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Sticks and Stones

In: English and Literature

Submitted By taniachauhan
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1z NV-rapport

Lærere: nv-ke: JS & nv-bi: LK

Elevnr. 10 Navn: Tania Rehmat Chauhan |

Aflevering: Fredag 13/12-2013 senest kl. 9.30 på inspektorkontoret til HL eller AJ

NV Bi-Ke rapport
Indledning
Det overordnede tema i det naturvidenskabelige grundforløb har været klima, hvorved vi har haft nogle fokusfag – biologi og kemi. Nv biologi og Nv kemi har haft det samme undertema, hvilket er læren om jordens atmosfære og dens betingelse for liv. Begge fag har fokuseret på drivhuseffekten og drivhusgasser, dog med et syn fra både den biologiske og kemiske verden.
I biologi har formålet været at forstå livet betydning. Uden liv på jorden ville klimaet ikke havde forvrænget sig, som det har gjort i dag. På jorden er der en naturlig drivhuseffekt, som er med til at jordens gennemsnitstemperatur ligger på 15 grader i stedet for -18 grader. Der er også en menneskeskabt drivhuseffekt, som kommer fra al den afbrænding af kul og olie, hvilket har skabt vores industri samfund i dag. Følgerne af alt den afbrænding er dog blevet kritiske, da ved afbrænding bliver kullet eller olien til CO2 og vanddamp. Hernæst blander CO2 sig med atmosfæren. Konflikten opstår når solen sender sine varmestråler ned mod jorden. CO2 og andre drivhusgasser absorberer størstedelen af varmen og på længere sigt varmere kloden op. Vi har blandt andet arbejdet med nogle forsøg vedr. fotosyntesens lysafhængighed – herunder flaskehaven. Vi har også lagt en stor vægt på journalskrivning og forberedelsen til rapportskrivning.
I kemi har formålet været at lære om reaktionsskemaer, og afstemning af reaktionsskemaet. Vi har fokuseret på stofmængder og mængdeberegninger. Mest af alt har vi fokuseret på drivhusgassen CO2. I kemi har vi også fortaget os nogle forsøg, såsom calicuimcarbonat i tavlekridt og lightergas, hvor formålet var at beregne molare masse og stofmængde.
Teori
Fotosyntese er når en levende organisme danner et organisk stof ved hjælp af energi. Fotosyntesens råmaterialer er CO2 og vand. Energikilden er lys. Produktet er energirige kulhydrater såsom glukose og stivelse. Der dannes også en restprodukt som er molekylær ilt. Ilten indåndes af menneskerne og andre levende organisme. Fotosyntesen foregår hos planter, alger og visse bakterier. Den foregår i planternes grønkorn. I grønkornene er der et farvestof, som kan fange solens energi, hvilket kaldes klorofyl. Fotosyntesen foregår ved dagtimerne, hvor sollyset er tilgængeligt, dog kan for meget sollys beskadige grønkorne, som resulterer i plantens død.
Processen for fotosyntese ser således ud:
6CO2+6H2O+lysenergisollys→C6H1206+6O2
Respiration er et andet ord for vejrtrækning. Respirationen foregår forskelige steder for hver enkelt levende organisme. Hos pattedyr er luftudvekslingen gennem lungerne og hos planter er det i deres mitokondrier. Glukose nedbrydes til kuldioxid og vand, samtidig opbygges ATP ud fra ADP og P, dvs. at der frigives energi til cellen. Respirationsprocessen er ikke afhængig af lys (som i fotosyntesen), dog af ilt, hermed kan respirationen foregå både dag og nat.
Processen for respirationsproces er følgende:
C6H1206+6O2 →6CO2+6H2O+varme/ATP
Formål med forsøget
At undersøge om Priestlys resultater er korrekte eller ej?

Materialeliste | Lukket beholder (flaksehaven) | Planter (Bregner) | CO2 måler – til måling af CO2 Koncentration | O2 måler – til måling af O2 Koncentration | LoggerPro |
Metode
Forsøget er delt op i to dele. Forsøget opstilles i september måned. Delforsøg 1 starter kl 13. Der indsættes forskellige planter, blandt andet bregner, i en lukket beholder, hvilket bliver vores flaskehave. Den lukkede beholder indeholder almindelig atmosfærisk luft. Dernæst indsætter vi vores O2- og CO2 måler i beholderen, som hermed måler påvirkelsen af CO2 og O2. Delforsøg 1’s varighed er på 3 dage, altså 72 timer.
Delforsøg 2 opstilles på samme måde, dog med en iltfattig atmosfære. På samme måde, indsættes vores O2- og CO2 måler i beholderen, som nu kan måle påvirkelsen af CO2 og O2. Delforsøg 2 sættes dog i gang kl 10.30. Delforsøg 2’s varighed er på 17 dage, dvs. 408 timer.

Delforsøg 1
Opgave 1
Figur 1 viser CO2 koncentration i flaskehavens atmosfære som funktion af tiden, hvor x-aksen viser tiden i timer, og y-aksen viser CO2 koncentrationen i ppm. Kurven forløber sig over 72 timer, hvor der er aktiv svingninger i CO2 koncentrationen. Ved aflæsning kan man se at fra 1-5 timer, er der en lav CO2 koncentration, da fotosyntesen har sine gunstige forhold. Da dagtimerne forløber og lystilgængelighed formindskes sættes respirationsprocessen i gang, som hermed giver en høj CO2 koncentration. Hvert døgn når sin maksimum og minimum svingnings niveau. Første døgn får vi en maksimum værdi på 4600 ppm og en minimum værdi på 10 ppm. For det andet døgn ses at vi når en maksimum værdi på 4700 ppm og minimum værdi på 10 ppm. Dernæst kan man se at for det tredje døgn at maksimum værdien er 4900 ppm og minimums værdi 6 ppm. Hvis man forudsætter svingningerne for hele perioden kan man se at maksimum værdien er 4900 for tredje dag, og minimum værdien er 6 ppm, også fra tredje dag. Der forekommer også nogle stabile perioder, hvilket forefalder da der ikke er en forandring på sollyset. Kurven har en tendens til at stige gradvist for hvert døgn ved det maksimale niveau og aftage gradvist ved det minimale niveau.

Opgave 2

Figur 2. viser O2 koncentrationen i flaskehavens atmosfære som funktion af tiden, hvor x aksen er tiden i timer, og i y-aksen er O2 koncentrationen i procent. Kurven forløber over 72 timer, hvor kurven er ganske jævn. Der er målt forskellige svingninger for diverse døgn og for hele perioden. * Første døgn: Maksimum værdi 19,8 % Minimum værdi 19,1 % * Andet døgn: Maksimum værdi 19,9 % Minimum værdi 19 % * Tredje døgn: Maksimum værdi 20 % Minimum værdi 19, 3 % * Hele periodens svingninger: Maksimums værdi 20 % Minimums værdi 19 %
Kurven har en tendens til at falde ganske lidt ved nattetimerne, da respirationsprocessen er i gang og der bliver produceret CO2. Opgave 3

3.1)
Vores regressions formel er y = 366,48x - 1534,6. Vi har en lineær regression, da formlen for lineær regression er y = ax + b. Vi ved at hældningskoefficient er a, dvs. 366,48, med andre ord stiger CO2 koncentrationen med 366,48 ppm pr. time. R2 er en betegnelse for præcisionen af punkterne på en given tendenslinje. Vores R2 ligger på 0,9983. Jo tættere tallet R2 er på 1,00 jo bedre er målingerne.

3.2)
Vi bruger idealgasligningen n = p*VR*T
Hvor vi ved at vores tryk (p) er 101 kPa. Vores volumen (V) er 0,366 L (366,48 ppm/1000=0,366 L), gaskonstanten er 8,314 J, og da vi skal bruge kelvintemperatur så (273+20) 293 K.
Vi sætter vores tal ind i ligningen n = 101 kPa*0,366l8,314 J*293K = 0,015 mol
Derefter ganger vi vores mol med molar massen af CO2, hvilket er 44,01 G PR MOL
0,015*44,01 = 0,66015 g CO2 per time ganger med 1000 for mg = 660,15 mg
Vi skal finde ud af hvor meget det fylder i forhold til akvariets som 40 L
660,15*0,04= 26,4 mg/cm3

Opgave 4

4.1)

4.2)
Vi bruger endnu engang idealgasligningen, dog udskifter vi volumen med 0,771 L (771,86/1000)
N = 101 kPa*-0,771l8,314 J*293K = -0,032 mol
Vi ganger nu mol med molar massen af CO2
-0,032*44,01 = -1,408 mg CO2 per time.
For at finde ud af hvor meget det fylder i forhold til akvariets som er 40 L, hvilket vi omskriver til cm3
-1,408*0,04= -0,056 mg/cm3 4.3)
Y= -771,86x + 18417 - Vi kan se at grafen aftager, dvs. CO2 formindskes for hver time. Hermed kan vi påvise at planten laver fotosyntese.
Y=366,48x - 1534,6 - Vi kan se ud fra grafen at den stiger at den danner mere CO2 og vi kan ud fra det påvise at planten laver respiration.

4.4)
Vi kender til Glukosens stofmængde, hvilket er 1 mol, dernæst divider vi med 6, fordi grafen er aftagende. Herefter ganger vi med glukosens molar masse, 180,18 g, som resulterer i mg glukose per time.
16 * 180,18 = 30,03 mg per time.

Diskussion
CO2 niveauet svinger, da ved dagtimerne er der sollys tilgængelig, som starter fotosyntesen. I denne periode er der en lav CO2 konc. Da CO2, sammen med H2O og sollys, er i gang med at producere glukose og O2. Ved nattetimerne er der ingen sollys, som hermed sætter respirationen i gang, hvilket resulterer i en høj CO2 koncentration. Jeg mener at der kommer stabile niveauer, da der kommer et skift for planten, hvor den skifter fra fotosyntese til respiration. Dette skift tager ikke kun få minutter men flere timer.
CO2 er en begrænset faktor for plantens vækst, eftersom planten bruger CO2 til fotosyntese og udleder glukose og O2, hvilket bruges til deres vækst. Hvis der ikke er mere CO2 i atmosfæren, kan der ikke laves fotosyntese og hermed ikke producerer glukose og O2, hvilket stopper tilvæksten.
O2 niveauet svinger, ligesom med CO2, da der både foregår fotosyntese og respiration i planten på et døgn. O2 niveauet ligger stabilt, da endnu engang kommer der et skift mellem fotosyntese og respiration.
Stigningen af O2 skyldes fotosyntese. Denne stigning kan skyldes plantens vækst. Planten får glukose via fotosyntesen, som den så bruger til vækst og respiration, dette kaldes også BPP (bruttoprimærproduktion).
Planterne har primært en meget stor betydning for atmosfærens indhold af CO2, da resultaterne fra delforsøg 2 viser at kurven ”CO2 koncentration i flaskehavens atmosfære som funktion af tiden”, er aftagende, med andre ord omdanner planterne en højt CO2 koncentration til en lav, ved at bruge den CO2 rige atmosfære til fotosyntese, og gøre atmosfæren mere iltrigt. Priestleys eksperiment viste, at for meget CO2 kunne blive til ”dårligt luft”, som er meget skadeligt for mennesket eller i det hele taget for levende organismer. Planterne er grunden til at vi får ”rent luft”.
Konklusion
Vi kan hermed konkludere at Priestlys opdagelse af ”forbedret luft” ved hjælp af indsættelse af en plante i ”dårlig luft”, giver positive resultater. Vi ser hvordan O2 kurven i delforsøg 2 vokser, da planten begynder at bruge CO2 til fotosyntesen.
Perspektivering
Når de fleste mennesker tænker på drivhuseffekten, så er det ofte i forbindelse med noget negativt, dog er der også nogle positive elementer ved drivhuseffekten. Hvis vi ikke havde drivhuseffekten ville Jorden blive meget koldere. Drivhusgasserne har en stor absorberingsevne, som dels er grund i at Jorden holder på varmen. Hvis drivhuseffekten ikke fandt sted, ville jorden opleve endnu en istid, hvilket ville stoppe vores havstrømme og ændre på fersk – og saltvands densitet.
Den menneskabt drivhuseffekt er dog meget skadelig, da Uv-strålingen bliver intensiv (pga. hul i ozonlaget), og kan frembryde flere former for sygdomme, bl.a. større chancer for kræft.
I Danmark udleder vi i gennemsnit omkring ni ton CO2 pr år, og heraf stammer cirka 6 ton fra vores privatforbrug. Vi kan undgå udledning af CO2 ved at få ”grøn strøm.” Grøn strøm er miljøvenligt strøm i stikkontakterne produceret af vedvarende energikilder. Vi kan bl.a. benytte offentlig transport, slukke for alle unødvendige apparater som ikke er i brug og ved at bruge forskellige former for energi, f.eks. sol - og vindenergi.…...

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