Premium Essay

Surrogacy in Australia

In: Social Issues

Submitted By maysaadat
Words 887
Pages 4
Types of Parents and Carers
Biological Parents: A biological parent has provided the genetic material required for parenting. This means that the parent provides the sperm or the ova. Generally Biological parents contribute genetic material as a result of sexual intercourse. However, with assisted reproductive technologies, creation of a foetus may involve other procedures.
Social Parents: Social parents are not genetically related to the child but participate in the role of parenting. Social parents can become parents through adoption, fostering, step-parenting or surrogacy. The parents take on responsibilities of being a parent and may face particular difficulties due to the nature of their relationship with the child.
Adoption: Is the process by which a child is given legal responsibility to a family other than their biological family. There are 3 types of adoption:
1. Child is already placed with prospective parents e.g. step-parent or other relative
2. Local Adoption and Over Seas Adoption (Australia is a signatory to the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption)
3. Adoption of children with special needs
Children are no longer considered by law as belonging to or forming part of their biological family. A new birth certificate is issued showing the child as being part of the adopted family, and often the child’s name is changed at the same time. The Adoption Information Act 1990 enables adoptees, at 18 years of age, to have access to their original birth certificates. It also enables biological parents to have access to details of their child’s adopted identity when the child they surrendered turns 18. Both parties need to register their consent before the information can be given out. Challenges that may be experienced by the adopted children include:
 When the child finds out they are adopted they may wish to locate their biological parents…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Australia

...Macro analysis The macro analysis describe the environmental factors of Australia with six steps. These steps could be defined as DEPEST; demographic factors, economical factors, political factors, ecological factors, social-cultural factors and technological factors. Demographics (1+2) Australia is one of the biggest countries in the world. Australia’s estimated resident population at June 2013 was 23,062,985. This is an increase of 1,12% over the previous year. Natural increase and oversea migration seem to be the most important factors for this increase. With this increase, Western Australia was the fastest growing part (2,2%) and the Nothern part the slowest (0.4%). The population of Australia if mainly concentrated in urban areas in the south-east and east. The major cities of Australia in 2012, according to the population, are: - Sydney: 4.667 million - Melbourne: 4.246 million - Brisbane: 2.189 million - Perth: 1.897 million - Canberra (capital): 411,609 Population facts The median age of the Australia’s population in 2012 was 37.9 years, with an average of 37.1 years for male and 38.6 years for women. In 1990, the median age was 32.1 years, so it could be expected that population ageing is projected to have significant implications for Australia over the next several decades. The median age of Australia’s population is expected to continue, with between 38.7 and 40.7 years in 2026 to between 41.9 and 45.2 years in 2056. As a consequence,......

Words: 302 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ethics and Laws Regarding Surrogacy

...Look into Ethics and Laws Regarding Surrogacy HCA 322: Health Care Ethics and Medical Law A Deeper Look into Ethics and Laws Regarding Surrogacy When one or more persons contract with a woman to gestate a child than relinquish that child after birth to the person or couple is known as surrogacy. It is a course of action that goes outside of natural reproduction. For some, it is the only method of having children, extending family. Surrogacy has been stirring up many controversies over the years. Ethics, morals, laws, religious views, etc. have played a major role in the issues that follow the topic of surrogacy. Laws and regulations pertaining to surrogacy vary from state to state. Some states have no enforceable laws towards surrogacy, while others only permit surrogacy contracts that are uncompensated arrangements and gestational agreements (Trimarchi, 2011). Some states prohibit same sex couples from entering into any form of surrogacy contracts. In this paper, I will be address the legal and ethical issues involved and other aspects of surrogacy. History of Surrogacy and Case Study Surrogacy was assumed to have been around since the Babylonian times. Alternatively, the most credible records to date allocate managing legal passivity and the public responses during the middle of the 20th century. Surrogacy did not become public in 1976, when Attorney Noel Keane negotiated the first ever surrogacy agreement ("History of surrogacy," 2011). Attorney Noel Keane and......

Words: 2523 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Ethical and Legal Dilemmas of Surrogacy

...and Legal Dilemmas of Surrogacy Christie Blackwell HCA 322 Dr. Nine Bell June 17, 2013 Ethical and Legal Dilemmas of Surrogacy Many individuals have a life plan consisting of college, marriage, and then children. After numerous methods of conception, many couples are still unable to conceive a child. A woman who enters into a contract with a couple, agreeing to carry and birth a child, then hand that child over to the contracted couple, who is often unable to conceive own their own naturally is considered surrogacy (Pozgar, 2012). Surrogacy raises many ethical and legal issues for all parties involved. Is it moral or immoral to enter into an agreement with a woman to birth a child for money? What are the legal rights of the woman conceiving or of the couple? Should the child be aware of the process in which he or she was born? Does the child have rights to access the confidential records of the process? These are a just a few questions that will be addressed throughout this paper. Discussed below is the history of surrogacy, the ethical and legal dilemmas that surround surrogacy, alternative solutions to surrogacy, and the potential effects and future implications of how surrogacy may be addressed. There are two types of surrogacy arrangements to consider. These types of surrogacy are genetic and gestational. Genetic or traditional surrogacy is where the surrogate mother contributes her genetic makeup to the offspring, whereas gestational surrogacy consists of the......

Words: 2976 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Surrogacy

...referred to an arrangement in which a woman becomes pregnant for the sole purpose of having a child that another couple will raise. This discovery causes to wake up each and everyone's mind. It also gave birth to the undying rivalry between pros and cons. Surrogacy is entitled with issues and controversies. It also left questions to our mind. Who really suffered and benefited with this? Other debates include moral and ethical questions. Does surrogacy go against natural selection, and is the burden it will cause to the children, the parents, and the surrogate mother, worth it? Some people believe that if an individual does not have the ability of reproduction, it should be selected, and technology should not be used to alter God’s plan. Surrogacy provides some couples with their only hope of raising a child genetically related to at least one of them. They believe that everyone should be given the chance to have a family, and if the surrogate mothers are willing to do it, they do not see a problem with it. II.BODY History of surrogacy can be traced back in the time of Holy Bible and Roman history, where the culture regarded positively about carrying a baby for an infertile couple. The bible book of Genesis, a story of surrogacy was recorded in chapter 16. About the story of Sarah and Abraham, a nomadic Hebrew couple unable to conceive. Sarah offered her Egyptian slave Hagar as a surrogate, but later drove her away from the camp when Hagar became impudent during......

Words: 3137 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Australia

...Australia is an island continent and the world's sixth largest country (7,682,300 sq km). Lying between the Indian and Pacific oceans, the country is approximately 4,000 km from east to west and 3,200 km from north to south, with a coastline 36,735 km long. Canberra is Australia's capital city. With a population of approximately 320,000 people and situated in the Australian Capital Territory, Canberra is roughly half way between the two largest cities Melbourne and Sydney. Australia has 19 listed World Heritage properties. Australia is also famous for its landmark buildings including the Sydney Harbour Bridge; its ancient geology, as well as for its high country. The majority of Australia experiences temperate weather for most of the year. The northern states of Australia are typically warm all the time, with the southern states experiencing cool winters but rarely sub-zero temperatures. Snow falls on the higher mountains during the winter months, enabling skiing in southern New South Wales and Victorian ski resorts, as well as the smaller resorts in Australia's island state, Tasmania. As of October 2012, Australia's population is roughly 22.7 million people. The most populous states are New South Wales and Victoria, with their respective capitals, Sydney and Melbourne, the largest cities in Australia. Australia's population is concentrated along the coastal region of Australia from Adelaide to Cairns, with a small concentration around Perth, Western Australia. The centre of...

Words: 298 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Surrogacy: a Chance to Life or a Conspiracy

...Surrogacy is when another woman carries and gives birth to a child for another individual. Though it can be an emotionally intense and legally complex arrangement, it is growing in popularity among parents as a way of having children.  Having another woman bear a child for a couple to raise, usually with the male half of the couple as the genetic father, is referred to in antiquity. Babylonian law and custom allowed this practice and infertile woman could use the practice to avoid a divorce, which would otherwise be inevitable. One well-known example is the Biblical story of Sarah and Abraham, a nomadic Hebrew couple unable to conceive. Sarah offered her Egyptian slave Hagar as a surrogate, but later drove her away from the camp when Hagar became impudent during pregnancy. Hagar fled to Egypt, where an angel told her that her son Ishmael would become a leader amongst the Hebrews; she subsequently returned to Sarah and Abraham. Surrogacy requires a lot of time, money and patience to succeed, whether it's carried out privately or through an agency. But it can bring happiness to all concerned if the medical, legal, financial and emotional aspects are properly considered. Why choose surrogacy Someone may choose surrogacy if one can't carry a pregnancy, perhaps because: * Have had recurrent miscarriages. * Have a health condition which makes pregnancy and birth dangerous. * Uterus (womb) is abnormal or absent, whether since birth or after a hysterectomy. *...

Words: 2795 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Australia

...Land and Climate Area (sq. mi.): 2,988,902 Area (sq. km.): 7,741,220 Australia is the sixth largest country in the world. It is just smaller than Brazil and about four-and-a-half times the size of the U.S. state of Alaska. Australia is the only country that occupies a complete continent. It is also the driest inhabited continent in the world. About one-third of its land is desert and another third is composed of poor-quality land. A long chain of mountains, the Great Dividing Range, runs along the Pacific coast. Fertile farmland lies east of the Great Dividing Range, in the southwestern corner of Western Australia, and in the island state of Tasmania. Cattle stations (ranches) reach the edge of the barren interior desert. The famed Australian Outback is an undefined region that encompasses all remote, undeveloped areas. The Outback is seen as a mystical heartland or frontier—a symbol of Australia's strength and independence—where the climate is hot, life is hard, and people are tough, independent, and few. CultureGramsTMWorld Edition 2015 | Commonwealth of Australia | BACKGROUND include the emu, cockatoo, and kookaburra. Australia's snakes are among the most venomous in the world. BACKGROUND include the emu, cockatoo, and kookaburra. Australia's snakes are among the most venomous in the world. Among Australia's natural wonders is the Great Barrier Reef, a system of coral reefs that extends more than 1,250 miles (2,000 kilometers) near Australia's northeast......

Words: 6375 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Australia

...Australia- by A.D Hope (Alec Derwent Hope) A.D. Hope was born in 1907, cooma, New South Wales, Australia was an Australian poet and essayist known for his satirical slant. He was also a critic, teacher and academic. Hope began publishing poems when he was 14 years old and also was educated in Australia and at the University of Oxford. His first book of poem “the wandering Islands” appeared in 1955 and followed by several volumes of new poems and collected poems. He was appointed an officer of the order of the British Empire in 1972 and a companion of the order f Australia in 1981 and awarded many other honors. A.D. hope is an Australian poet. Australian poets write about aborigines (native Australians) and about their identity in their poems. The poem Australia talks about the present condition of Australia. The poem is written in an ABBA rhyme scheme, which adds a gentle, easy-going flow to the poem. According to the poet Australia was once a land of tress, but today it is full of war and soldiers. The hills of Australia are now dark and broken like lion statue of Egypt. And the poet mention that other people call Australia as a young country in the second stanza. But the poet does not agree with them because for him Australia is the “last of lands”. Poet refers “her” to Australia. Australia has a long history. Then the poet compares between Australia and a women. He talks about the changes of a women throughout life and compares it with Australia. So as a whole he is......

Words: 491 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Australia

...One place I have always dreamed of visiting and living is Australia. Whenever I see Australia on TV everything looks beautiful. The people seem very friendly and warm. Culturally it seems like a good fit for me because the people are pretty easy going and so am I. The country is made up very similar to us in its people according to http://www.indexmundi.com/ a few positives for me is that the infant mortality rate is lower and the life expectancy is a little higher in Australia. One big note is the obesity rate is 26% amongst adults versus 33% in the US. 0 Financially the country is very stable. Their GDP is 999 billion and their 5 year growth rate is 2.5. The unemployment rate is 5.6% which is not too different then the US. The countries prominent religion is Protestant at 28% followed by Catholic at 25% in the U.S it is protestant at 58% and Catholic at 23%. So it seems more people in Australia have a defined religion than in the U.S. Liberal Party leader Tony Abbott was elected prime minister following his coalition’s victory in national election in 2013. Like Australia, the United States has a system of government that enshrines the idea of indirect democracy. Like Australia, the American system is based on principles of political equality, majority rule and the preservation of minority rights. The United States is the oldest continuing democracy in the world today and one of the first to embrace the idea of popular sovereignty. However, it is relatively unique......

Words: 999 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Australia

...Australia. Plan. 1. Australia explained in brief 2. States and territories 3. Sistem of governement 1. Australian democracy 2. The constitution 3. The federal government and Parliament 4. State and local government 5. The judiciary 4. The wildlife and conservation 1. Wuldlife 2. Nature conservation 3. Regreening Australia 4. Education 5. International links 5. Cultural growth 1. The australia council 2. Aboriginal arts 6. Australia today 1. AUSTRALIA EXPLAINED IN BRIEF. Australia is an independent Western democracy with a population of more than 17.6 million. It is one of the world’s most urbanised countries, with about 70 per cent of the population living in the 10 largest cities. Most of the population is concentrated along the eastern seaboard and the south-eastern corner of the continent. Australia’s lifestyle reflects its mainly Western origins, but Australia is also a multicultural society which has been enriched by nearly five million settlers from almost 200 nations. Four out of 10 Australians are migrants or the first-generation children of migrants, half of them from non-English speaking backgrounds. In 1991-92, East Asia contributed 41 per cent of settler arrivals. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people totalled 265 378 at the last census, nearly 1.5 per cent of the population. Two thirds of the indigenous people live in towns and cities. Many others live in rural and remote areas, and some still have a......

Words: 5310 - Pages: 22

Free Essay

Australia

...A) The per capita GDP of Australia is $40,000. In comparison to other countries, Australia ranks nineteenth. The unemployment rate is currently at 5.6% which is ranked fiftieth in the world, when compared to other countries. Finally, the inflation rate is at 1.8%, which is down for the 4.4% it was in 2008. Australia’s inflation rate is ranked at sixty-fourth in the world. B) The top exports of Australia are coal, iron ore, and sheep. In 2009, Australia exported $245.9 billion worth of exports and it is predicted that in 2010-2011 Australia will export about $169.8 billion worth of goods in the energy category alone. It is the world’s largest exporter of coal. C) Similar to the United States, the currency of Australia is in dollars, but these dollars are different from U.S. currency dollars. On September 1, 1003, the exchange rate of Australian dollars to U.S. dollars is .65. This means that the equivalent of one Australian dollar is equal to .65 U.S. dollars or sixty-five cents. Just a few short years later on September 1, 2005 the exchange rate from Australian dollars to U.S. dollars was at .75. The Australian dollar slightly increased in value since 2003. After another couple years, on September 1, 1007 the exchange rate of Australian dollars to U.S. dollars was up to .82. Finally on September 1, 2009 the exchange rate was at .84. Given these number, it shows that in comparison to U.S. dollars the Australian dollar has increased in value in every year since...

Words: 575 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Surrogacy in India

...In Oct 2008, the Supreme Court ruled that "commercial surrogacy is legal and an industry in India", making it a legally protected and viable option for international couples. Named the Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill, 2013, it seeks to address issues like how many pregnancies can be allowed for a surrogate mother, the age of the mother and due compensation to be paid to her. "The issues addressed in the bill are compensation, informed consent and health of the women involved,” He said that the bill might also provide a punishment framework for violators. The bill will also provide a framework for letting foreigners use Indian surrogate mothers. Surrogacy in India has always been a controversial subject with activists blaming foreigners for exploiting poor women. In 2012, an Australian couple left behind one of the twins born to an Indian surrogate mother because they could not afford to bring up two children back home. The Indian case happened about two years ago and echoes the recent case of baby Gammy, who was born in Thailand to a surrogate mother and whose Australian parents only brought back his twin sister. In the Landmark case Baby Manji Yamada v. Union of India, a Japanese couple, Dr. Ikufumi Yamada and his wife, wished to have a baby and entered into a surrogacy contract with an Indian woman in Anand, a city in the state of Gujarat where this practice was pioneered. The couple went through matrimonial discord but the father still insisted on......

Words: 2992 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Australia

...How you would recognize the difference in societal culture of Australia from other countries? The basic rules of Australian social etiquette do not relate to how a fork should be held, or who should be served first at a dinner table. Instead, most of Australia's rules relate to expressing equality. Basically, as long as you appreciate that Australians want to be treated as equal irrespective of their social, racial or financial background, anything is acceptable. Displays of wealth may be seen as signs of superiority and frowned upon accordingly. Likewise, the acceptance of generosity may be seen as a sign of bludging or inferiority and may be frowned upon Egalitarianism In myth, Australia is a country where people are assessed on the content of their character rather than the colour of their skin, economic background or job.  A salient example of the myth can be seen in Melbourne's Section 8 bar. Located in an alley in the middle of Melbourne's CBD, Section 8 uses packing crates as seats. The toilets are made out of shipping containers and the bar is just enclosed with a fence. Section 8 attracts rich businessmen, Japanese tourists, struggling artists and even homeless people. It is deliberately designed to be unpretentious. As a result, it attracts people from all walks of life that want to mingle with someone different from themselves. Splitting the bill at a restaurant In most Asian countries, if a group of friends go out for dinner, the wealthiest member of a......

Words: 1185 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Gestational Surrogacy

...Gestational Surrogacy: A Discussion My feelings regarding gestational surrogacy are limited only by my lack of knowledge on this subject. Moreover, I have no doubt this topic has passionate and appropriate arguments on both sides. Personally, family to me has included my nuclear family (husband and children) and extended family (parents, siblings, nieces, etc…). Once individuals choose to include third party participants in the formation or growth of their nuclear family; a whole host of challenges will be presented. In 2012, New Jersey utilized the Bioethics Commission to analyze this issue. A passage by Chief Justice Wilentz captured a sentiment shared by many. He stated, “There are, in a civilized society, some things that money cannot buy. In America, we decided long ago that merely because conduct purchased by money was “voluntary” did not mean that it was good or beyond regulation and prohibition. . . There are, in short, values that society deems more important than granting to wealth whatever it can buy, be it labor, love, or life” (Cassidy.H. 2012, para. 14). Utilizing gestational surrogacy as a viable option to parenthood is a very private and emotionally charged action and can lead to an equally charged reaction (good, bad or indifferent). My analysis of this topic raises deeper issues for me and in no way do I judge either side of this debate. Parenthood is challenging enough without including legalities as a birthday present for this little life.......

Words: 507 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Australia

...Australia (i/əˈstreɪljə/ ə-STRAYL-yə [10] or /ɒˈstreɪlɪə/[11] or /ɒˈstreɪljə/ o-STRAYL-yə), officially the Commonwealth of Australia,[12] is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.[N 4] It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area. Neighbouring countries include Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the north; the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Caledonia to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. For at least 40,000 years[14] before European settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians,[15] who belonged to one or more of roughly 250 language groups.[16][17] After discovery by Dutch explorers in 1606, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades; the continent was explored and an additional five self-governing Crown Colonies were established. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Since Federation, Australia has maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy. The federation comprises six states and several territories. The population of 22.7 million [5] is heavily......

Words: 329 - Pages: 2