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Study Habits and Its Effect on Students Academic Achievement

A Research Paper Presented to
The Faculty of the English Department
College of Business
Adventist University of the Philippines
Silang, Cavite

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course
Communication Arts 2

Raddison Brian Dorado
March 8, 2016


Research has concluded that it’s not how smart students are but how motivated they are and how they study that determines their growth in academic achievement (Society for Research in Child Development, 2012.) According to Kou Murayama (2012), while intelligence as assessed by IQ tests is important in the early stages of developing mathematical competence, motivation and study habits play a more important role in student’s subsequent growth. A student who does not have good study habits cannot do well in class recitation, daily quizzes, and actual pupil demonstration since he/she did not study and review the lessons learned. Good study habits are the tools to success (Losare, 2009). Losare (2009) also stated that nowadays, many children are engaged in computer games, cutting classes, watching television, excessive playing, and, worst of all, are involved in vices such as illegal drugs, gambling, and crimes. Others also use their intelligence in foolishness and bad deeds. They should be able to balance and manage their time wisely. A recent survey showed that nearly 40% of parents say high school is stressful for their children (Bratis, 2014). Another study shows that more high school students may be stressed out than what their parents think (APA 2009). Teens worry about schoolwork and grades. Doing well in class is a positive way for them to reduce stress (Bratis, 2014). Villa (2009) noted that many school learners fail in their studies due to their inability to cope with the daily obstacles and demands in school. These are challenges which educators find necessary to strengthen, reinforce, and enhance learning experiences of learners. Experiments have indicated that students, especially poor readers, don’t highlight what experts agree are the most important parts of the texts. One might think that it would be better if an expert marked the important passages but experiments showed mixed results for the strategy as well. It may be that using someone else’s judgment of what’s important is mentally passive; it’s the act of deciding what to highlight that provides a memory boost (Callendar and McDaniel, 2009).
Willingham (2014) stated that not studying until the last minute can be very helpful for students in taking their exams. We’ve all have overheard students saying that they passed a test but forgot everything in a day or two. They are not kidding. In one experiment, college student took their final exams for their courses and took a different final exam three days later that would not count on their grade. Students averaged 74 percent correct on the real final exam, but in three days they forgot so much that they scored, on average, just 29 percent (Rawson, Dunlosky, and Sciartelli, (2013). Good study habits are vital in molding the intellectual, emotional, and physical aspects of every child. Effective study habits of learners will not be developed in a day, a month, or even a year. It is a life-long process, and must be reinforced by parents, teachers, and school authorities. Several researchers have found that development of proper study habits at early parts of growth of children, especially during pre-school stage, has a lasting value which serves a solid foundation for success in their academic advancement (Villa, 2009).

This study aims to determine the effects of study habits to the academic achievement of the students. It further aims to answer the following research questions: 1. Is there a significant relationship between students’ study habits and their academic achievement? 2. Does having good study habits help students become more prepared and confident in school?

The researchers embark on this study to explore the perspective and perceptions of students the effect of the study habits to their math achievement. The researcher hopes that their contribution will benefit the following entities:
Principals. Knowing the academic achievements of the students will help the principal conduct a class or period or inform the teachers to teach the students good and effective study habits. With this study, principals may be more aware and pay more attention to the teachers and in school premises. They will be obliged to observe and take notes of what is happening during classes. With this act, the pressure may be passed on to other educators to focus more on how they can help the students improve their performance in school.
Teachers. Teachers will be informed that their help and assistance is much needed. Teachers will learn that they must be willing to instill and guide their students to have good study habits that will help them achieve in school. They may be stressed or pressured to help their students succeed. The teachers may also be more motivated and more prepared for their classes. It can also teach them to improve their teaching habits so that the students can pass and maybe even more; like learn something.
Students. Students will believe that good study habits are needed and will greatly affect their academic achievements in school. They will also learn which study habits they can benefit from and which would help them achieve more in school. Students may also learn to use and apply good study habits in and outside their class. The study can give students a little stress, but a good stress, which can help them be more motivated to study and change for the better. Not only can it help them do better in school but it can also teach them important values and lessons outside of the school premises. The study can greatly change one’s outlook on school and in life. It may also prepare them for the next and higher learning but also for their future in adulthood.
Future Researchers. This study can help other researchers on their future studies about the topic. It can also attract new and more researchers to conduct their experiments on the same field. Future researchers may benefit from this study because it can capture the attention of people, the community, and even other schools which can help them fund or provide support for their study. It can also motivate them because this study is for a good cause and for the good of learners and educators. This study may also bring to the attention of other researchers the topics which will not be covered by the present investigation. SCOPE AND LIMITATION The purpose of the study is to determine the effects and the relationship between study habits and academic achievement. Generations have passed and study habits have been considered as factor considering students’ academic performance and achievements. This study will not cover and discuss about other factors that may or may not have an impact on the students’ academic achievement such as sleep, social factors, intelligence quotient, and many more. This is also to give more emphasis to study habits as the biggest contributor and main factor for students’ academic performance. In addition, the researcher believes that it is how the students study that will determine their academic achievement. Therefore, this study is relevant and may capture the attention of new and old researchers to further the study and help the society benefit from the knowledge this study offers. The researcher will also take into consideration the absence of a survey as one of the limitations in this study due to lack of time. The researcher would also like to include the inadequate supply of information for there are limited number of resources regarding study habits as the main factor for student academic achievement and performance. DEFINITION OF TERMS Study Habits. The behaviors used when preparing for tests or learning academic material. Time. The thing measured as seconds, minutes, hours, days, years, etc. Management. The skill of controlling and making decisions. Note. To record or preserve in writing. Reviewing. An act of carefully looking at or examining the quality or condition of something or someone. Procrastination. To be slow or late about doing something that should be done: to delay doing something until a later time because you do not want to do it, because you are lazy, tired, etc.

Study Habits According to (n.d.), study habits are defined as the regular tendencies and practices that one depicts during the process of gaining information through learning. Study habits play a big role in determining the success in the learning process. Forming good study habits is a great start on a path to success. By developing these habits, you will find yourself working more efficiently and experiencing much less stress in the process. Even small changes can make a tremendous difference and, over time, will change not only your approach toward studying and organizing but your overall outlook on school and work. (Hong, 2013). Study Habits turned out to be more important factors in terms of students’ academic growth (Society for Research in Child Development, 2012). The main manifestations of study habits consist of Time Management, note taking, reviewing notes on a regular basis, and avoiding procrastinating. Time Management. It is rightly said, “Time and Tide wait for no one,” and an individual should understand the time, for him/her to succeed in all the aspects of life (as cited in Management Study Guide,2008). Kasier (2011) defines time management as, “the act of taking conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities. In addition, time management is about effective scheduling of time, goal setting, prioritizing, delegating tasks, analyzing and reviewing your spent time, organizing your workspace, keeping your concentration and focus at your work, and motivating yourself to work towards a goal. When you are studying, learning to manage time effectively will help you achieve the goals you set and reduce stress. It is no wonder that in reading, mathematics, or science, at any grade level, large variations in engaged time by students is a strong predictor of achievement (Berliner, 1984). The amount of time that students are involved in relevant reading and mathematical problems is positively associated and related with academic achievement (Borg, 1980). One reason for a lack of research in this area may be the common belief among most students that more time spent studying outside of class positively influences academic performance and that more time spent working negatively influences academic performance.
Note Taking. According to British Journal of Education Technology (2008), note-taking is the practice of keeping and recording information obtained from other sources. Furthermore, by taking notes, the writer or student records the essence of the information, freeing their mind from having to recall everything. Frederick (2002) concludes that how efficient you take and keep notes will save you from the problems caused by last minute studying. In addition, students who succeed in taking efficient and relevant notes could see a one or two letter grade improvement in most of their classes. Taking good notes will also give students a starting point when studying and helps them organize the material covered and points out areas of weaknesses. Researchers found that if important information was obtained in note taking, it had thirty four percent chance of being remembered and information not found in notes had only a five percent chance of being remembered (Howe, 1970, and Longman & Atkinson, 1999).
Russell (2014) said that note taking and journaling is also very effective and very important to help with the understanding of specific math concepts. In addition, whether you dictate your notes and have them available for audio, or write your notes to review them visually, the strategies and tips here will help you better prepare for tests and exam. Relevant and effective notes will help you remember important points and concepts taught in the classroom and guide you through various questions and problems.
Reviewing Notes. Reviewing is any process that helps you to make use of personal experience for learning and development (Greenway, n.d.). According to Fancher (2010), research has shown that reviewing new material within twenty four hours of hearing it will increase retention of that material by about 60%. This means that you will be 60% ahead of the game next time you go to class. If you want to significantly reduce the time necessary to prepare for exams, this is the way to do it. Furthermore, reviewing material or notes before the next class period enables you to identify points of confusion or omission in your notes, which prepares you to ask the questions you need to ask before the next lecture. Again, confusion is your worst enemy. MindtoolsTM (2013) claimed that when you don’t have the chance to apply new knowledge, it is easy to forget what you have learned. This is why it is so important not only to take notes, but also to review them on a regular basis, so that you may be able to remember it for the long-term. Research on note taking indicates that taking notes during class and reviewing those notes, during or after class, have a positive impact on student learning. Kiewra et al. (1991) found that students who take notes but do not review, earn lower exam scores than students who review notes before the exam. Additionally, students who are absent during the lecture but given notes to review did almost as well as the students who reviewed their own notes and significantly better than students who did not review.
Avoid Procrastinating. According to Steel (2010), Dr. Samuel Johnson, who wrote the first comprehensive English dictionary, defined procrastination as a “delay” and some still maintain this definition. In addition, The Free Dictionary maintains it as “slowness as a consequence of not getting around to it.” Patricia (2008) has noted that the benefit of avoiding procrastination includes a peace of mind, feeling of strength and purpose, and healthy feeling of being in charge and having control of your life. While procrastination make you feel weak, useless, and helpless, taking charge of your life will make you feel strong, competent, and capable. You will experience an increased personal freedom.
Planning time and avoiding procrastination leads to a balanced life and more vacant time to participate in everything you do. Procrastination has been found to result from cognitive distortions of faulty thinking (Ellis and Knaus, 1977) and also related to problems of perceiving and estimating time (Aitken, 1982). Tice and Baumeister (1997) concluded that procrastinators receive significantly low paper and examination grades than non-procrastinators. The report by Popoola (2005), Wesley (1994), Beck, Koons, and Migram (2000), and Tuckman, Abry, and Smith (2002) that procrastination is associated with poor academic achievement corroborate with the findings of the present study. The reason for lower academic performance of students who procrastinate might be due to their low levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy. The result of the study also indicated that there is a significant difference between procrastination and academic achievement, with students with low procrastination having a higher achievement than students with moderate and high levels of procrastination.
Impulsive procrastinators may fail to pick up cues from the environment (Ferrari and Emmons, 1994). In addition, reasons put forward as relate to this category of procrastination include the inability to delay gratification of pleasure lacking self-control, lacking motivation for achieving targeted goals, and lacking energy or organizational abilities.

This paper attempted to determine the various aspects and manifestations of s study habits and its effect on students’ academic performance and achievement.
The research design used in this study is the descriptive research method as data and knowledge were obtained from articles, book, journals, and in the web to answer the research questions that were taken into consideration. The research finding includes: 1. Time management can help students achieve their goals and reduce stress. The more time students engage in studying is a strong factor in academic achievement. 2. Information obtained in note taking has a higher percentage or being remembered that information not included in the notes. 3. Reviewing new material within twenty four hours of hearing it will increase retention by 60%. Reviewing notes in a regular basis will help you remember information for the long-term. Students who review notes prior to the exams tend to score higher in tests and exams than those who do not review notes prior to exams. 4. Procrastination is associated with poor academic achievement. 5. Study Habits can change your outlook on school and work.
Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions are formed: 1. It is difficult to achieve or maintain good and effective study habits since there are many aspects but it takes times and perseverance. Once it is obtained, it would be very hard to let it go for it will be part of your character and personality. 2.…...

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Ellen Moore

...Analysis 3 Ellen Moore Jenna Gilson Talal Khader Britton Larson Aubrey Morgan MGT 400 2/20/12 1. Identify the problems that the focal company/person in the case face. There is an unclear hierarchical reporting structure within the project team, making it impossible for  the project to continue and limits communication and knowledge transfer. The main problem that the Systems Consulting Group faces is that they need to complete their consulting project that they are behind schedule on, and need to choose a course of action quickly. 2. Identify underlying causes to the problem at hand There are many problems that are halting the progress of the project. The team is clearly suffering from lack of communication, disorganized team structure, unclear leadership and constant disagreement over the decision-making process. Business: The Korean structure appears to be hierarchical which seems to impact the understanding of relationships between consultants and clients of both the Americans and Koreans. Management: In Korea, respect for position and status influences how a project is executed. It is evident that power authority is undefined. Jack and Ellen don’t have a specific role, so there is an overlapping of power. As a result, subordinates are often confused and find it a bit hard to follow the lead of their superiors. There seems to be a lack of trust between Ellen and Jack......

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