Premium Essay

The Four Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John

In: Religion Topics

Submitted By rajandree
Words 1129
Pages 5
The four gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John
1. Introduction
The term Gospel means good news, a message which was desperately needed (Guthrie, 1965: 11).
According to Talbot (2013: 69) gospels can be divided into 2 groups namely the Synoptic gospels- Matthew, Mark and Luke and Gospel of John. He explains that Matthew, Mark and Luke are called the synoptic gospels because they have so much in common. Kotze (6), outlines their similarities and differences as follows:
|Mark | |Matthew | |Luke |
|Total: 661 verses | |Total :1068 verses | |Total: 1149 verses |
|600 verses parallel to Matthew | |505 verses parallel to Mark | |380 verses parallel to Mark |
|61 verses peculiar to Mark | |235 versus parallel to Luke | |235 versus parallel to Matthew |
| | |328 verses peculiar to Matthew | |534 verses peculiar to Luke |

There are suggestions due the similarities and differences that (1) Mark was the original writer and was copied by Matthew and Luke (2) Matthew was original writer copied by Luke, and Mark made a shorter version.

The material where obtained from the following suggested sources: (1) Oral tradition – the good news spread by word of mouth before it was written down (2) An earlier gospel (3) Unique sources available to Matthew alone and Luke alone and (4) A common Source ( the Q sources), being the sayings of Jesus (Talbot ,2013: 69).

2. The Gospel of Matthew
• Matthew, a Jew was a Tax Collector for the Romans who left his job when Jesus called him and became one of the twelve apostles. (Matt 9:9-13)
• Matthew writes to the Jewish Christians…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

The Gospel of John

...In many ways the Gospel of John remains a mystery—it hints at who its author is and yet never explicitly tells us. The story seems simple and straightforward, and yet one feels as though the author is often hinting at still deeper truths. In the New Testament it stands alone, distanced from the Synoptics by its unique presentation of the Christ-event. Of the four gospels, John is by far the most poetically written and the most distinct in terms of style, narrative and approach. While there are varying theories about who wrote it and when, it can be agreed on that the Gospel of John was written for not only a very different audience than the synoptic gospels, but also written independently of them. This can be seen in the basic language that it is written in, and can also be seen because there is no mention anywhere of the parables, Jesus' primary teaching method according to the synoptic gospels. Instead, John makes use of miracles and uses examples from Jesus' ministry to demonstrate his power and divinity. He uses his power over nature to raise people from the dead, heal a blind man and feed 5000 people with the physical amount of food for only a few. The gospel narrative contains a series of "signs"--the gospel's word for the wondrous deeds of Jesus. The author is primarily interested in the significance of these deeds, and so interprets them for the reader by various reflections, narratives, and discourses. The first sign is the transformation of water into wine...

Words: 809 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

John and the Synoptic Gospels

...The gospels put emphasis on Jesus’ religious meaning, it is to inspire life giving faith in the readers. There are the Synoptic Gospels and then there is the Gospel of John. The Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke) are three versions of the same sayings or incidents of Jesus life. They follow the same order of events in narrating Jesus’ public ministry. All four concentrate exclusively on the last phase of Jesus’ life, the period of his public ministry when his teachings both attracted devoted followers and created bitter enemies. Matthew: It tells the story some what differently, avoiding any implications that Jesus made have had limited powers and stating merely that Jesus “did not work many miracles there”. In Matthew, Jesus first public act is to deliver the sermon on the mound demonstrating his authorities as a teacher, upholding and interoperating the Mosaic Law, He also represents Jesus’ birth and ministry as fulfilling prophecies from the Hebrew Bible. Matthew betrays Jesus as a greater Moses who demands a higher righteousness unlike Mark and Luke. All four concentrate exclusively on the last phase of Jesus’ life, the period. Mark: Marks gospel for instance seems to consist a string of incidents, anecdotes, and sayings that are very loosely connected to one another. Mark, is the first Gospel, who was stitched together of previously isolated oral units, individual episodes illustrating Jesus words and deeds. According to Mark, Jesus first act was to......

Words: 471 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Why John Is the Most Jewish Gospel

...While numerous scholars say that John is the Gospel to the world (and Matthew to the Jews, Mark to the Romans, and Luke to the Greeks), a Jewish scholar such as Israel Abrahams might very well believe that the Gospel of John is the most Jewish Gospel of the four by the way it reflects Jewish traditions and symbolisms. According to David Wenham[i], there is more attention given to Jesus as the Messiah in the Gospel of John than in any of other Gospels. In John, from chapter one onwards people are directly talking about Jesus as Messiah, and then there is intense public debate about whether Jesus is Messiah or not in John 7:25-31, 41-44[ii], which indicates that John is quite mindful of Jewish issues. Wenham also asserts that there is a greater emphasis on Jesus' participation in the Jewish festivals in Jerusalem. While the synoptic Gospels only describe the fully-grown Jesus going up to Jerusalem for the Passover at the end of his ministry, John reports Jesus going up to at least two Passovers, the Feast of Tabernacles and the Feast of Dedication (Hanukah). That might not prove anything, but it seems likely that John perceives Jesus as in some way fulfilling the symbolism of those Jewish festivals. The feast of Passover, referred to in John 6, celebrated the exodus from Egypt, and so Jesus within that context speaks of himself as the true bread come down from heaven (i.e. as the new manna 6:32-51). The feast of tabernacles, referred to in John 7 and 8, involved a......

Words: 658 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Why Four Gospels? Book Critique

...BOOK CRITIQUE: WHY FOUR GOSPELS? Tiago Souza NBST 515 September 24, 2013 INTRODUCTION This work will analyze the book “Why Four Gospels” by David Alan Black. The main objective will be compare the Fourfold-Gospel Hypothesis opposed to the Markan Priority. In order to do that, this work will first analyze the historical background and reality context of the composition of each gospel. The author David Black has published over 100 scholarly articles and book reviews in such journals as Novum Testamentum, New Testament Studies, Bible Translator, Journal of Biblical Literature, and many others. He also serves as Professor of New Testament and Greek and the Dr. M. O. Owens Jr. Chair in New Testament Studies at Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary in Wake Forest, North Carolina. SUMMARY The book starts by bringing up a description of the development of the gospels, and a not very known basic historical fact is that the Gospels were written through a not so brief period of time. The “Gospel according to Mathew” was published in 42 AD, and there was a 20-25 years gap between its publication and the publication of “Luke’s Gospel” and “The gospel according to Mark”. And than, another huge gap between the publication of those and finally “The Gospel of John” being published in 96 AD, so there was a 54 years interval between the publication of the 4 Gospels, and that fact shows that sometimes God likes to act in a way that takes time, seems unusual to human eyes, but in...

Words: 3283 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Some Differences Between the Synoptic Gospels and the Gospel of John

...20. Some Differences Between the Synoptic Gospels and the Gospel of John The Synoptic Gospels-Matthew, Mark and Luke-offer such strikingly similar accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus Christ that, according to one author, “they can be placed side by side and viewed horizontally” (Harris 103). In contrast, the Fourth Gospel, the Gospel of John, stands alone in its portrayal of Jesus Christ. The differences in the Synoptic Gospels and John relate to content of each and the variation in purpose or point of view. According to one author, “The Fourth Gospel…is so different from the other three in …content…, that it has few parallels with the Synoptic accounts” (104). For example, Matthew, Mark and Luke record thirty miracles. John records a total of seven (He calls these miracles “signs.”) and only one is recorded by all four gospel writers: the feeding of the 5000 with the few loaves and bread and fishes (Biblecenter). Obviously, the writers differ in what the miracles indicate. The Synoptics are “basically descriptive in their approach” while John, who seeks to demonstrate the divinity of Christ to his readers, is more “reflective” in his selection of the signs he wishes to include (Angelfire). He makes the purpose of his selectivity clear, however, when he acknowledges that while Jesus did many more signs than those included in the book of John, his purpose is that men would come to believe that He was indeed the Son of God and “that believing”, … they......

Words: 683 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Theology of the Four Gospels

...Theology of the Four Gospels The first three gospels are sometimes called the 'synoptic' or same view gospels. This is because they each cover teaching and miracles by Jesus that are also covered in another account. The fourth gospel, John, writing later, recounts Jesus' other words and miracles that have a particular spiritual meaning. All four gospels present Jesus as both the Son of God and son of man. In this paper information will be provided that describes the major theological differences between the synoptic gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. Information will also be provided that describes a theological perspective of the gospel of John. Finally, information in this paper will include how ones understanding of the various theological perspectives presented in the four Gospels can be used as an additional tool to facilitate the proclaiming of the Four Gospels. Theological Differences between the Synoptic Gospels and the Gospel of John The Gospel According to Matthew The first three books of the New Testament have been identified as the synoptic gospels. These books are Matthew, Mark, and Luke. The first book of the New Testament is identified as the book of Matthew. Matthew was one of the first twelve disciples of Jesus, as recorded in Matthew 9:1; 10:1-4 and therefore an eye-witness. Matthew records more of Jesus' teaching concerning God's heavenly kingdom than the other writers, Mark, Luke, or John. In the first four books of Matthew, the miracle story of......

Words: 1178 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Comparison Essay of Matthew and Luke

...Ross Hudson Hartsock February 10th 2014 Comparison Essay of the Birth Stories of Matthew and Luke There are not many similarities in the stories of the birth of Jesus in Matthew and Luke, but there are some. In both stories an angel of The Lord visits one of his parents in a dream and tells them what is going to happen and to not be afraid for this is what God has said for you to do. Each angel said in the dreams that you are to name the son Jesus and he will bring his people out of slavery and lead them to God. Both stories also have an angel visiting other people to tell them of the birth of Jesus and that they should go and worship him and to tell other people what has happened. Also in both stories the angel tells the people that there's is a star and that they should fallow the star and there they will find the Son of God. There are a lot of differences in the stories. For one in Matthew it is from Joseph's point of view and it tells you how he had a dream of angel coming to see him and the angel tells him not to be afraid and exactly what to do about the situation. In Luke it is from Mary's point of view and the angel that visits her in the dream explains why she was chosen and how she will have the baby. In Matthew the people that are also visited by an angel are called the Three Wise Men, they are told to go see the child and to bring him gifts and to worship him. They also are visited again by an angel and told not to report back to King Herod for he is...

Words: 478 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Gospel of Luke Analysis

...Page 1 I chose the short story of from The Gospel of Luke- Story of a Lost Son. This captured my attention because it is a religious story from the bible. This story represents a certain Tone (The mood or attitude reflected in a literary work; it is important in identifying how the author approaches a subject and conveys it to readers. (Clugston, 2010)) of moral theme. Throughout the story we see examples of jealousy, envy, regret, forgiveness and a father’s undying love. I will use the Formalist approach for my analysis of this story. The formalist approach is most widely used in literary criticism; it focuses on the form and development of the literary work itself. (Clugston, 2010) What makes the setting so memorable? A setting was not explained in the Story of a Lost Son. However, it does mention after the youngest son left for distant country. This indicates a setting before technology and large buildings. The story also states there was a bad famine after the youngest son left home. This tells me there was a lack of food and shelter. Why was the plot intriguing? Did surprise occur? A surprise occurred when the father had a positive reaction to his youngest son coming home. The son thought his father would have him become a servant due to the sinful nature he had shown to his father and to God. However, the father was happy to see his son and rejoiced, having his servants bring his son clean clothes and preparing a feast. Page 2 A second surprise......

Words: 646 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Four Gospels, One Christ

...Patience Syokau Mutonga |1 When reading the Gospels, the reader quickly realizes that the accounts are similar1. However, a closer look reveals that they narrate the life and work of Jesus Christ in different ways. Four different authors address their Gospels to four different audiences, expounding on four different themes. Can such different narratives collectively refer to the same Person and give a complete, unshakeable picture of His life and work? The answer lies in a study of each Gospel writer’s interpretation of Jesus’ person, life and work2. That way, each Gospel account is seen, “… like a different – coloured thread in a tapestry woven together to form a more complete picture of this One who is beyond description.” 3 Together the diverse themes of King, Servant, Son of Man and Son of God as independently portrayed in the Gospels all relate together to show a complete picture of Jesus Christ’s life and work. Matthew, Mark and Luke are jointly called the Synoptic Gospels4 (from the Greek word, ‘synopsis’, meaning “a seeing together”).5 They share many of the same events and largely concentrate on Jesus’ Galilean ministry.6 Furthermore, there is a common synopsis in these Gospels, namely: the introduction of Jesus, preaching in Galilee, journey to Jerusalem, and Passion (His death and resurrection).7 John’s Gospel, however, stands alone in its perspective and audience. Unlike the Synoptics, John begins his Gospel ‘from heaven down,’ stating that “…the Word was......

Words: 2585 - Pages: 11

Free Essay


...Answer The synoptic gospels, Matthew, Mark and Luke, are so named because they are in substantial agreement on the life of Jesus. Mark's Gospel was the original gospel, and is believed to have been written around 70 CE. Whenever Matthew and Luke copy material from Mark's Gospel, they do so with remarkable consistency, even to the use of words in the original Greek language. John's Gospel, although influenced by Mark's Gospel, is further removed, with its principal source being Luke's Gospel. It is believed that John's Gospel was originally much more Gnostic, but that after the split in the Johannine community, the Gospel was reworked to remove much of its Gnostic flavour. Whereas the synoptic gospels say that Jesus, although the Son of God, was not truly divine, John's Gospel makes it quite clear that he was considered to be both God and pre-existing. Much of the material in John is unique to this Gospel, although passages in John can be seen to be adaptations of similar material in Luke. For example, the post-resurrection appearance of Jesus, in which he tells the disciples to cast their nets on the other side and thus they catch a multitude of fish, is unique to John. However, a very similar episode occurs in Luke before the crucifixion and resurrection. In the synoptic gospels, particularly in Mark, Jesus is at pains to keep his true identity secret. He does not 'cleanse' the Temple until towards the end of his mission, and this violent action is the......

Words: 807 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Compare and Contrast of Jesus’ Three Agonizing Prayer in Gethsemane: Matthew 26:30, 36-46, Mark 14:26, 32-42, Luke 22:39-46, John 18:1.

...three agonizing prayer in Gethsemane: Matthew 26:30, 36-46, Mark 14:26, 32-42, Luke 22:39-46, John 18:1. There were many differences in the way each author reported on this prayer. It was important because Jesus was praying right before He was betrayed by Judas and subsequently arrested. The only thing that all four gospels report the same was that Jesus went to Mount Olive, a usual place for Him, and prayed. Matthew, Mark, and Luke describe Jesus as being troubled and deeply saddened before He prayed. They all say that Jesus took men with Him to the garden. Matthew and Mark give names or description of the men that were with Jesus while Luke just says His disciples were with Him. Matthew calls the two men “sons of Zebedee” and Mark says they were “James and John.” He asked them to stand watch while He prayed a few feet away. Matthew, Mark, and Luke all report that His prayer was that God take away the “cup” that had been handed to Him but that Jesus was willing to submit to God’s will willingly. Jesus said this prayer three times according to Matthew and Mark. Luke adds that Jesus started His prayer by acknowledging that all things are possible with God. This book also says that an angel appeared after the first prayer to strengthen Jesus. He then prayed more earnestly, to the point that He was sweating and it was “like drops of blood hitting the ground.” Matthew and Mark also say that He found Peter, James, and John sleeping when He came out of the......

Words: 823 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Lukes Gospel

...Religion Assessment The Gospels were made for the New Testament and were stories told in a way to bring forth a certain image of jesus for a certain audience. There were four gospels that were written by four different men known as Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels. Luke's gospel is known for his writing and it’s universalism and how the good news is preached to all people of every age. Universalism means the world will eventually be saved meaning that after all the wars and the sins that happen every single day on this earth one day there will be peace upon our land. If the world comes together and stops the bad and the hatred towards each other and we all become faithful to our God then the world will be peaceful again. The Parable of the Good Samaritan, Jesus Heals a Centurion’s Servant and Jesus Raises the Widow’s Son at Nain are great examples as Luke includes the universalism in its scripture passages. The first scripture passage is “The Parable of the Good Samaritan” (Luke 10:25-37). It’s a story according to the Gospel of Luke about a traveler that is stripped of clothing, beaten and left half dead along the road. Firstly a priest and a Levite come along but ignore the traveler but then along came a Samaritan that helps the injured man and takes care of him. Jesus relates as explaining the parable in response to a question concerning the name/identity of the ‘neighbour’ which Leviticus 19:18......

Words: 777 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Four Gospels

...THE FOUR GOSPELS IN PARALLEL 34: Jesus Heals a Leper and Creates much Excitement | 8:2-4 | 1-40-45 | 5:12-16 | | 35: Jesus Heals a Paralytic at Capernaum | 9:2-8 | 2:1-12 | 5:17-26 | | 36: The Call of Matthew (Levi-Son of Alphaeus) | 9:9 | 2:13, 14 | 5:27, 28 | | PART V: FROM SECOND PASSOVER UNTIL THIRD. TIME: ONE YEAR | | | 37: Jesus Heals on the Sabbath Day and Defends His Act | | | | 5:1-47 | 38. Jesus Defends Disciples Who Pluck Grain on the Sabbath | 12:1-8 | 2:23-28 | 6:1-5 | | 39: Jesus Defends Healing a Withered Hand on the Sabbath | 12:9-14 | 3:1-6 | 6:6-11 | | 40: Jesus Heals Multitudes Beside the Sea of Galilee | 12:13-21 | 3:7-12 | | | 41: After Prayer Jesus Selects Twelve Apostles | 10:2-4 | 3:13-19 | 6:12-16 | | 42: The Sermon on the Mount | | | A. Introductory Statement | 5:1-2 | | 6:17-20 | | B. Beatitudes: Promises to Messiah's Subjects | 5:3-12 | | 6:20-26 | | C. Influence and Duties of Messiah's Subjects | 5:13-16 | | | | D. Relation of Messianic Teaching to Old Testament and Traditional Teaching | 5:17-48 | | 6:27-30, 32-36 | | E. Almsgiving, Prayer and Fasting to Be Performed Sincerely, Not Ostentatiously | 6:1-18 | | | | F. Security of Heavenly Treasures Contrasted with Earthly Anxieties | 6:19-34...

Words: 2061 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Comparing the Four Gospels

...The Gospel and the Four Gospels In the beginning the New Testament is given in metaphor as described as a turtle. The New Testament should be treated just like a snapping turtle. You do not know that it’s a snapping turtle until your each out for it and it quickly snaps back at you. You have to be very careful in approaching both, we have to take into consideration that dealing with them both we have to not only look at the impression or the first impression they give off. You would think you can trust a turtle because it’s so harmless, but you don’t know until you reach out. The New Testament is innocent until you start to read and you start to see that it’s definitely different from your other readings. The first four documents will give us a more mature look about the New Testament. The content of the message is that its important when reading and studying the four Gospels. You have to recognize that each of the Gospels are written and specifically designed for a certain audience and group of people. Matthew is written for the Jewish audience. Mark is written to the Romans. Luke is written to the Greek. John is written to the Christian that is born again. Even though they all generally, but not always, include events that are the same but gives different information from a certain event. The biggest difference in the four Gospels is that God is reaching out to everyone. He created us all different but the bible was that one source that will make us all alike. He creared...

Words: 718 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Relationship Between John and the Synoptic Gospels

...Article Critique “The Relationship between John and the Synoptic Gospels” Introduction The Journal article entitled “The Relationship between John and the Synoptic Gospels,” focuses on the relationship that John may have had access to the synoptic gospels when he wrote the book of John. The debate focuses on three theories about how the book of John was written, and how John is similar, yet uniquely different from the Synoptic Gospels, of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. The journal compares the writing style and the scripture context in comparisons and differences between the synoptic gospels and the book of John. Brief Summary The three distinct positions of the article focuses on, first “that John was literally dependent upon one or more of the synoptic gospels” (1). The second is “that John was literally independent of the synoptic gospels, but that similarities between them are due to use of a common synoptic tradition” (1). The third and final position is “that John was literally independent of the synoptic gospels, but was aware of them and their traditions.” (1). All of these literary theories help the reader to understand why the book of John is different, yet similar in many ways to the synoptic gospels, although it is not included as one of the synoptic gospels. “The term synoptic is derived from a combination of the Greek words συν (syn = together) and οψις (opsis = seeing) to indicate that the contents of these three Gospels can be viewed side-by-side,......

Words: 916 - Pages: 4