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Research 1

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1. The Condemnation of Galileo
Finocchiaro, Maurice. "A Galilean Approach to the Galileo Affair, 1609-2009." Science & Education 20, no. 1 (January 2011): 51-66. Education Research Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed March 22, 2014). This article describes the life and times of Galileo told from the Galilean approach. Finocchiaro travels through the discoveries of Galileo and how others perceived his explorations. After his creation of the telescope and the discovery of the rough side of the moon, the Copernican Revolution began. This is when the argument of the world spinning on an axis and not standing still came into play. “Galileo answered the observational astronomical objections by showing that the empirical consequences implied by Copernicanism were indeed visible with the telescope, although still invisible with the naked eye” (1). The author suggests that when Galileo started to speak publicly about his findings through letters and the Roman Catholic Church became angry. The author writes that in a matter of months, there were two investigations launched on Galileo which lasted for a year (2) After Galileo’s third run in with the law from the Book he wrote called Dialogue, he was found guilty and sentenced to house arrest for the rest of his life. The author writes that “A key idea for making sense of the subsequent controversy is to focus on the subsequent criticisms of Galileo and to see how he has been, or can be, defended from them” (3). 2. The radical Reformation (the Anabaptist portion of the Reformation)
Williams, George Huntston. "Studies in the Radical Reformation (1517-1618) : a bibliographical survey of research since 1939." Church History 27, no. 2 (June 1, 1958): 124-160. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed March 22, 2014). This article’s theme is the reformation period when Anabaptism was looked at, “for all its, or perhaps precisely because of its, dissociation from principality and privilege.” (1) The article suggests that it started with the Magisterial Reformation. The author writes that Anabaptism has changed throughout the time of the reformation, but it really different themes that created a central idea. Williams writes that “Early Anabaptism itself, with its mystical tolerance of externals (Denck), its "sacramentarían" view of the Mass (in Holland), and its eschatological intensity and confidence that in the latter days the untutored could interpret Holy Writ along with if not better than the learned (Hofmann), had from the start a strong Spiritualist cast (so Holl, Kühler, Lindeboom, et al.) which was only gradually worked out of the movement in the course of experiencing its aberrancies and in explicit controversy, for example, in that between Marpeck and Schwenckfeld” (122-23). This article states that “A distinctive Anabaptist doctrine of the sleep of the soul was combatted by the Reformers…” giving its entire eschatology (158). Unfortunately the article did recognize that there has not been a big update about the reformation since 1957. 3. The Jesuits missions to Japan.
Rubiés, Joan-Pau. "Real and Imaginary Dialogues in the Jesuit Mission of Sixteenth-century Japan." Journal Of The Economic & Social History Of The Orient 55, no. 2/3 (June 2012): 447-494. Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 23, 2014). This article follows the Jesuit missions to Japan and how Francis Xavier perceived the Buddhist monks at the time. The article flows into how the missions began and what happed to the discoveries made by the participants. The author believes that “That the relative equality of the Jesuit encounter with Japan created the basis for some sort of “cultural dialogue” does not, however, mean that the dialogue, driven largely by religious exclusivism and zealotry, was genuine, or deep” (448). This article also stresses the fact that the missions to the Japanese nations focused on the dialogue that helped bring them together. After traveling through the moral, economical, and spiritual growth within the article, the author suggests that “Buddhism was, in this sense, doctrinally pluralist, and some evidence suggests that real efforts were made to interpret Christianity as not so different, a high-level strategy…” (491).…...

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