the program logic is expressed in terms of relations, represented as facts and rules. A computation is initiated by running a query over these relations.
The language was first conceived by a group around Alain Colmerauer in Marseille, France, in the early 1970s and the first Prolog system was developed in 1972 by Colmerauer with Philippe Roussel.
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Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language. Smalltalk was created as the language to underpin the "new world" of computing exemplified by "human–computer symbiosis." It was designed and created in part for educational use, more so for constructionist learning, at the Learning Research Group (LRG) of Xerox PARC by Alan Kay, Dan Ingalls, Adele Goldberg, Ted Kaehler, Scott Wallace, and others during the 1970s (1972)
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ML is a general-purpose functional programming language developed by Robin Milner and others in the early 1970s at the University of Edinburgh, whose syntax is inspired by ISWIM. Historically, ML stands for metalanguage: it was conceived to develop proof tactics in the LCF theorem prover (whose language, pplambda, a combination of the first-order predicate calculus and the simply typed polymorphic lambda calculus, had ML as its metalanguage). It is known for its use of the Hindley–Milner type inference algorithm, which can automatically infer the types of most expressions without requiring explicit type annotations. Additionally, the use of this algorithm ensures type safety—there is a formal proof that a well-typed ML program does not cause runtime type errors.

1980’s
C++ is a general purpose programming language that is free-form and compiled. It is regarded as an intermediate-level language, as it comprises both high-level and low-level language features.It provides imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features.
C++ is one of the most popular programming languages and is implemented on a wide variety of hardware and operating system platforms. As an efficient performance driven programming language it is used in systems software, application software, device drivers, embedded software, high-performance server and client applications, and entertainment software such as video games. Various entities provide both open source and proprietary C++ compiler software, including the FSF, LLVM, Microsoft and Intel. C++ has influenced many other programming languages, for example, C# and Java.
It was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs, C++ was originally named C with Classes, adding object-oriented features, such as classes, and other enhancements to the C programming language. The language was renamed C++ in 1983, as a pun involving the increment operator. It began as enhancements to C, first adding classes, then virtual functions, operator overloading, multiple inheritance, templates and exception handling, alongside changes to the type system and other features. --------------
MATLAB is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and fourth-generation programming language. Developed by MathWorks, MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, Java, and Fortran.
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Objective-C Designed by Brad Cox and Tom Love is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language. It is the main programming language used by Apple for the OS X and iOS operating systems and their respective APIs, Cocoa and Cocoa Touch.
Originally developed in the early 1980s(1983), it was selected as the main language used by NeXT for its NeXTSTEP operating system, from which OS X and iOS are derived. Generic Objective-C programs that do not use the Cocoa or Cocoa Touch libraries, or using parts that may be ported or reimplemented for other systems can also be compiled for any system supported by GCC or Clang.
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Perl is a family of high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages. The languages in this family include Perl 5 and Perl 6.
Though Perl is not officially an acronym, there are various backronyms in use, such as: Practical Extraction and Reporting Language.Perl was originally developed by Larry Wall in 1987 as a general-purpose Unix scripting language to make report processing easier.Since then, it has undergone many changes and revisions. The latest major stable revision of Perl 5 is 5.18, released in May 2013. Perl 6, which began as a redesign of Perl 5 in 2000, eventually evolved into a separate language. Both languages continue to be developed independently by different development teams and liberally borrow ideas from one another.
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Erlang is a general-purpose concurrent, garbage-collected programming language and runtime system. The sequential subset of Erlang is a functional language, with eager evaluation, single assignment, and dynamic typing. It was designed by Ericsson to support distributed, fault-tolerant, soft-real-time, non-stop applications. It supports hot swapping, so that code can be changed without stopping a system.
While threads require external library support in most languages, Erlang provides language-level features for creating and managing processes with the aim of simplifying concurrent programming. Though all concurrency is explicit in Erlang, processes communicate using message passing instead of shared variables, which removes the need for explicit locks.
The first version was developed by Joe Armstrong in 1986. It was originally a proprietary language within Ericsson, but was released as open source in 1998.
1990’s
Python Designed by Guido van Rossum (1991) is a widely used general-purpose, high-level programming language.Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability, and its syntax allows programmers to express concepts in fewer lines of code than would be possible in languages such as C.The language provides constructs intended to enable clear programs on both a small and large scale.
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Visual Basic is a third-generation event-driven programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft for its COM programming model first released in 1991. Microsoft intends Visual Basic to be relatively easy to learn and use.Visual Basic was derived from BASIC and enables the rapid application development (RAD) of graphical user interface (GUI) applications, access to databases using Data Access Objects, Remote Data Objects, or ActiveX Data Objects, and creation of ActiveX controls and objects.
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Ruby is a dynamic, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language. It was designed and developed in the 1995 by Yukihiro "Matz" Matsumoto in Japan.
According to its authors, Ruby was influenced by Perl, Smalltalk, Eiffel, Ada, and Lisp.It supports multiple programming paradigms, including functional, object-oriented, and imperative. It also has a dynamic type system and automatic memory management.
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Java is a computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers "write once, run anywhere" (WORA), meaning that code that runs on one platform does not need to be recompiled to run on another. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode (class file) that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture.
The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were developed by Sun from 1991 and first released in 1995.
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PHP is a server-side scripting language designed for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language. Originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1995, the reference implementation of PHP is now produced by The PHP Group.While PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page,[6] it now stands for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor, a recursive backronym.[7]
PHP code is interpreted by a web server with a PHP processor module, which generates the resulting web page: PHP commands can be embedded directly into an HTML source document rather than calling an external file to process data. It has also evolved to include a command-line interface capability and can be used in standalone graphical applications.

2000’s
Dart is an open-source Web programming language developed by Google. It was unveiled at the GOTO conference in Aarhus, October 10–12, 2011.The goal of Dart is "ultimately to replace JavaScript as the lingua franca of web development on the open web platform", but Dart currently relies exclusively on its cross-compilation to JavaScript feature in order to run in mainstream browsers. Dart is intended to address issues with JavaScript that Google engineers felt could not be solved by evolving the language, while offering better performance. Google works on Dart to help it build more complex, full-featured client-side Web applications.
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F# (pronounced F Sharp) is a strongly typed, multi-paradigm programming language encompassing functional, imperative and object-oriented programming techniques. F# is most often used as a cross-platform CLI language, but can also be used to generate JavaScript and GPU code.
F# is developed by the F# Software Foundation, Microsoft and open contributors(2005). An open source, cross-platform compiler for F# is available from the F# Software Foundation. F# is also a fully supported language in Visual Studio. Other tools supporting F# development include Mono, MonoDevelop, SharpDevelop and WebSharper
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Groovy is an object-oriented programming language for the Java platform. It is a dynamic language with features similar to those of Python, Ruby, Perl, and Smalltalk. It can be used as a scripting language for the Java Platform, is dynamically compiled to Java Virtual Machine (JVM) bytecode, and interoperates with other Java code and libraries. Groovy uses a Java-like curly-bracket syntax. Most Java code is also syntactically valid Groovy.
Groovy 1.0 was released on January 2, 2007, and Groovy 2.0 in July, 2012. Groovy 3.0 is planned for release in early 2014, with support for Java 8 features and a new Meta Object Protocol. Since version 2, Groovy can also be compiled statically, offering type inference and performance close to, or even greater than, Java's. Groovy is backed by GoPivotal, which comprises the team from VMware. VMware acquired SpringSource, which acquired G2One, the Groovy and Grails company.
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C♯ (pronounced as see sharp) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, procedural, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines. It was developed by Microsoft within its .NET initiative and later approved as a standard by Ecma (ECMA-334) and ISO (ISO/IEC 23270:2006). C♯ is one of the programming languages designed for the Common Language Infrastructure. C♯ is built on the syntax and semantics of C++, allowing C programmers to take advantage of .NET and the common language runtime.
C♯ is intended to be a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language. Its development team is led by Anders Hejlsberg. The most recent version is C♯ 5.0, which was released on August 15, 2012.
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Go, also called golang, is a programming language initially developed at Google in 2007 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson.It is a statically-typed language with syntax loosely derived from that of C, adding automatic memory management, type safety, some dynamic-typing capabilities, additional built-in types such as variable-length arrays and key-value maps, and a large standard library…...

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