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Psychology

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PSYCOLOGY EXAM

Differentiate between Freud and Erikson's approach to psychoanalytic theory in this lesson. You will examine and compare developmental stages side by side and have the opportunity to test your knowledge with a quiz at the end.
Example for Comparison
Mary has a 3-month-old daughter. Mary bottle feeds her child and follows a strict schedule for feeding times. The child is not allowed to have a pacifier. Mary is an affectionate parent, and all of her child's needs are met. How could the actions that occur in the child's life now affect her later development?
Similarities of Freud and Erikson
Sigmund Freud's psychosexual theory and Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory are two important psychoanalytic theories on human development that could be used to explain the developmental effects of this scenario. In this lesson, we will examine what these two theories have in common and how they differ.
Erikson's theory followed Freud's and was based on many of Freud's ideas. Because of this, the two theories have similarities. Both theorists recognize the importance of the unconscious on development. They also both separate development into stages of a person's life and utilize similar age divisions for these developmental stages.
Differences of Freud and Erikson
However, there are several differences that exist between the names of the stages and the developmental issues that are encountered during each. Part of the reason for this is that each psychologist has his own unique view of what drives a person's development. Freud's psychosexual theory emphasizes the importance of basic needs and biological forces, while Erikson's psychosocial theory is based upon social and environmental factors. Erikson also expands his theory into adulthood, while Freud's theory ends at an earlier period.
Psychosexual vs. Psychosocial Stages
Now, let's briefly look at Freud's psychosexual stages and Erikson's psychosocial stages alongside each other.
First we will examine the first year of life. Freud called this the oral stage of development because he believed that oral stimulation was the primary means of development at this time. Erikson called this stage of development trust versus mistrust. Both believe that a child develops their sense of trust at this stage of development.
Next, let's discuss the first through third years of life. Freud called this the anal stage of development, and Erikson called this autonomy versus shame and doubt. Both believe that a sense of independence is learned at this stage of development, and that toilet training is an important focus of this independence. Parental attitudes at this time can also have a lasting effect.
Ages three through six is referred to as the phallic stage by Freud and the initiative versus guilt stage by Erikson. Freud believed this stage was where a child identifies with the same-sex parent and develops self-esteem. Erikson felt that this was the stage where a child begins to exert power and control over their environment. This is the point where you will start to see more differences in the two theories.
The next developmental stage occurs at ages seven through 11. Freud calls this stage of development latencyand believes that this is an intermediary stage of development where the child forms interactions with their environment. Erikson refers to it as industry versus inferiority. He believes that children begin to demonstrate their ability to succeed.
Compare and contrast Freuds Psychosexual stages of development
Published: 23, March 2015
This assignment is going to compare and contrast Freud's psychosexual stages of development with Erikson's psychosocial stage model. The similarities and the differences between the two models will be explained and outlined.
Developmental psychology is a study of the biological, cognitive, emotional and social changes that take place over a course of time in humans. Sigmund Freud brought about the theory of psychoanalytic development, where he believed that early childhood experiences had an outcome on later development and in adulthood. Freud's stages of psychosexual development consist of five stages: the oral stage (0 - 1 year), the anal stage (1 - 3 years), the phallic stage (3 - 6 years), the latency period (6 - puberty) and the genital stage (puberty - maturity).
The psychosexual stages have three main parts. Each of Freud's five stages has a physical focal point where the child's energy is strongest and where their pleasure is obtained. The stages also have a psychological theme and an adult character type.
The oral stage is associated with the mouth area as the infant gains pleasure from sucking, swallowing, biting and chewing. The psychological theme to the oral stage is dependency as a baby can do little for itself. Too much or too little fulfilment can result in Oral Fixation. This fixation will be carried onto later life, where this type of personality may have a stronger tendency to smoke, drink, over eat and bite their nails. The anal stage is associated with the anal cavity and sphincter muscles of the bowel, which are now the main sources of pleasure. The child learns to control anal stimulation. Anal fixation can result in obsession with cleanliness and perfection. On the opposite side they may become disorganised and/or untidy. The phallic stage is associated with the genital area where this becomes the primary area pleasure. The child at this stage becomes aware of the sex differences; both boys and girls experience emotional feelings in relation to the opposite sex parent. The latency stage is the period of relative calm. The sexual and aggressive drives are less active and there is little in the way of psychosexual conflict. During this period the balance between the id, ego and superego is greater. The final stage is the genital stage and marks the beginning of adolescence. Through the courses learned during the previous stages, adolescents direct their sexual urges onto opposite sex peers.
Like Freud, Erikson also believed that personality develops in stages. While Freud's theory was based on psychosexual stages, Erikson's theory describes the impact of social experiences across an individual's life span. Erikson's psychosocial stages span across eight stages: Stage 1 - Trust vs. mistrust, Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. shame and doubt, Stage 3 - Initiative vs. guilt, Stage 4 - Industry vs. inferiority, Stage 5 - Identity vs. role confusion, Stage 6 - Intimacy vs. isolation, Stage 7 - Generativity vs. stagnation and Stage 8 - Integrity vs. despair.
The first stage of Erikson's theory occurs between birth to one year of age. The balance of trust with mistrust depends mainly on the quality of maternal care. Lack of interaction with an adult who tends to the infants' needs, leads to mistrust. During the second stage children develop a greater sense of personal control. Like Freud, much of the conflict during this stage centres around toilet training. Stage three focuses on preschool years where children start to interact through play and try new roles. Stage four covers early school years where children develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments. Stage five covers adolescence, where people explore their independence and form an identity. Stage six covers early adulthood where people explore personal relationships in order to achieve intimacy with others. The seventh stage is where the adult contributes to society and to the development of the next generation. The last stage occurs during old age and is focused on reflecting back on life and feeling a sense of integrity and feeling proud of their accomplishments.
Freud's psychosexual theory and Erikson's psychosocial theory are two very well known developmental concepts. Erikson was influenced by Freud's ideas but expanded on the theory in different ways. His theory in comparison to Freud's varied in a number of different ways.
Erikson's theory emphasised how both early and late experiences are equally important to a person's development and how personality continued to develop beyond puberty. Where as Freud would argue that most development took place during the earlier period of an individual's life. Freud's psychosexual stages consist of five stages and he does not expand any further than puberty. Erikson's first few psychosocial stages are slightly similar to that of Freud's stages one to three. Erikson also expands his developmental stages to eight.
Similarly to Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of determined stages and that much of people's development occurred early in life. The psychologists also believed that a conflict had to be resolved in order to progress onto the next stage. They both agreed that human development is mainly an unconscious growth, and when development occurs it is a gradual process. With both theories similar in this sense the id, ego and super ego play important roles in development.
Freud believed that people are born with the id and as we gradually develop, the second part of our personality begins to develop, the ego. By the end of the phallic stage the superego develops. Erikson accepted this theory, but saw the ego of utmost importance. He believed that part of the ego is able to function autonomously of the id and superego. He claimed that a person's ego gains or loses strength through the resolution of the eight developmental stages.
Erikson's developmental theory was much more comprehensive compared to Freud. His theory describes the impact of social experiences on an individual's lifetime, unlike Freud who described development solely based on sexuality. The stages in Erikson's psychosocial development theory highlighted the importance of social experiences as he theorised how all the stages are unconditionally present at birth but start to expand according to one's upbringing in their family, social development and own culture. Each of Erikson's stages are characterised by a crisis, which is emphasised on parental and societal impact. Each crisis is defined by a pair of opposing possibilities e.g. trust vs. mistrust, and according to Erikson a healthy development requires a favourable ratio of positive to negative.
Another major difference between Freud and Erikson's developmental theory is the outcome of the stages. Freud believed that when an individual is fixated on a certain stage, the problems associated with that particular stage would be carried out throughout his/her life. Where as in Erikson's psychosocial stages, the outcome of a particular stage is not permanent and can be changed by later experiences.
In conclusion both Freud and Erikson have contributed to the understanding of human development in psychology. Overall, although there are some similarities between their developmental stages there are major differences that stand out. Freud's stages were very physical where as Erikson's highlighted the importance of social interaction in an individual's lifetime.
Transcript of Sigmund Freud vs Erik Erikson
Psychoanalytic Theory:
Two Great Minds By: Freddy Soriano Who is Sigmund Freud? Erik Erikson Sigmund Freud Psychosocial Theory
Continued Psychosocial Theory Who is Erik Erikson? 1856-1939
Freud was a Austrian neurologist
Known as the father of psychoanalysis
Believed in unconscious motives
Believed in id, ego, and superego
Developed psychosexual theories Id The first four stages of Erikson's theory

Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth to 1 year)
Infants must learn to trust their parents. Responsiveness is critical
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (1-3 years)
Children must learn to assert their wills and do things for themselves; or they will doubt their abilities
Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years)
Children develop initiative that allow them to plan and tackle big projects, but without impinging the rights of others
Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12 years)
Children must become as social and academic as their peers, or they will feel inferior 1902-1994
Neo-Freudian psychoanalytic theory
Less emphasis on sexual urges
More emphasis on social influences
Less emphasis on unconscious
More emphasis on adult development One of his most famous theories was his idea of three components of personality
Id, Ego, Superego Impulsive, irrational, and selfish
Seeks immediate gratification
Most infants are id
Only want pleasure
Absent of moral and ethical behavior Ego Rational side of personality
Cognitive processes
Problem solving
Perception
Learning
Realistic way of gratification Superego Moral standards
Develops from ego at ages 3-6
Internal voice that set societies rules
Guilt and shame control behavior
Finds socially acceptable solutions Freud's view on personality development suggest that the id, ego, and superego are constantly fighting. This creates a balance that forms your personality

Another major idea that Freud developed was his psychosexual theory. This theory suggest that development is mostly biological; or nature, as opposed to nurture. Psychosexual Development There are 5 psychosexual stages that are split up by age

Oral Stage (Birth-1 year)
In this stage, libido (psychic energy of sex instinct) is focused on the mouth as a source of pleasure. It is important to find oral gratification from the mother.
Anal Stage (1-3 years)
Libido is focused on the anus. Potty training creates a conflict between biological urges and society's demand
Phallic Stage (3-6 years)
Libido focuses on genitals. During this stage, the child seeks identification from same-sex parent.
Latent Stage (6-12 years)
Libido is quiet; psychic energy is focused on school and friends
Genital Stage (12 years or older)
Puberty reawakens sexual instincts to establish sexual relationships and ultimately pursue reproduction Conclusion In conclusion, Sigmund Freud believed that nature (biological) is more influential than nurture (social). Erikson had a similar developmental theory to Freud's psychosexual theory. Except, Erikson's theory focused on social aspects. It also had eight stages as opposed to five. This theory was called psychosocial theory. Freud's psychosexual theory ends at age 12. Erikson's psychosocial theory continues to follow human development until age 65. This is a major difference between the two theories. Conclusion In conclusions, Erik Erikson, believed that social aspects have a greater influence than biological aspects. Erikson believed nurture was more important than nature. The final four stages of Erikson's Theory
Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-20 years)
Adolescents find out who they are (social and vocational identities); otherwise, they will be confused about their future roles
Intimacy vs. Isolation (20-40 years)
Young adults seek a to form shared identity with another person; but sometimes fear intimacy and that causes loneliness and isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation (40-65 years)
Middle-aged adults must produce something that will outlive them, as partners or workers. Or they will become self-centered
Integrity vs. Despair (65 or older)
Older adults must come to view their lives as meaningful to face death without regrets Nature vs Nurture Freud
Psychosexual Erikson
Psychosocial Summary

Positive Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement is giving something pleasant after a behavior. This increases the probability that the behavior will continue. Examples are: * Having a job and going to work every day to receive a paycheck. * Receiving praise after a musical performance would increase the amount that you perform. * A teacher complimenting students when they answer correctly will increase that behavior. * At a gym, customers receive a discount if they work out a certain number of times and eat healthy. * In the Skinner Box experiment, a rat got food as a reward for acceptable behavior, such as pressing a lever.
Negative Reinforcement
Negative reinforcement is taking away something unpleasant as a result of the behavior that is acceptable. This is also meant to increase the behavior. Examples are: * It is very noisy outside so you turn on the television to mask the noise. Turning on the radio decreased the unpleasant noise. * A teacher exempts student from the final test if they have perfect attendance. So, the teacher is taking away something unpleasant to increase behavior. * At a store, a child throws a tantrum because he did not get a candy bar. Dad finally gets him one. He stopped the tantrum so he took away something unpleasant and Dad’s behavior of getting candy bars will increase. * In the Skinner box experiment, a loud noise continuously sounded inside the cage until the rat did what Skinner wanted him to do. When he did, the noise stopped, so the unpleasant noise was taken away. * In a biology class, students who made an "A" on the test did not have to dissect a frog.
Positive Punishment
Positive punishment is used to decrease a behavior and is presenting something unpleasant after the behavior. Examples are: * An employee exhibits bad behavior at work and the boss criticizes him. The behavior will decrease because of the boss’s criticism. * When a student misbehaves in class, she receives a time out. * A child gets a spanking when he puts his hand in the cookie jar. * When a child does not out his clothes in the hamper, he has to do ten extra minutes of chores. * In an experiment, the subject received a slight electric shock when they got an answer wrong.
Negative Punishment
Negative punishment is also used to decrease a behavior and is removing something pleasant after the behavior. Examples are: * An employee is habitually late for work so begins losing the privilege of listening to music while working. The behavior will decrease because of losing a privilege. * A child doesn’t put his bike away so the parents lock it up for a certain time. The parents took away something pleasant to decrease behavior. * Ted gets a $500 fine and suspension of his driving license for driving under the influence. Money and his license were removed to decrease behavior. * A family has a "swear jar." Every time someone swears, they have to put a dollar in the jar. This is taking away money, which is something pleasant, and decreases the behavior of swearing. * Kevin trashes his sister’s room and Mom told him he could not go camping with his friends.…...

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...Organizational psychology has become a prominent necessity within companies all over the world, regardless of size. With the growing number of competitors providing similar services and stressful expectations of continued success, this position proves time and again to be one of crucial significance. Organizational Psychologists offer a corporation unbiased, fresh ideas in the area of improvement and advancement using various methods of analysis and research. This essay will define the use of organizational psychology; the role of research and statistics in this form of psychology; and the many uses of organizational psychology within the workplace. Definition of Organizational Psychology According to Jex (2008), “organizational psychology is a field that utilizes scientific methodology to better understand the behavior of individuals working in organizational settings” (p. 1). Organizational psychology spotlights specific conduct and behaviors employees’ exhibit on the job; particularly ones in need of intervention or improvement, and offers plans of action with the goal of encouraging positive workplace morale. This type of psychology concentrates on the human portion of the working environment and through research, surveying, or interviewing, can produce fair-minded plans of implementation to improve workplace conditions and thus assists in capitalizing on employee efficiency. Research and Statistics in Organizational Psychology In view of the fact that organizational......

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Premium Essay

Psychology

...Define psychology: Psychology involves the study of human and behavior, experiences and the mind. Psychology can be implemented using slews of techniques and is analyzed from different positions. Psychology has had a dynamic history; it has evolved over decades and has grown into a dependable science. More former understandings of the philosophies and ideas played a prominent role by outlining contemporary concepts. “Psychology has a long past, but only a short history.”(Ebbinhuas, 1973) Wilhem Wundt’s’ work was the blueprint of modern psychology in 1879; he instituted the laboratory dedicated to psychology in Leipzig, Germany. Wundt had a particular interest about human behavior, emotions. His techniques had special emphasis on experimental evidence that endorsed explanatory theory. Today psychology is thought of as the scientific study of human behavior and mental process. However, this was not always the case. The soul of man was the leading interest of philosophers’, followed by the mind and conscious experience, and finally observable behavior. Problems arouse with the affiliation of body and soul. It remained unsolved by philosophers because it was founded on delusive dualism and involved a separate study of physical and spiritual development. Afterwards, the spiritual panorama was supplanted by a broader word “mind”. Modern psychology is disinterested in the study of mind, rather, the mental processes have deputized mind. The “mind approach” in psychology was......

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