Free Essay

Response to Hobbes Leviathan

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By jaketa6
Words 535
Pages 3
Jake Allen

Weekly response paper – Hobbes 31 – 43

In chapter 31 Hobbes talks about the fact the god is all-powerful and that man should not defy him because he is their creator and they owe him gratitude for this.

“The right of nature whereby God reigneth over men, and punishes those that break his laws, is to be derived, not from His creating them, as if He required obedience as of gratitude for His benefits, but from His irresistible power.”

In my opinion this fact is hard to believe because there isn’t proof of a divine god that’s all-powerful, and until this is proven I cannot fully accept him as all-powerful.
There isn’t proof of this divine and undisputed power and often, A person does not get punished by god for doing something against the word of god “This question: why evil men often prosper; and good men suffer adversity, has been much disputed by the ancient, and is the same with this of ours: by what right God dispenseth the prosperities and adversities of this life; and is of that difficulty, as it hath shaken the faith, not only of the vulgar, but of philosophers and, which is more, of the saints, concerning the Divine Providence. "How good," saith David, "is the God of Israel to those that are upright in heart; and yet my feet were almost gone, my treadings had well-nigh slipped; for I was grieved at the wicked, when I saw the ungodly in such prosperity.”

Without a belief in god its hard to agree that there is anything to discus concerning god but for the sake of the argument I would have to agree with Hobbes point where he says that we cannot conceive God, because we, as finite beings, can conceive only finite things. We cannot say that God has hands or feet, or that God laughs or cries- these concepts are entirely human and have no relevance to what is, what is divine. “Fifthly, in those things that signify greatness, and power; to say he is finite, is not to honor him: for it is a sign of the will to honor God, to attribute to him less than we can; and finite, is less than we can; because to finite, it is easy to add more”

I would agree that the political view is more of a creditable view that a religious one. There are some instances where I wouldn’t agree with some political views but Hobbes states that all laws require judgment and interpretation, and while the sovereign is the final judge, he may appoint subordinate judges to administer his laws. A judge must be impartial, decide equitably, and reach his conclusions through proper exercise of reason.
A judge may sometimes excuse a law's transgression if the transgressor demonstrates reasonable ignorance of the law. However, breaking the law is never excusable when the law is known or should be known. Breaking the laws of nature, which are apparent to everyone's reason, can never be excused (except for children, madmen, and other creatures without reason). With these implemented I believe that the political view trumps religion until religion can be factually proven.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Thomas Hobbes

...LEVIATHAN, or The Matter, Form, & Power of a COMMON-WEALTH ECCLESIASTICAL AND CIVIL By THOMAS HOBBES London,1651 AMERICAN UNIVERSITY OF BEIRUT THE INTRODUCTION PART I 1 OF MAN Ch. I Of SENSE 2 Ch. 2 Of IMAGINATION 2 Ch. 5 Of REASON, and SCIENCE 3 Ch. 6 Of [...] the PASSIONS 7 Ch. 8 Of the VIRTUES Commonly Called INTELLECTUAL […] 9 Ch. 10 Of POWER, WORTH, DIGNITY, HONOUR and WORTHINESS 10 Ch. 11 Of the Difference of MANNERS 11 Ch. 13 Of the NATURAL CONDITION of MANKIND 13 Ch. 14 Of the First and Second NATURAL LAWS and of CONTRACTS 15 Ch. 15 Of Other Laws of Nature 18 Ch. 16 Of PERSONS, AUTHORS, and Things Personated 21 PART II OF COMMONWEALTH Ch. 17 Of the Causes, Generation, and Definition of a COMMONWEALTH 22 Ch. 18 Of the RIGHTS of Sovereigns by Institution 24 Ch. 20 Of Dominion PATERNAL and DESPOTICAL 27 Ch. 21 Of the LIBERTY of Subjects 30 Ch. 26 Of CIVIL LAWS 33 Ch. 30 Of the OFFICE of the Sovereign Representative 34 [ PART III OF A CHRISTIAN COMMONWEALTH [ PART IV OF THE KINGDOM 0F DARKNESS [ A REVIEW and CONCLUSION ] Chapters 32-43 ] Chapters 44-47 ] THE INTRODUCTION Nature (the art whereby God hath made and governs the world) is by the art of man, as in many other things, so in this also imitated, that it can make an artificial animal. For seeing life is but a motion of limbs, the beginning whereof is in some......

Words: 27668 - Pages: 111

Premium Essay

Thomas Hobbes and Democracy

...Thomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher who was born April 5,1588 and died December 4,1679. He attended Oxford University where he studied classics. He was a tutor by profession and also traveled around Europe to meet scientists and to study different forms of government. Thomas Hobbes was the first great figure in modern moral philosophy. He became interested in why people allowed themselves to be ruled and what type of government would be best for England. Hobbes had a pessimistic view of people. His view was that humans were mean creatures who would do anything to better their positions. Also that people could not be trusted to make decisions on their own and a country needed an authority figure to provide direction and leadership. Therefore, he believed in monarchy- a government that gave all power to a king or queen. He said that democracy would never work because people were only interested in promoting their own self-interests. Despite this doubt of democracy, he believed that a contrasting group of representatives presenting the problems of the common person would prevent a king from being unfair and cruel. Hobbes originates the phrase 'Voice of the people' meaning one person could be chosen to represent a group with similar views. Legitimacy of government Hobbes was a dedicated materialist. The views that got him in trouble were related to this, as Hobbes claimed to believe in......

Words: 1136 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Thomas Hobbes

...HOBBES Thomas Hobbes argues that the “State of Nature” is the condition where we are forced into contact with each other in the absence of a superior authority. Where we would imagine that people might fare best in such a state, also where each decides for themselves on how to act, and judge. Unfortunately, people cannot be trusted always to follow their will. Hobbes describes this situation as “the condition of mere nature” a state of perfectly private judgment upon any reasonable suspicion. Also, where there is no agency with recognized authority to resolve arguments and the power to implement its decisions. If this were the state, then life of a man would be nasty, disagreeable, violent, short, and solitary. If this is the State of Nature, then people have the strong reasons to avoid it. Hobbes felt that society naturally correspondent to a State of Nature, and that this State of Nature is a State of War, a war of “all against all”. In order to avoid living in a State of Nature, and therefore avoiding a State of War, which can only be done by submitting some mutually recognized public authority. Therefore a sovereign had to be erected; the sovereign would be given the rights of all their subjects and be able to enforce peace. Hobbes vision of an absolute sovereign is a sovereign with unlimited power, because if the power of sovereign were limited, then it would have to be limited by an even higher power. He also divided the power of the sovereign, and the rights that......

Words: 826 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Works of Thomas Hobbes

...The Works of Thomas Hobbes The moral and political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes is very different from those of the ancients, specifically Aristotle. As a thinker during the Scientific Revolution, his picture of morality is framed in science. And while science is usually thought of to have no opinion about questions of right and wrong, Hobbes would argue otherwise. He wanted to move moral and political philosophy into the realm of science, where answers can—and should— come from science and reason, and away from the monopoly over human values held by religious texts. Furthermore, he called for a powerful, civil authority to combat what he called “the state of nature (Leviathan).” It may seem normal to define morality and science as entirely separate from each other, that is, to say that science can help explain why we may value certain things, but it can never determine what we should value. However, Hobbes sees an overlap between facts and values and attempts to use empirical answers to help figure out philosophical problems. This idea of applying facts to issues of good and evil rests upon the notion that questions such as “What is truly worth living for?...Or even dying for?” “What is morality?” and “What is a ‘good’ life?” have answers. Hobbes would say that they do, and with good reason. Questions like “What food is healthy?” or “What exercises are best?” are much like moral questions because it is difficult to find an exact answer due to the many different, correct...

Words: 1343 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Hobbes and Free Will

...is man free in this world. The social scientist that attempted to put a fixed meaning to the concept of free will, and who will be the subject of my analysis today, is Thomas Hobbes. Hobbes uses voluntary action, aversion, and deliberation, to try answer the question of whether or not man is free to do as he pleases. On page 118 of Leviathan, Hobbes first introduces us to voluntary action, or voluntary motion, stating that it is: “as to go, to speak, to move any of our limbes, in such manner as is first fancied in our minds.” Man has to first desire to do something, and that is voluntary action. The basis of voluntary action, according to Hobbes, is imagination (Leviathan, p. 118). When an action is still in one’s mind, before man translates it into action, it is called Endeavor (Leviathan, p. 119). When Endeavor is towards something, it’s a desire. When Endeavor is forward something, it’s called an aversion. Naturally, human beings have heir desires, appetites, and fears, but they also experience something called Deliberation, which is “putting an end to the Liberty we had of doing, or omitting, according to our own Appetite, or Aversion”. Hobbes then proceeds to define free will in term of Deliberation on p, 128, Leviathan: “Will therefore is the last Appetite in Deliberating”. Furthermore, Hobbes believes that deliberation is expressed subjunctively, as in there are consequences to every action, and man is aware of that. Free will is given to every......

Words: 677 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Thomas Hobbes

...Thomas Hobbes “I was born in fear and remained in fear my whole life.” Who is the best sort of person to lead us? Not important to Hobbes All People are competitive, full of fear, and full of pride. People are Selfish Invents concept for life without government  STATE OF NATURE is when there is no governmental body to rule over the people Hobbes believes it is not good, people would not be happy. Business would not exist The purpose of government is to put truth in words.  What is the basis of government? Social contract- agreement of citizens to abide by laws and rules government creates. Natural laws are terms of social contract: Seek Peace, give up something (right to make own decisions), agree to keep promises, establish a rule maker called the sovereign, give him the power of enforcement Hobbes believes that the need for government is to protect us from our other fellow citizens.  Rebelling against the government is a bad thing in Hobbes’ eyes because it puts society closer to State of Nature. John Locke What is the purpose of government? What would life be like in a state of nature? Human nature- everyone is selfish, everyone is born with rationality Locke believes that things wouldn’t change much in state of nature , business would exist.  We need government to solve basic economic problems,  Social Contract- people give up 3 inalienable rights: Life, liberty, right to Property Government must promise to improve the common weale or improve peoples lives......

Words: 635 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Thomas Hobbes

...“Computers are magnificent tools for the realization of our dreams, but no machine can replace the human spark of spirit, compassion, love, and understanding.” Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. Materialist Thomas Hobbes once stated that “human beings are in effect just complicated machines”, I disagree with that because unlike machines, humans are having a lot of factors to them that make them unpredictable whereas even the most complicated ones have predictable behaviors,. While humans behave as per their consciousness, machines just perform as they are taught and the most obvious reason is human emotion. This essay will be further expanding on ideas which will be contradicting Thomas Hobbes theory of human machines. “Your intellect may be confused, but your emotions will never lie to you.” Roger Ebert The main thing that makes humans, unlike machines is our emotions, unlike machines emotions are the very core of our being even though our brain makes chemicals that allow us to feel emotions, but that does not define what emotions are. Emotions are what make us weak and also make us strong. A mother’s love for their child can make her cry when they have to live apart for a prolonged period. Again, even the weakest of the weak might rise to the occasion and give a valiant fight with the strongest mass to save his beloved from any form of harm. A machine no matter how complicated cannot use emotions the way a human does, if it to be to keep a memory or even shape their being......

Words: 1580 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Hobbes vs Locke

...James Wells 12/11/14 Hobbes vs. Locke This paper will compare and contrast the views of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke expressed in Leviathan and Second Treatise of Government. The paper will show the basic differences between the two philosophers views, is Hobbes' distrust of the people and Locke's relatively greater trust of the people and distrust of the government's power and the likelihood of the abuse of that power.  Hobbes' view in Leviathan aims at ensuring civil order, which means for him the absolute power of the government, or the Leviathan, which power the people have given him through the social contract. Locke, on the other hand, keeps much more power in the hands of the people through the legislature, which means, in effect, majority rule. Locke was also deeply concerned with maintaining the rights of the people, especially the right to own property. Locke's political view produces a much more democratic system, while Hobbes' produces a much more authoritarian, if not totalitarian, system. Both Locke and Hobbes start their political analysis with reference to the state of nature. However, their definitions of this state of nature stand in stark contrast to one another. The differences on their perception of the state of nature correspond to the final conclusions of what is important in a civil society. The contrasting perceptions of the state of nature on the part of these two philosophers are crucial, because they use those perceptions as the foundations......

Words: 1828 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Hobbes V. Locke

...     1    Hobbes v. Locke  Do you generally believe people are good? If you trust your fellow man so much, then  why do you lock your door? This is a form of the question, the great philosopher, Thomas  Hobbes would propose to people who believe that the general human state of nature is good.  Thomas Hobbes had a pessimistic view of human nature, similar to John Calvin. Hobbes  believed that the rapacious nature of man was for everyone to be at war with everyone. By  competing in each person’s own self interest, which led to life being poor, solitary, and brutish  until the formation of government. In the state of nature, this enables others to be able to come  and take that away from you. This is the intersection where Thomas Hobbes and another great  philosopher, John Locke, agree. They both believe that a source of social contract is necessary in  order to get along in the state of nature. Although Thomas Hobbes and John Locke both  developed the social contract theory, a closer examination of each fundamental philosophy  reveals a greater contrast in theory than most fail to realize such as the contrast in origins of  government, limitations of government, dwellings of sovereignty, and the rights of revolution.   The social contract theory was developed by multiple influential thinkers of political  philosophy. One of those men was Thomas Hobbes, who lived during the English Civil War.  During this war, he witnessed the collapse of absolute government ......

Words: 1807 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Locke/Hobbes vs. the United Nations

...Matt Smith Political Theory 2/7/02 Locke/Hobbes vs. the United Nations After WWII the world was in disarray after having witnessed the second global conflict. The countries of the world came together to form the United Nations, an organization comprised of the nations of the world in an attempt to deal with crisis and future events in a way that would deter the onset of another such conflict. Some believe that the United Nations should be a global governing body. Others may argue on the side of John Lock or Thomas Hobbes in saying the United Nations is a civic government for the nations of the world -- a Leviathan to ensure order and harmony between the states of the Earth. These people would be mistaken in their assumptions and interpretations of Locke and/or Hobbes’s thought. Both Locke and Hobbes would argue consistently that the United Nations would not work and does not make sense given the state of nature that man comes from. John Locke explained his theory of the state of nature in his Second Treatise on Government. According to Locke man exists in the state of nature as an individual coexisting peacefully with other human beings. The reason for this peaceful coexistence between people in the state of nature is because of a few simple rules. The first of these is the respect of people’s life, liberty, and property. A person’s life and liberty are forms of his property. If a person was to in some way take away another person’s property then......

Words: 1411 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Hobbes Essay

...Essay 1 Hobbes write that there is “a doctrine plainly and directly against the essence of a commonwealth, and that it is this: That the sovereign power may be divided.” (p.213). It is based upon his argument that sovereign power can never be divided because it is the only way to ensure peace and security in the commonwealth, and have a smooth function. Sovereignty is the foundation of authority and the representation of power underlying all civil peace. It is an artificial person, a creation of human ingenuity, a product of art, and it is not natural. The people come together to create sovereign and to bring about that commodious living (p.78, prg.14). Since the people create it, the power is based on the people to become the representative and bring peace and security. To ensure peace, an individual must obey his sovereign in all things, and Hobbes shows that obedience to a single master of the sovereign always provides security in his life (p.80, prg.4). We can see however, that there is an issue behind the obedience of an individual. Human beings have desires that are unlimited, and if human beings are set free, a state of war is inescapable. In order to avoid this state of war, absolute sovereignty is necessary. These desires are driven by two strong passions that Hobbes believe are the most powerful to motivate us (p.30). The concept of fear, specifically of violent death, triggers the need to defend oneself in any way possible. Self-defense against violent death......

Words: 1270 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Hobbes

...Learning Style Inventory To gain a better understanding of yourself as a learner you need to evaluate the way you prefer to learn or process information. By doing so, you will be able to develop strategies which will enhance your learning potential. The following evaluation is a short, quick way of assessing your learning style. Place a check in the appropriate space after each statement below and then use the scoring directions at the bottom of the page to evaluate your responses. Respond to each statement as honestly as you can. Often Sometimes 1. I can remember best about a subject by listening to a lecture that includes information, explanations and discussions. 2. I prefer to see information written on a chalkboard and supplemented by visual aids and assigned readings. 3. I like to write things down or to take notes for visual review. 4. I prefer to use posters, models, or actual practice and other activities in class. 5. I require explanations of diagrams, graphs, or visual directions. 6. I enjoy working with my hands or making things. 7. I am skillful with and enjoy developing and making graphs and charts. 8. I can tell if sounds match when presented with pairs of sounds. 9. I can remember best by writing things down. 10. I can easily understand and follow directions on a map. 11. I do best in academic subjects by listening to lectures and tapes. 12. I play with coins or keys in my pocket. 13. I learn to spell better by repeating words out......

Words: 518 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Hobbes

...THOMAS HOBBES Thomas Hobbes was a British philosopher who believed in Empiricism a theory that believes one gets their knowledge of the world comes from our sensory experiences through our hands, and mouth. At the time Hobbes wrote “The Leviathan” England were at upheaval over the civil war so he wrote “The Leviathan” as to show his observation on how Humans really are in their natural state with his assertion he suggest since being a royalist that to preserve peace , Man should form social contract. He believed any form of government is better than none. His Philosophy along with those of Machiavelli were seen as the foundation for Modern political thinking. Just like Machiavelli assertion that humans are essentially evil and selfish, Hobbes also believes that human are inherently selfish. The Mortal God as Hobbes describes “The Leviathan” is created in order to protect the people creating and enforcing the laws. Thesis Hobbes claim that when man is left in “The State Of Nature” he is unable to preserve his life making it brutish and short therefore man should form an social contract allowing an absolute authority the (sovereignty) create and implement laws they should follow in order to maintain peace and avoid civil war. Insight 2nd Paragraph Thomas Hobbes and Niccolò Machiavelli both make similar assertion but greatly contradicts one another. Both Hobbes and Machiavelli have a pessimistic view on human nature. Thomas Hobbes believes that humans are only......

Words: 1798 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Hobbes

...Podorsky, Essay 1, Page 207 question 1, 2 and 3 In this essay I will discuss What Hobbes means by saying that when humans live in a state of war everybody against everybody, there is neither justice or injustice. I will also compare Glaucon’s and Hobbes ideas of justice. I will also discuss whether selfishness is in itself a bad thing. Hobbes imagines that humans started off living in a state of nature in which each person is free to decide for himself what he needs, what he's owed, what's respectful, right, moral, sensible, and also free to decide all of these questions for the behavior of everyone else as well. In this situation where there is no common authority to find resolution these many and serious disputes, Hobbes imagined that the state of nature could easily turn into a “state of war”. Hobbes said in describing this state "No arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death: and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short” (Rosenstand 206). Hobbes argues that the state of nature is a wretched state of war in which none of our important human ends are dependably achievable. Human nature also affords resources to escape this wretched condition. Hobbes says that once the conflict reaches a life threatening point people will do anything to preserve their own lives, “where every man is enemy to every man” (Rosenstand 206). Hobbes argues that each of us, as a rational being, can see that a war of......

Words: 1799 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Hobbes vs Locke

...The pure state of nature or "the natural condition of mankind" was deduced by the 17th century English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, in Leviathan. Hobbes argued that all humans are by nature equal in faculties of body and mind. From this equality and other causes in human nature, everyone is naturally willing to fight one another: so that "during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war as is of every man against every man". In this state every person has a natural right or liberty to do anything one thinks necessary for preserving one's own life; and life is "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short" (Leviathan, Chapters XIII-XIV). In short Hobbes believes is self-preservation, even if something was someonelse's, if you felt the need for it you had the right to fight for it and claim it as your own. Hobbes described this natural condition with the Latin phrase bellum omnium contra omnes (meaning war of all against all), in his work De Cive. Within the state of nature there is neither private property nor injustice since there is no law, except for certain natural precepts discovered by reason ("laws of nature"): the first of which is "that every man ought to endeavor peace, as far as he has hope of obtaining it" (Leviathan, Ch. XIV); and the second is "that a man be willing, when others are so too, as far forth as for peace and defense of himself he shall think it necessary, to lay down......

Words: 1452 - Pages: 6