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Psy 345 Week 3 Group

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Annotated Bibliography and Summary
PSY/345

Annotated Bibliography and Summary
Agyei, S. B., (Rudd) van der weel, F. R., & van deer weel, A. H. (2016, February 9). Development of Visual Motion Perception for Prospective Control: Brain and behavioral studies in infants. Frontiers in Psychology. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00100 This article explains the development of visual perception in relation to motion perception and coordinated movement in infants. It also compares the different stages of visual perception, motion perception, and reaction time across different ages. Infants as young as three weeks old show to perceive some optical collisions as can be witnessed by the blinking of their eyes. However, at two months of age, they can steadily track moving objects with their heads and eyes as they show prospective control. At three to five months, they can differentiate virtual flow displays of at least 22 degree changes in heading direction. At about six months they follow objects using predictive head and eye movement. They also predicatively navigate and aim for any moving objects of interest or desire, especially with their hands. Franchak, J. M., Celano, E. C., & Adolph, K. E. (2012). Perception of passage through openings depends on the size of the body in motion. Experimental Brain Research, 223(2), 301-10. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-012-3261-y. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.contentproxy.phoenix.edu/docview/1113161925/abstract/9EA6A065ADA04A84PQ/10?accountid=35812. This study was done to determine if a person could navigate through an opening without changing their gait. Participants were asked whether they would be able to walk through an opening without having to duck their heads or turn their shoulders. Based on their perception of the opening size versus their perception to the size of their body in relation to the size of the opening, participants answered accordingly. Once the participants answered for both vertical and horizontal openings, they were required to walk through the openings to observe how they behaved. Francken, J. C., Kok, P., Hagoort, P., & de Lange, F. P. (2015, January 1). The beavorial and neural effects of language on motion perception. Jounal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 27(1), 175-184. doi:10.1162/jocn-a-00682 This article takes into consideration and explains the relationship between language and motion perception and the possible effects of language on motion perception. The studies within the article found that participants became quicker, more accurate, and more advanced at identifying visual motion. In addition to these findings, it was also found that these enhancements were only possible when stimuli were presented in the right visual field and therefore were processed in the left hemisphere of the brain that is dominate for language. Goebel, R., Muckli, L., Hacker, H., & Singer, W. (1998). The constructive nature of vision: direct evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of apparent motion imagery. European Journal of Neuroscience, 10, 1563-1573. Retrieved from http://web.a.ebscohost.com.contentproxy.phoenix.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=6ec46432-07a6-4a05-9f2b-27620ce98e37%40sessionmgr4001&vid=12&hid=420 The research in this study consisted of various fMRI scans. Of the ten participants, ages twenty-five to thirty years of age, six of them were women. The results were compared to previous scans of primate and non-primates. Although much of the results were inconclusive to an extent, it was found that many of the areas responsible for real motion were also activated by apparent motion and motion imagery, even if the activations were slight enough to almost be nonexistent.
Linkenauger, S. A., Witt, J. K., & Proffitt, D. R. (2011). Taking a hands-on approach: Apparent grasping ability scales the perception of object size. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37(5), 1432-1441. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0024248. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.contentproxy.phoenix.edu/docview/875074547/C5820B1AA1A48C1PQ/14?accountid=35812. This study was conducted to determine the apparent size of an object in relation to a relevant part of the body. Experiments showed that participants perceived their right hands to be more capable than their left and able to grasp larger objects. Experiments also showed that when the size of the hand was manipulated, objects were perceived to be smaller than the hand. It was demonstrated participants use their hands as "perceptual rulers" to scale the size of graspable objects, but did not affect the perception of whether objects are too big to be grasped. Stefanucci, J. K., Creem-Regehr, S., Thompson, W. B., Lessard, D. A., & Guess, M. N. (2015). Evaluating the accuracy of size perception on screen-based displays: Displayed objects appear smaller than real objects. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Applied, 21(3), 215-223. doi:doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xap0000051 Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.contentproxy.phoenix.edu/docview/1692297385/fulltext/143CB2A21F5444C7PQ/12?accountid=35812> The goal of this study was to determine if computer generated imagery had an accurate perception of size compared to the actual object. The applications that rely on absolute scale, such as medical visualization, are growing. These require the development and understanding of the visual information that contributes to the differences between the computer generated images and the real world. One such factor is how images are viewed with or without stereo viewing.
Mark Wexler, Jeroen Boxtel,(2005) Depth perception and the active observer : Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 9 Issue 9 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2005.06.018 Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com.contentproxy.phoenix.edu/science/article/pii/S1364661305002159 This article reviews ways in which motor actions such as locomotion, eye and head movements, and object manipulation- influence the perception and representation of three-dimensional space and shapes. It also talks about how the primary role of the spatial invariances is to separate the stream of sensory data into two components. It says that some internal effects of action on perception might be due to interference between the predicted reafference and actual sensory data.
Mitsudo, H. (2015). Inferring the depth of 3-D objects from tactile spatial information. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics, 77(4), 1411-1422. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1681254005?accountid=458 This article talks about four experiments to examine the relation between tactile spatial information and the estimated depth of partially touched 3-D objects. They had human participants touch unseen, tactile grating patterns with their hand while keeping the hand shape flat. The results suggested that the haptic system uses heuristics based on spatial information to infer the depth of an untouched part of a 3-D object.
Cooper, E. A. (2012). Studies of human depth perception in real and pictured environments (Order No. 3555631). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text. (1322974370). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1322974370?accountid=458 This article explains the difficulty of the 3D layout of a scene and the shapes of 3D objects and how they are not explicit in the 2D retinal images. It explains how the visual system uses both binocular (two eyes) and monocular (one eye) cues to determine 3D layout from images. The work in this paper examines how the visual system interprets monocular linear perspective cues, and how it can lead to perceptual distortions in perceived 3D from pictures. It also discusses how the work described might be applied to creating better displays

Conclusion
We perceive the size of things based on how we compare our body parts to particular things, how well we will fit through doorways or into cars. Lighting and angles also give us different perceptions on not only objects, but on situations as well. There are many aspects that contribute to a person’s perception of things. Then there is also motion perception and depth perception to take into consideration. Motion perception ranges and different for people depending on age and on the health of their eyes and nervous system. Reaction time also differs from person to person depending upon their age, and their eye and neural health in connection to their vision and motion perception. Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions and distant of an object. Depth perception arises from a variety of depth cues. They are typically classified into binocular cues that are based on the receipt of sensory information in three dimensions from both eyes and monocular cues that are represented in just two dimensions and observed with just one eye.…...

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