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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования «Таганрогский государственный педагогический институт им. А. П. Чехова (филиал) РГЭУ РИНХ»

Реферат
«Эпический жанр»

Выполнила студентка группы ТИ-341
Белозерова Александра Олеговна
Преподаватель:
Куликов Виктор Павлович

Таганрог
2015 г.
Сождержание
1. Определение эпического жанра………..…………………………….………3
2.Особенности эпического жанра……………………………………………….4
3.Жанры эпоса…………………………………………………………………….5

Определение эпического жанра

Эпос — род литературы (наряду с лирикой и драмой), повествование о событиях, предполагаемых в прошлом (как бы свершившихся и вспоминаемых повествователем). Эпос охватывает бытие в его пластической объёмности, пространственно-временной протяжённости и событийной насыщенности (сюжетность). Согласно «Поэтике» Аристотеля, эпос, в отличие от лирики и драмы, беспристрастен и объективен в момент повествования.

Эпическое произведение не имеет ограничений в своем объёме. По словам В. Е. Хализева, «Эпос как род литературы включает в себя как короткие рассказы (…), так и произведения, рассчитанные на длительное слушание или чтение: эпопеи, романы (…)».

Значительную роль для эпических жанров несет образ повествователя (рассказчика), который рассказывает о самих событиях, о персонажах, но при этом отграничивает себя от происходящего. Эпос, в свою очередь, воспроизводит, запечатлевает не только рассказываемое, но и рассказчика (его манеру говорить, склад ума).

Эпическое произведение может использовать практически любые художественные средства известные литературе. Повествовательная форма эпического произведения «способствует глубочайшему проникновению во внутренний мир человека».

До XVIII века ведущий жанр эпической литературы — эпическая поэма. Источник её сюжета — народное предание, образы идеализированы и обобщены, речь отражает относительно монолитное народное сознание, форма стихотворная («Илиада» Гомера). В XVIII—XIX вв. ведущим жанром становится роман. Сюжеты заимствуются преимущественно из современности, образы индивидуализируются, речь отражает резко дифференцированное многоязычное общественное сознание, форма прозаическая (Л. Н. Толстой, Ф. М. Достоевский).

Другие жанры эпоса — повесть, рассказ, новелла. Стремясь к полному отображению жизни, эпические произведения тяготеют к объединению в циклы. На основе этой же тенденции складывается роман-эпопея («Сага о Форсайтах» Дж. Голсуорси).

Особенности эпического жанра

В каждом из литературных родов (эпос, лирика, драма) различна природа художественного образа, каждый из них использует свои, именно ему свойственные средства создания образа. «От лирического образа, сосредоточенного на изображении лишь отдельного переживания, — отмечает проф. Л. И. Тимофеев, — образ эпический отличается не только своей многогранностью, но и… динамичностью, от драматического образа — тем, что в эпосе человек изображается в рассказе о нем, а не в его самостоятельном действии на сцене».

Эпос, в отличие от лирики и драмы, — искусство повествовательное, характеризующееся изображением событий, независимых от личности повествователя. Еще Аристотель заметил, что автор эпического произведения рассказывает «… о событии, как о чем-то отдельном от себя». На эту особенность эпоса указывал и В. Г. Белинский: «Эпическая поэзия есть по преимуществу поэзия объективная, внешняя, как в отношении к самой себе, так и к поэту и его читателю»; «… поэт является только как бы простым повествователем того, что совершилось само собою».

Повествование, являясь основным средством эпического изображения, основным признаком эпоса, взаимодействует с другими способами эпического изображения — описаниями людей, быта, природы, монологами и диалогами персонажей, авторскими отступлениями и т.д. В целом же повествование доминирует в произведении, скрепляя воедино все в нем изображенное. Совокупность средств эпического изображения (при ведущей роли повествования) позволяет широко и глубоко отображать жизнь. Из всех форм повествования самой распространенной является повествование в третьем лице (от автора).

Эпос бывает прозаическим, поэтическим, смешанным, включает большие, средние и малые жанровые разновидности: эпопею, эпическую поэму, роман, повесть, рассказ, очерк, балладу, басню и др. Эпопея — Обширное повествование в прозе или стихах о национально-исторических событиях общенародного значения. Эту крупную форму (жанр) эпоса отличают масштабность, панорамность изображения жизни, в ней пересекаются сюжетные линии многих основных героев. В романе повествование сосредоточено на судьбе отдельной личности в ее отношении к окружающему миру, на становлении, развитии ее характера и самосознания.

Жанры эпоса

В основу деления на жанры в эпосе кладется объем жизненного материала, охваченного в произведении (пространство, время, количество героев, разветвленность действия, тематики).

Жанры эпоса делятся на три группы: малые, средние и большие формы.

Малые формы: изображается один или несколько эпизодов или случаев.

РАССКАЗ - малый жанр эпоса, особенностями которого являются небольшой объем, кратковременность событий, малое число персонажей.

НОВЕЛЛА - разновидность рассказа или повести, для которой характерно острое, напряженное действие, резкое нарушение размеренного течения жизни, неожиданная развязка, элементы символики.

ХУДОЖЕСТВЕННЫЙ ОЧЕРК - разновидность рассказа, для которой характерно почти документальное изображение отдельных жизненных явлений, нравов и характеров; основан на имитации документального очерка (жанр журналистики), но в отличие от него допускает вымысел, преувеличения, которые, однако, не должны вредить ощущению достоверности.

ПРИТЧА - небольшое иносказательное повествование, заключающее моральное или религиозное поучение.

БАСНЯ - малый жанр эпоса с сатирическим, ироническим и нравоучительным содержанием; литературный вариант притчи, в котором основной акцент делается на изображаемой картине, а моральное поучение (первостепенное для притчи) отходит на второй план.

Средние формы: изображаются несколько эпизодов или определенный жизненный период, описанные достаточно подробно.

ПОВЕСТЬ - жанр эпоса (средний между рассказом и романом), основанный на хроникальном сюжете, сосредоточенном вокруг главного героя, личность и судьба которого раскрываются в эпизодах.

МЕМУАРЫ - жанр эпоса, который имитирует документальный жанр воспоминаний реального лица о событиях, свидетелем которых он был, но на самом деле является художественным вымыслом.

ПУТЕВЫЕ ЗАПИСКИ - жанр эпоса, который имитирует документальный жанр путевых записок, но на самом деле является художественным вымыслом.

ДНЕВНИК - жанр эпоса, который имитирует документальный жанр дневника (записок о только что произошедших событиях), но на самом деле является художественным вымыслом.

ЦИКЛ РАССКАЗОВ - ряд рассказов, чем-то связанных между собой: темой, формой, персонажами, рассказчиками, местом действия, эпохой и т. д.

ЭПОПЕЯ - самый большой жанр древнего и средневекового эпоса. Повествование в стихах или в прозе о крупных национально-исторических событиях ("Илиада" и "Одиссея" Гомера - Древняя Греция; «Песнь о Нибелунгах» - Германия, «Песнь о Роланде» - Франция, «Эдда» - Скандинавия, былины -Древняя Русь).

РОМАН - большой жанр эпоса нового времени (начиная с эпохи Возрождения), раскрывающий историю нескольких взаимосвязанных человеческих судеб на протяжении длительного времени; особенностями романа являются: наличие нескольких сюжетных линий; изображение частной жизни (в отличие от древней эпопеи, главными объектами которой были народ, государство).

ПОЭМА В ПРОЗЕ - разновидность романа с весьма значительным лирическим началом.

РОМАН-ЭПОПЕЯ - большой роман или цикл романов, дающий широкую и многогранную картину мира; главная тема эпопеи - судьба народа; главный герой -народ («Человеческая комедия» Бальзака, «Сага о Форсайтах» Голсуорси, «Красное колесо» Солженицына). Лев Толстой. «Война и мир».

Романы с чертами РОМАНА-ЭПОПЕИ: Гоголь. Неосуществленный замысел поэмы в трех томах "Мертвые души", Шолохов. «Тихий Дон».

Тематические разновидности жанров эпоса (рассказа, повести, романа и т. д.)

ФИЛОСОФСКИЕ и РЕЛИГИОЗНО-ФИЛОСОФСКИЕ - произведения, ставящие вопросы о смысле человеческого бытия, о жизни и смерти.

ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ - произведения, в которых углубленно изображается внутренний мир человека, его переживания, мысли, эмоции, внутренние изменения (см. «Психологизм», глава І).

СОЦИАЛЬНЫЕ - произведения, в которых раскрываются темы и проблемы общественной жизни.

РОМАН-УТОПИЯ и РОМАН-АНТИУТОПИЯ. Жанр утопии - изображения вымышленной картины идеального социального устройства - открыл английский писатель Томас Мор (роман «Утопия», 1516). В русской литературе к этому жанру обратился Чернышевский (четвертый сон Веры Павловны в романе «Что делать?››).

Антиутопия - изображение вымышленной картины нежелательного, порочного социального устройства.

ЛЮБОВНЬІЕ
СЕМЕЙНО-БЬІТОВЬІЕ
ИСТОРИЧЕСКИЕ
ПРИКЛЮЧЕНЧЕСКИЕ (АВАНТЮРНЬІЕ)
ДЕТЕКТИВНЬІЕ и т. д.…...

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I Want to Read Some Paper!

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Examine the Problems That Some Sociologists May Face When Using Different Kinds of Experiments in Their Research

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