Free Essay

Roman and Greek Architecture

In: Other Topics

Submitted By mhart4907
Words 378
Pages 2
Greek and Roman Architecture
Melisa Hart
ART/101
September 7, 2014
Caleb Kromer

Write a summary comparing the characteristics and innovations of each Greek and Roman

architecture in 200 to 300 words.

Greek architecture inspired Roman architecture, so they have several similarities between them. Together they have created classical architecture that is still greatly remember to this day, but they also share a lot of differences. Most Greek architecture was built to honor their gods, great detail on the outside and inside. Many of the buildings that were built have unique columns, which are used for support, and most of the buildings are more rectangular. The Greeks building many temples. The Greeks developed a set of orders that has a separate type of architecture that is better used in the three orders first Doric, second Iconic, and third Corinthian.
The First Temple of Hera is a good example of how the Greeks used columns in their structures. The structure of The Lion Gate in Greece is another example of Greek architecture. This type of building uses post-and-lintel construction, which is something else that the Greeks were famous for. The Romans used more concrete in their structures than the Greeks. The use of concrete allowed them to make larger buildings and unique structures. More of the Roman buildings are preserved than the Greeks due to the use of concrete as well. The Colosseum in Rome is a great example of a famous piece of architecture built from the Romans. This building is unique in its shape and size and has been well preserved. They used the Colosseum for all types of entertainment. Another example, the Pantheon, is a spectacular building that the Ancient Romans built. I had the opportunity to personally see the Pantheon myself, and was quite amazed at how well it has been kept. The Romans architecture was known for the arches and domes, and both the Colosseum and the Pantheon are great examples of this types of work. You don’t see arches and domes in Greek architecture like you do Roman architecture.

Thought I would share some pictures I took of the Pantheon on our trip to Rome. References
Sayre, H. M. (2009). A world of art (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Roman and Greek Differences

...American intercontinental university | Compare and Contrast | The comparison and contrasting of Greek and Roman Cultures | | Misty Thornton | 11/11/2012 | The comparing and contrasting that distinguish elements or features of early Greek and Roman cultures, including illustrative or significant examples of the various features. | Contrast | GREEKS | ROMANS | ART | Had sculptures that consisted of small figurines and life-size statues. Showed the beauty of the human form in nudes and combined realism and idealism. | Had sculptures and statues. Mosaics were popular because they were created a desired look. | | Sculptures created told stories of heroes, Gods, mythical creatures, important events and the culture of Greece. | Sculptures designed for the purpose of telling the significant history of the culture. | | Pottery was another form of important art. Architecture typically more rectilinear and of post and lintel construction. | Created paintings. Buildings they mastered were ones that had arches and domes. Made concrete better. | GEOGRAPHY | Greece land is covered with many mountains. It is a peninsula composing of even smaller peninsulas on its land. | Rome was located near the Mediterranean Sea and the volcanic mountains. The land is composed of large hills made of tufa rocks. | RELIGION | Built temples. Temples were ornate on the outside and plain on the inside. Worshiped many Gods like Zeus, Hera, and Apollo. | Temples built......

Words: 487 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Greek Architecture

...Ancient Greek architecture is featured by two main orders, namely the Doric and the Ionic. Greeks effectively applied these architectural styles in constructing buildings, theatres and temples. The Doric style was predominantly applied in mainland Greece with a further spread to the Greek settlements in Italy. The Ionic style was applied in Ionia and the Aegean islands. At that, the Doric style was more austere and formal, whereas the Ionic was more decorative and relaxed. The styles are mostly reflected in the three orders of column capitals, bearing different decoration and design features. The examples of the Doric order are the Temple of Hephaestus and Parthenon Athens. In turn, the Iconic masterpieces include the temple of Athena Nike on the Acropolis and the Erechtheum. The Ionic order gained dominance during the Hellenistic period, however was prone to a great deal of resistance by many Greek States. Compared to Romans, in their architectural constructions and designs the ancient Greeks applied wood for roof beams, plaster for bathtubs, brick for walls, marble and limestone for walls, columns, and upper portions of public buildings and temples, terracotta for ornaments and roof tiles, and metals for decorative details to construct civic, religious, domestic, recreational, and funerary buildings. The commonest form of Greek public architecture was temple, with altar standing under the open sky in the sacred fane before the temple. Temples were closely associated......

Words: 504 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Greek and Roman Architecture

...Greek and Roman Architecture Art as been around since the beginning of time and takes form in many different ways. Two of my favorite styles of architecture are Greek and Roman, which started around 600 BC. Since Ancient Greek architecture influenced Ancient Roman architecture there are a lot of similarities in their art, culture, and styles. Even though, there are also a lot of differences because both techniques have unique characteristics. Ancient Greek art form was used to show natural and philosophical things. Greek architecture influenced how the Romans evolved and shaped their architecture. But the Romans art typically took on a type of propaganda form. They would paint people standing broad and tall, clean and healthy, to make them look more appealing to the public, when actually, they were perhaps, below par, if you will. One example of this, which is talked about in the book, The Power of Art, p. 14-15, is the painting of Henry VIII. He is portrayed as a handsome man who is very healthy. He is dressed as best as he could be, wearing bright colors and decorated with beautiful gems as if he is trying to put on a show or make a statement, busting at the seams, when actually he was growing tired with his aging skin. It is believed that his belly in the painting was portrayed to be smaller than it really was. He also had an ulcer on his leg at the time of the painting. Another example of the Romans using paintings as propaganda links to Henry VIII. His fourth wife,......

Words: 862 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Elements of Greek and Roman Cultures

...Elements of Greek and Roman Cultures By Agnes Lind The following chart compares and contrast distinguishing elements of early Greek and Roman cultures. The chart will also provide a couple examples of various features. Elements Greek Culture Roman Culture Government Each little city-state had its own polis. They called this citadel an acropolis. It served many purposes. They debated issues of the laws and settle disputes. Rome had Kings and was known as Roman Republic. They had soldiers and if you were high up in the military you could afford to be one of the horsemen. Geographical Area The main land is rugged mountains of country land that separates the small areas of farming land. Rome was actually built on seven hilly sites. The lower areas were swampy and could flood easily, while the higher areas were a little difficult for building. Economy Seeing how Greece was surrounded by mountains and sea, their economy was mainly into fishing, agriculture. They gathered their cash crops for exports. Agriculture and trade was the main economic production for the Romans. It did have some small industrial production though. Most of the metals used in these productions were gold, silver and bronze. Art Form The art form was figurines from a small size to life-size made of marble. The toes were always pointed downward and arms folded across the chest. The head was......

Words: 516 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Greek Architecture

...Greek Architecture Katisha Baker ART/101 Shahara Godfrey, Ph.D. March 10, 2013 Greek Architecture Greek architecture began to be revitalized during the 7th century. Initially, Greek architecture was constructed from wood and mud. The buildings we see today are made largely of limestone. The three periods expressed in these later building are Classical, Hellenistic and Roman. Limestone was quarried and cut into large blocks dressed to fit the need of the builders. Some buildings were constructed from marble. However, this material was prohibitively expensive. Marble was used for sculpture. The main styles of Greek architecture are Ionic and Doric. The Doric style dominated in most of Greece and in Italy. The Doric style is the more formal of the two, with the Ionic style being more decorative and relaxed. A shining example of Greek architecture in the Doric style is the Parthenon. Roman architecture, which is considered to be more advanced in its design and engineering, uses three types of columns. Their most common type is made in the Doric style. It is plain and was used when very heavy structures required support. The Ionic style was, again, employed when more decorative ends were being met. The third type is the Corinthian style column. It has finer details and is considered superior in many ways to the other two types. Roman architecture also employed the use of arches. These were stunning and baffling in their day. The use of arches led to the development of......

Words: 552 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Greeks and Romans

...Greeks and Romans HUM 100 August 2nd, 2011 Greeks and Romans Greeks and Romans The Greeks and Romans are two civilizations that are constantly compared thought out history. People tend to compare their beliefs, views on life, politics, religion just to name a few. The Greeks and Romans were two very powerful entities throughout history. Rich in history, science and the arts. One constant comparison between the Greeks and Romans are their gods. Although they each have different names for their gods, they are quite similar. Greeks views on the individual or the individual and society were that they understood themselves to belong to a common Greek genos their first and foremost loyalty was to their city and country and didn’t see anything wrong with fighting with other Greek city states. The most famous of these was the Peloponnesian war. Which was a civil war between Sparta and Athens. Many variations of this great civil war have been told. From history books to movies, cartoons and children’s storybooks. Through these movies, cartoons and children’s story books gods and heroes have been highlighted and praised. Same way the Greeks praised their gods and heroes. This was called the Heroic Age. Some scholars believe that certain Greek heroes and gods were based on a real men and women living in that time. One hero that stands out would be Hercules. Throughout his complicated mythology perhaps Hercules really existed as a chieftain of the......

Words: 972 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Greeks vs Romans

...Ancient Greek and Roman sculpture The sculpture of the Greeks and Romans represents one of the major arts of antiquity. It is diverse in its function. Greek monumental sculptures were developed on the islands of the Aegean and Crete in the middle of seventh century B.C. The adaptation of figures and technologies are borrowed from the Near East and Egypt make a new artistic idiom suitable to the needs of the individual city-states and the Greek sanctuaries. In around a century and a half, the developments rapidly led to the birth of Classical art that show the distinctiveness of the human figure. Sculpture was the perfect means for the expression of the new Classical ideal. There are three major periods of ancient Greek and Roman sculptures which are differentiated by their style and their function. The earliest sculptures appear in the Archaic period around 8th - 7th century BC. The sculptures illustrate form of small figures of men, animals, and gods in bronze, clay, or stone the usually standing or seated. The form is called Daedalic with a form of big heads, frontal figures, and triangular faces. In the late of the 7th century the Greeks aware of the Egypt sculpture and they change to make larger figures in hard white marble from the Cyclades islands. There are two main types of the figure, “the kouroi” who are naked males standing with one foot forward, hands to sides, and the korai, who are dressed in women. They are used for decorating buildings or dedications for the...

Words: 839 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Compare Contrast Greek and Roman Art and Architecture

...Compare/Contrast Greek and Roman Art and Architecture Since the onset of Greek and Roman civilizations centuries ago we have seen the art and architectural worlds evolve into what we know them as today. In fact, many of the ancient Greek styles were duplicated by the Romans and modified to suit their needs. We can still see a lot of Greek and Roman influences in the present day, especially in the architectural world. Below I will cite some examples of Greek and Roman pieces of art and a structure from each culture and detail some similarities as well as some contrasting values. I’d like to begin by comparing some pieces of art. In The Fallen Warrior (Greece) and The Dying Gaul (Roman copy) both clearly represent a tragic event. Both subjects are leaning on the ground and seem to be dying but the reality of the event is more evident in the Gaul sculpture. The wound is clearly visible and the anguish of the subject is captured in his poise. Conversely the subject of the Warrior piece looks rather content and shows no visible injury. Both works are roughly the same size and represent a relatively perfect human structure with attention to muscular detail as well as an idealization of the human body. However, the Warrior sculpture shows less optical fact and more stylization as far as the eyes, mouth and beard are concerned when compared to the almost true to nature elements of the Gaul piece. This shows how some of the Greek foundation was carried along but modified...

Words: 628 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Greek Architecture

...GREEK ARCHITECTURE THE DORIC ORDER: * In their original Greek version, Doric columns stood directly on the flat pavement (the stylobate) of a temple without a base; their vertical shafts were fluted with 20 parallel concave grooves; and they were topped by a smooth capital that flared from the column to meet a square abacus at the intersection with the horizontal beam (entablature) that they carried. The Parthenon has the Doric design columns. * Pronounced features of both Greek and Roman versions of the Doric order are the alternating triglyphs and metopes. The triglyphs are decoratively grooved with three vertical grooves ("tri-glyph") and represent the original wooden end-beams, which rest on the plain architrave that occupies the lower half of the entablature. Under each triglyph are peglike "stagons" or "guttae" (literally: drops) that appear as if they were hammered in from below to stabilize the post-and-beam (trabeated) construction. They also served to "organize" rainwater runoff from above. A triglyph is centered above every column, with another (or sometimes two) between columns, though the Greeks felt that the corner triglyph should form the corner of the entablature, creating an inharmonious mismatch with the supporting column. The spaces between the triglyphs are the "metopes". They may be left plain, or they may be carved in low relief. * The architecture followed rules of harmony. Since the original design came from wooden temples and the......

Words: 5435 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Compare Contrast Greek and Roman Art and Architecture

...Compare/Contrast Greek and Roman Art and Architecture Since the onset of Greek and Roman civilizations centuries ago we have seen the art and architectural worlds evolve into what we know them as today. In fact, many of the ancient Greek styles were duplicated by the Romans and modified to suit their needs. We can still see a lot of Greek and Roman influences in the present day, especially in the architectural world. Below I will cite some examples of Greek and Roman pieces of art and a structure from each culture and detail some similarities as well as some contrasting values. I’d like to begin by comparing some pieces of art. In The Fallen Warrior (Greece) and The Dying Gaul (Roman copy) both clearly represent a tragic event. Both subjects are leaning on the ground and seem to be dying but the reality of the event is more evident in the Gaul sculpture. The wound is clearly visible and the anguish of the subject is captured in his poise. Conversely the subject of the Warrior piece looks rather content and shows no visible injury. Both works are roughly the same size and represent a relatively perfect human structure with attention to muscular detail as well as an idealization of the human body. However, the Warrior sculpture shows less optical fact and more stylization as far as the eyes, mouth and beard are concerned when compared to the almost true to nature elements of the Gaul piece. This shows how some of the Greek foundation was carried along but modified by......

Words: 345 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Greek and Roman Architecture

...In Western culture the Greeks and Romans are citizens of the two most celebrated ancient cultures. “Classical art” was referred to the art of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture which the three primary areas of classical art are painting, architecture, and sculpture. The differences between Greek and Rome art are both interesting and significant for identification. Historically, the Greeks were the primary influences of the Romans in terms of artwork. The most obvious difference between Greek and Roman architecture is the material used. The Greeks used marble and the Romans used concrete. Greek sculptures are associated with white marble, Greek sculpture in the early classical period was often made in bronze during the high classical period. They were made from white marble and were often painted. Roman sculptors also used primarily white marble, though they did not paint their sculptures as Greeks did. Throughout the classical period Greek sculpture consisted primarily of depictions of Gods, mythological scenes and figures. These figures are often sculpted as "heroic nudes," in which the male figure is idealized. Although Roman sculpture, which features many copies of Greek sculptures, is also apprehensive with mythology. Romans often storied emperors and naturalistic examples of noble individuals. The Greeks not only had free-standing sculptures, but also sculpture worked into architecture. The panels primarily ran in horizontal strips above......

Words: 293 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Greek and Roman Architechture

...Greek and Roman Architecture Jennifer Thackrah ART 101 May 24, 2013 Harvey Tidwell Greek and Roman Architecture The art of architecture has been around for thousands of years. Some of the most extravagant and amazing architectural designs and inventions came from the ancient Greek and Roman time period. Proven to be masters in architecture, the Greeks and Romans created vast structures using techniques and inventions that we have adopted and still use today. Greek architecture was quite elaborate in its time. Greek structures were characteristically massive and extremely long and more commonly known for their temples. In addition, the Greeks also choose the placement of their temples atop higher ground overlooking the city so the structure could be seen from all over (Sayre, 2009). The Greeks used load-bearing construction to bear the weight of the structures' roof. Furthermore, post-and-lintel construction was also an essential technique used in all Greek architecture. Post-and-lintel construction used horizontal beams that were supported at the ends by a wall or vertical posts (Sayre, 2009). The vertical posts or columns used in post-and-lintel construction were composed using several large pieces of stone called drums (Sayre, 2009). Each drum had grooves carved into them that helped line the drums up evenly into a single column. The columns tapered at the top and bottom to help the columns look vertical; this technique is called entasis (Sayre, 2009). The Greeks......

Words: 819 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Comparison-Roman: Greeks

...Category | Greeks | Romans | Government | In ancient times, Greece was an independent, self governing city-state. Greece also invented democracy. The Greek government was divided into monarchies, oligarchies, tyrannies and democracies and in the Mycenean period (between 2000 and 1200 BC) all Greek city-states were ruled by kings (Carr, 2011) | In the earlier days Rome was governed by kings, but ancient Rome was schooled to form their own government and rule themselves ((Hons), 2011) | Geography Terrain | The Greeks had a mountainous terrain and rugged coastline; offering great protection from foreign invasions but hindering them from communication and trade (Buzzle.com, 2000-2010, 2011). The geography of ancient Greece was divided into 3 regions; the coast, the lowlands, and the mountains allowing for less than 20 percent of the land to be farmed (Rymer, 2010) | Rome was inland and also had hills and mountains running through it but they were not nearly as rugged to navigate through as the hills and mountains of Greece. Also the rivers that ran through the peninsula were shallow and easy to cross (Ashe, unknown). | Economy | Because of the mountainous and hilly land Greece placed much emphasis on importing goods (Walter Scheidel, 2007). | Ancient Roman currency and economy was an agrarian and slave based economy. Agriculture and the barter system controlled Roman economies (United Nations of Roma Victrix, 2011) | Trade Practices | Surrounded by water the seas......

Words: 839 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Romans vs Greeks

...Greeks and Romans affected and influenced each other greatly in the Hellenistic Period and Ancient Roman Civilization. The greatest effect of Hellenism; specifically between Rome and Greece; was communication. The spoken word, and the language of printing, sculpture, mosaics and architecture all of which they, and the various regions shared. As the provinces consumed the culture at a constant rate, they also managed to keep their own unique local characteristics and joined them while exploring the arts themselves. Architecture was one of the many characteristics of Greek life that the Romans borrowed various aspects of. The simple but elegantly executed Hellenic style had captivated the Romans as much as other perspectives of Greece. Architecture became a common denominator in the religious lives of Rome and Greece. During the last century of the Republic the attachment of the old indigenous form of worship was replaced by the influence of Modern Greek civilization. This combination of Greek mythology and Greek skepticism soon tended to abolish the deep religious feeling characteristic of the old Romans. The religious indifference of the upper classes grew into a decided animosity to religion itself, and many of the older temples fell into chaos. When finally repaired, the old Roman temples took on a unanimous Greek flavor. The Temple of Portunus for example was created by Romans and combined the Etruscan plans and Greek elevations. Another characteristic between Greece......

Words: 548 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Greek Culture Roman Culture

...The early Greek and Roman cultures fundamentals or descriptions were illustrated in the table beneath. Greek Culture Roman Culture Government Aristocrats once ruled the Greeks. After a number of years of war, the Democracy was presented and effective. Political, philosophical, and literary held great concerns. (Economic History, 2010) The Roman government is an uncompromising version of the Greeks. From the Monarchy there is a civilization change, holding the military and political control was the Aristocratic republic. “Executive, legislative and the judicial branch” were the branches that were presumed so that the political control would be composed. (2)(UN RV History, 2011) Geographical Greece is a peninsula. It has several smaller peninsulas attached. Peninsula meaning it is enclosed by water on three sides. Southwestern Europe is where it is positioned. It is “51,000 square miles” (Kidport, 2012) The “Seven Hills and The Tiber River” is what Rome’s geographical area consists of. (Maps of World, 2000) It forms the “backbone of the peninsular” and it is the western part of the Apennine Mountains. (Maps of World, 2000) Terrain Greece is roughly 20% made up of island and it has a small amount of plans, the rugged mountainous and the rocky terrain is what divided the cities and the states. (Kidport, 2012) As for the land, it was not capable of sustaining plant life and it was unnourished. On both sides there were small islands with......

Words: 921 - Pages: 4