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Translating Reference

In: Business and Management

Submitted By auditdurian
Words 15962
Pages 64
Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Passage 1:
Scenario: An international conference on issues relating to elderly people needs this passage translated into Chinese for session papers.
Medicine and law and the euthanasia debate
医学、法律与安乐死争议
Medicine and law are the main social institutions at the heart of the euthanasia debate. Where euthanasia is legalised, doctors have the problematic gate-keeping role as the arbiters of terminal illness, deciding how terminal it is, administering pain relief and treatment and ultimately, depending on the legislation adopted, prescribing or delivering terminal medication.
Medicine shares this gate-keeping role with the law, which serves a regulating and restraining function, providing safeguards for both doctors and individuals. The many safeguards required in most versions of euthanasia legislation, covering issues such as the meaning of terminal illness and suffering, the patient's decision-making capacity, the interpretation of intention and coercion, the availability of alternative relief, the responsibilities of medical professionals and provision for scrutiny of doctors' decisions, underline the complexity of the issue. A strong view put forward by antieuthanasia advocates is that the very soul of medicine is placed on trial by euthanasia and that doing harm to medicine would also harm society. This argument is based on the position of trust doctors have in society. Allowing doctors to intentionally inflict death is regarded as fundamentally undermining that trust. A distinguishing characteristic of euthanasia as a public policy problem is its moral dimension. It goes to the fundamental principles on which society is based and challenges longestablished, previously widely shared societal values. In the absence of institutionalised religion and in the face of the diversity of views in a pluralist, secular society, policymakers and politicians need to search for an ethical base and confront conflicting values.

医学和法律这两种社会化的体系在有关安乐
死的争议中处于核心地位。在安乐死合法的国
家,医生承担着判断患者疾病是否是不治之症这
一艰难的把关责任。他们要确定疾病严重到何种
程度;要负责缓解痛苦、进行治疗;最终要依据
颁布/通过/实施的法律来开具或给病人使用安乐
死药物。
医学与法律共同承担着这一把关责任,法律
履行着规范和约束的功能,保护着医生和患者双
方。大多数版本的安乐死立法中所需要的保证条
款涵盖了多种问题,比如不治之症及其带来的痛
苦的定义;患者作出决定的能力;对于意愿和胁
迫的解释;是否有其他解除病痛的方式;医疗人
员的责任以及审查医生决定的规定等。所有这些
都凸显了安乐死问题的复杂性。反安乐死人士提
出的一个有力论点是安乐死使医学的核心精神面
临着考验,而损害医学(的地位/形象)也会有损
于社会。这一观点的基础是医生在社会中所处的
受信任的地位。允许医生有意识(蓄意)地造成
死亡被视为从根本上破坏(践踏)了这种信任。
安乐死作为公共政策问题的一个显著特征是
其在道德方面的问题。它涉及作为社会基础的根
本原则;长期存在的挑战/问题以及过去为人们广
泛接受的社会价值观。因为没有制度化的宗教,
而又面对着多元论的现实社会中存在的各种观
点,政策制定者和政客需要寻找一个道德依据,
并正面处理各种相互矛盾的价值观。

(260 words)
By Scott Prasser

Page

1

http://www.onlineopinion.com.au/view.asp?article=13953, 14 August 2012

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Passage 2:
Scenario: The NSW Community Services Department is preparing a series of brochures in community languages for use by community/family support workers, and needs this passage translated into Chinese.

Hanging out with parents boosts teen self-esteem

与家长共处对青少年的自信心有促进作用

Despite their increasing independence, teens continue to spend time with their parents, and this shared time, especially time spent with fathers, has important implications for their psychological and social development. The stereotype that teenagers spend all their time holed up in their rooms or hanging out with friends may, indeed, just be a stereotype. 尽管青少年越来越独立,但他们仍有很多时
间是与家长一起度过的。而这些与家长在一起的
时间,特别是与父亲在一起的时间,对于青少年
心理的成熟和社交能力的发展具有重大意义。关
于青少年整天躲在自己的房间里或总是和朋友外
出这种模式化的观点很可能实际上只是一种成
见。
通过调查青少年从青春期早期到青春期后期
与家长一起度过的时间长短的变化,研究人员研
究了“青少年会与家长日益产生隔阂,因而与家
长在一起的时间越来越少”这一观念是否能反应
众多家庭的普遍情况。(or: 通过调查青少年从青
春期早期到青春期后期与家长一起度过的时间长
短的变化,研究人员对一种观念是否能反应众多
家庭的普遍情况进行了研究。这种观念就是“青
少年会与家长日益产生隔阂,因而与家长在一起
的时间越来越少”。)在 7 年时间里,研究人员通
过登门拜访和打电话的方式访问了近 200 个家庭
的家长以及家中两个年龄最大的孩子。这些青少
年报告了他们接受访问当天与同伴交往的能力、
自信状态、从事的活动,以及还有哪些人参与了
活动。根据这些叙述,尽管当有其他人在场的情
况下,青少年与家长共处的时间在青少年时期逐
步减少,但是青少年与家长单独在一起的时间从
青春期早期到中期却呈增长趋势。
研究人员慎重指出,这一研究并不代表全国
的情况,因为其中对家庭的研究“几乎仅限于居
住于小城市,来自欧洲的中产阶级工薪家庭”。
需要对更多类型的对象进行更多研究。

Researchers have studied whether the image of teens growing apart from their parents and spending less time with them reflects the everyday experiences of families by examining changes in the amount of time young people spent with their parents from early to late adolescence. Over seven years, the researchers conducted home and phone interviews with mothers, fathers and the two oldest children in almost 200 families. The teens reported about their social skills with peers, their self-esteem and their activities that day, including who else participated in them.
According to these reports, although parent-teen time when others were also present declines from the early to late teen years, parent-teen time with just the parent and the teen present increases in early and middle adolescence.
The researchers caution that the study was not representative of the whole country as the families studied are "almost exclusively of a European background, working- and middle-class families living in small cities." Further studies are needed to look at more diverse samples.
The researchers’ findings contradict the stereotype of teens growing apart from their parents and suggest that while adolescents become more independent, they continue to have one-on-one opportunities to maintain close relationships with their parents.

研究人员所得出的结论与“青少年会与家长
日益产生隔阂”这一观点相反,它表明尽管青少
年越来越独立,但他们仍然有与家长单独相处的
时间来保持和家长密切的关系。

Page

Passage 3

2

(261 words)

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Scenario: The Board of the Reserve Bank of Australia has just released a statement on the state of Australia’s economy.
A Chinese investment bank is monitoring economic developments in relevant countries and needs this passage translated into Chinese for discussion by its senior staff.

The state of Australia’s economy in 2012

2012 年澳大利亚经济状况

In Australia, most indicators suggest economic growth is close to the long-term average of 3.5%. Labour market data show moderate employment growth, despite job shedding in some industries, and the unemployment rate has remained low. Inflation remains low, near 2%, and headline Consumer Price Index inflation remains even lower. The effects of the price on carbon will start to affect these measures over the next few quarters.

在澳大利亚,大部分指标表明经济增长
接近 3.5%这一长期平均水平。劳动力市场数
据显示,尽管一些产业出现了裁员,但就业
率仍略有增加,失业率维持在较低水平。通
货膨胀率保持在 2%的低水平,而最主要的消
费者价格指数()通胀则维持在更低的水
平。征收碳排放税将在今后几个季度开始影
响这些指标。
储备银行()对通货膨胀前景的评估保
持不变:预计在未来 1 到 2 年中,通货膨胀
率将符合 2%-3%的目标水平。要在更长时期
内维持低通货膨胀率需要提高国内消费水
平,以便在早前汇率上涨的影响减退时保持
其最近的适度水平。货币政策因早些时候的
决定而变得比 2011 年更为宽松,贷款利率略
低于 5-6%的中期平均水平。尽管目前还无法
看到这些变化带来的全部影响,但住宅价格
在过去几个月里已经趋于稳定,商业信贷在
过去 6 个月里也取得了几年来最大的增长。
但是,尽管全球(经济)前景不佳,汇率仍
处于较高水平。
在 8 月份的会议上,储备银行董事会认
为,虽然通货膨胀率预计会符合目标水平,
而经济增长接近平均水平,但由于世界经济
前景较几个月前更为黯淡,因此目前货币政
策的立场/角度仍然适用。

The Reserve Bank's assessment of the outlook for inflation is unchanged: it is expected to be consistent with the target of 2 to 3% over the next one to two years.
Maintaining low inflation over the longer term will require growth in domestic costs to continue their recent moderation as the effects of the earlier exchange rate appreciation wane. As a result of earlier decisions, monetary policy is easier than it was during 2011, with interest rates for borrowers just below their medium-term averages of 5 to 6%. While it is too soon to see the full impact of those changes, housing prices have firmed over the past few months, and business credit has over the past six months recorded its strongest growth for several years. The exchange rate, however, has remained high, despite the weaker global outlook.
At its August meeting, the Bank’s board decided that, with inflation expected to be consistent with the target and growth close to average, but with a more subdued international outlook than was the case a few months ago, the stance of monetary policy remained appropriate.

(257 words) by Glenn Stevens

Surprising twist in debate over lab-made H5N1

Page

Passage 4

3

http://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2012/mr-12-18.html, 7 August 2012

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

有关实验室制造的 H5N1 病毒的争论出现新问题
For the past several months, the media, the public, scientific groups, and a key US government advisory panel on biosecurity have wrestled with how to deal with two unpublished studies they thought described the creation of a bird flu virus capable of triggering an influenza pandemic with the potential to kill millions of people. Now, a researcher who created one of the H5N1 mutants and a leading US health official say the threat has been blown out of proportion, offering clarifications and new data to better gauge the risk it presents. Contrary to widespread reports, the researcher revealed that the virus made in his lab does not kill ferrets infected by the aerosol route. And it is more difficult to transmit the virus than he previously described.
过去几个月来,媒体、公众、科学团体和美国政府一个主要生物安全咨询委员会一直在争论
如何处理两项未公开的研究。他们认为这两项研究描述了一种禽流感病毒的制造过程,这种
病毒可以引发流感流行并可能导致数百万人死亡。现在,制造了其中一种 H5N1 病毒变体的
研究人员说病毒的威胁被过分夸大了,他会澄清事实并提供新的数据以更准确地评估该病毒
构成的威胁。该研究人员也是美国主要医疗官员,据他披露,与广为流传的报导相反,在他
的实验室中制造的这种病毒不会使通过气雾途径感染的白鼬死亡,而且传播这种病毒比他之
前所描述的还要困难。
These revelations promise to influence—although certainly not end—a contentious debate about whether to publish details about this virus and a second, related one that's less virulent. The wildtype H5N1 virus has decimated chicken flocks across Asia but has caused confirmed cases of disease in only about 600 humans, as it rarely spreads from person to person. Publishing the exact mutations the virus needs in order to spread among mammals could guide research on defensive measures and help derail an emerging pandemic, but many fear that the knowledge could help bioterrorists start one. To date, this debate has taken place largely in an information vacuum. Only a select group of people outside the two research groups involved have read drafts of papers describing the work.
是否要公开这一病毒以及另一种相关的、感染性较弱的病毒的细节是一场充满争议的讨论。
上述披露的情况尽管肯定不会终止这一争论,但很可能会产生影响。野生型()H5N1 病毒
在整个亚洲使鸡大量死亡,但由于该病毒很少在人群中传播,确认的人类病例只有约 600 例。
公布使该病毒得以在哺乳动物中传播的准确变体可以指导预防措施的研究方向,并有助于阻
止可能出现的疫病。但是很多人担心这些知识可能会帮助生物恐怖分子制造一场瘟疫。目前,
这一讨论主要是在没有(相关)信息的情况下进行的。除了两个参与研究的小组之外,只有
一些特定的人士阅读过描述研究工作的报告草稿。
(260 words)
Jon Cohen

Page

4

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/335/6073/1155.full, edited for SIIT by David Morris

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Passage 5
Scenario: A Chinese university is running a course in sociology, and needs this passage translated into Chinese for the course material.

Internet hype may blur the line between fact and fiction The ability for computer technology to automatically create a society of smart, tolerant citizens may be more hype and hope than reality. In fact, society may have moved backwards in many respects.
With the rapid increase in news and information distributed by such technologies as the Internet and mobile phones, people are struggling to tell the difference between facts and opinion, entertainment and outright disinformation. In addition to the amount of information, the number of tools used to access information has increased. The Internet, satellite television, smart phones and social networks are examples of tools people now use to receive news and information that were unavailable just a few decades ago.
As corporations increasingly try to make money from information, economic pressure is blurring the line between news and entertainment. There is so much information that companies are trying to get the most attention, leading to a concession to the grandiose and sensational. This does not mean that information technologies should be eliminated completely, but that citizens and scholars must begin to critically question and assess information sources and tools. It’s about people and culture. Information and technology are just tools, and tools remain tools.
The transition to an information age is similar to the change to society caused by industrial age technology.
Society is just at the beginning of the information age and people are just starting to ask the questions. Just like people learned to adapt to the industrial age, they have to adapt to the information age.
(260 words)

过分的网络宣传可能模糊真实与虚假的界限
计算机技术能够自动创造一个由聪明又宽容
的成员组成的社会—这种观点更可能是宣传
和主观愿望,而并非实际情况。事实上,社
会可能在很多方面退步了。
随着互联网和移动电话等技术手段传播的新
闻和信息快速增多,人们需要努力区分事
实、观点、娱乐新闻和彻头彻尾的假消息之
间的不同。除了信息量以外,用来获取信息
的工具也增加了。目前人们用以获取新闻和
信息的工具以互联网、卫星电视、智能手机
和社交网络为代表,这些工具在短短几十年
前都还没有出现。
随着企业越来越热衷于设法利用信息营利,
经济压力使得新闻与娱乐消息间的界限日益
模糊。有太多企业想要引起最多关注的信
息,这使得人们倾向于追求浮夸和耸人听闻
的效果。这并不意味着信息技术应被彻底放
弃,但民众和学者必须开始认真考虑和评估
信息来源和获取信息的工具。此事事关民众
与文化。信息和技术只是工具,而工具就只
能是工具。
向信息时代的转变就像是当初工业时代技术
给社会带来的转变。社会正处于信息时代的
开端,民众刚刚开始考虑一些问题。就像当
初学着适应工业时代一样,人们必须适应信
息时代。

Passage 6

Page

5

http://www.futurity.org/society-culture/internet-hype-may-blur-fiction-fact-line/, April 2012

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Scenario: The NSW Health Department is creating a series of information papers in community languages for community health workers, and needs this passage translated into Chinese.

Most drug-related deaths are caused by tobacco.
Through changing social attitudes and legislation, there has been a reduction in the prevalence of smoking and the harm from it, and an improvement in community health. But huddles of addicts stand outside public buildings, creating clouds of smoke to welcome visitors.
Alcohol, Australia’s favourite drug, is also subject to policy control, which has undergone considerable liberalisation in the last 20 years. Widespread availability is tough for alcoholics, whose recovery is made more difficult by being surrounded by supermarket liquor outlets. There’s political resistance to taxing alcohol according to alcoholic content, which would slug the wine industry, but reduce the overall consumption of alcohol and improve public health.
The debate on cannabis is intense, with pro- and antigroups lobbying hard and different states taking different positions. The key question is whether the effort needed to control the drug is disproportionate to its harm. Cannabis' ability to precipitate psychosis in the vulnerable increases with greater potency, although, for the bulk of users, it is a weekend escape from the pressures of life.
Cocaine is the rich man’s coffee. Professionals, seeking to meet deadlines, find stimulants useful, as do those using them socially at clubs or music festivals. Speed is more downmarket, but both these drugs can have long-term detrimental effects, and people using them can show considerable psychological instability.
(258 words) by Alan Gijsbers

Passage 7

“与毒品作斗争”这个说法听起来激动人心,但存
在着太多不同的毒品和几乎同样多的毒品控制政
策。
大多数和毒品有关的死亡案例是烟草造成的。通
过立法和改变全社会的态度,吸烟的普遍程度以
及吸烟造成的危害都得以减少,公众的健康状况
有所提高。但那些站在办公楼外吸烟的瘾君子仍
然在人群中吞云吐雾。
酒精是一种澳洲人喜爱的药物,它也受到政策的
管制。而相关政策在过去 20 年里已经宽松了很
多。对于酗酒者来说,越来越容易购买到酒类产
品使他们面临着艰难的处境。由于各处都有超级
市场的酒类商店,酗酒者想要戒绝酒瘾变得更加
困难。对于对酒类商品根据其酒精含量征税存在
着政治上的阻力。尽管这种税收会影响葡萄酒产
业,但可以总体酒类饮料的消费,改善公共健康
状况。
关于大麻的争论很激烈,支持者和反对者团体都
在积极进行游说活动,各州的立场也各不相同。
关键的问题在于,就其危害来说,控制大麻所要
采取的措施是否过于严厉。对易受影响的人来
说,因为大麻的药效更强烈,造成精神失常的可
能性也就随之增加。但对于大多数吸食者来说,
大麻只是用来在周末摆脱生活压力的一种手段。
可卡因是有钱人的“咖啡”(有钱人把可卡因当做
咖啡)。努力要在最后期限前完成工作的专业人
士发现兴奋剂可以帮助他们,那些在俱乐部或音
乐节等场合出于社交需要使用兴奋剂的人也是如
此。安非他命类兴奋剂属于较廉价的兴奋剂。但
这两种毒品都会产生长期的危害作用,使用这些
毒品的人在心理上会出现严重的不稳定状况。

6

The mantra “war against drugs” sounds great from a distance, but there are many different drugs and just as many different policies on drug use control.

毒品控制:不同政策针对不同毒品

Page

Controlling drugs: different policies for different drugs Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Obesity: The story so far
肥胖问题现状
No-one noticed at the time, but the 1960s was the turning point for what has become the obesity epidemic.
As the world embraced the era of free love, they also began eating more. In truth, the foundations had probably already been laid during the first half of the 20th century when people started using cars more and doing less physical jobs. But this was accompanied by a decrease in food consumption because of shortages during and after the two world wars. By the swinging 60s the food chain had recovered and within a decade obesity started rising. At first it was mainly limited to rich countries, but today it is sweeping through low and middle-income countries as well.

尽管当时没有人注意,但 20 世纪 60 年代对于后来出现的肥胖问题是一个转折点。随着全世
界迎来性解放的时代,人们也开始吃得越来越多。实际上,当人们在 20 世纪上半叶开始越
来越多地使用汽车,越来越少地从事体力劳动的时候,可能就已经给肥胖问题的出现奠定了
基础。但由于在两次世界大战期间及其之后出现的食品短缺,人们食用的食品也减少了。到
“活跃的 60 年代”,食品供应已经恢复,因而在 10 年之内肥胖问题开始出现。最初,肥胖
问题主要局限于富裕国家,但现在它也在席卷中低收入国家。
It is getting so bad that experts are beginning to question the ability of individuals to take responsibility for their own actions because of factors such as the increasing availability of cheap, fast food. In practice it is easier for people to gain weight than to lose it. Increasing fatness is the result of a normal response, by normal people, to an abnormal situation.

情况变得非常严重,再考虑到有越来越多的廉价快餐这类因素,专家开始怀疑人们是否有能
力对自己的行为负责。现实中增重比减肥容易得多。变胖是正常人对于一种异常情况做出正
常反应的结果。
An estimated 500 million people across the world are now classed as obese. In the UK, one in four are.
Across the Atlantic it is even worse - a third of adults are obese. Tonga has a particular problem among its female population with seven in 10 women obese. But even in countries such as Japan and China, which hardly saw any movement in obesity initially, more and more cases are being registered.

据估计,现在全世界有 5 亿人属于肥胖的范畴。在英国,有四分之一的人肥胖。在美国,情
况更糟,有三分之一的成年人肥胖。汤加的女性人口有一个特殊的问题:十分之七的妇女肥
胖。但即使是在日本和中国这样最初几乎没有肥胖问题的国家,也出现了越来越多的病例。
(260 words)

Page

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-14669209, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 5 April 2012

7

by Nick Triggle

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Passage 8
Scenario: A Chinese foreign investment group is monitoring developments in relevant countries worldwide, and needs this passage translated for discussion by its members.
Information about Australia’s new carbon price 澳大利亚新的碳排放费情况

The carbon price is not a tax on households or small businesses. Small businesses are not liable, and more than half of the revenue raised from the carbon price will assist households to help meet price impacts through tax cuts, increased family payments and pensions, benefits and allowances.
With the rest of the money, the government will support jobs and competitiveness in the most affected industries and invest in a clean energy future through a number of programs.
Voluntary action, by Australian households and businesses, will be an important part of Australia’s climate change strategy. The carbon price is just one part of the suite of measures under the clean energy future program. Australia is not acting alone on climate change. Countries like the United States,
China, India and Brazil are also acting to reduce their carbon footprint.

碳排放定价机制将涵盖一系列大型污染企业的直接
排放,这些企业目前每年的排放量(排放的污染气
体量)至少相当于 25000 吨二氧化碳(至少相当于
25000 吨二氧化碳当量)。澳大利亚近 500 家污染
最严重的工商企业现在需要根据碳排放定价机制为
其造成的污染付费。【根据碳排放定价机制,现在
澳大利亚近 500 家污染最严重的工商企业需要为其
造成的污染付费。】
碳排放定价并不是针对家庭和小型企业的税收。小
企业不需要支付这笔费用(这项税款)。一半以上
的碳排放税收(的一半以上)将以减税,提高家庭
补贴和养老补贴,以及福利金和津贴的形式来帮助
家庭缓解物价所带来的影响。【通过减税,提高家
庭补贴和养老补贴,以及福利金和津贴,一半以上
的碳排放税收(的一半以上)将用来帮助家庭缓解
物价所带来的影响。】政府将利用这项税收的其余
部分帮助受影响最严重的行业改善其就业状况和竞
争力;同时通过多种计划为将来的清洁能源投资。
【同时通过多种计划为清洁能源的未来进行投
资。】
澳大利亚家庭和企业在所采取的自愿行动将是澳大
利亚应对气候变化策略的重要组成部分。碳排放定
价只是未来清洁能源计划(清洁能源的未来计划)
整套措施中的一部分。澳大利亚在应对气候变化方
面并不孤单(并非孤军作战)。【澳大利亚并不是
唯一一个在应对气候变化方面采取行动的国家。】
美国、中国、印度和巴西等国家也在采取行动减少
其碳足迹。

8

The carbon pricing mechanism will cover the direct emissions of a range of large polluters which currently emit at least the equivalent 25,000 tons of carbon dioxide a year. Australia’s biggest polluters
– nearly 500 businesses and industries – are now required to pay for the pollution they emit under the carbon pricing mechanism.

要减少污染,为未来建立清洁能源经济,给碳排放
定价是成本最低,效率最高的方法。给碳排放定价
(碳定价)将削减澳大利亚最大污染企业排放到大
气中的碳。降低碳污染(程度/水平)将有助于降低
气候变化对环境的影响。

Page

Putting a price on carbon is the cheapest and most efficient way to cut pollution and build a clean energy economy for the future. A carbon price will cut the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere by Australia’s biggest polluters.
Reducing carbon pollution will help limit the environmental impacts of climate change.

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Page

9

(249 words)http://www.cleanenergyfuture.gov.au/clean-energy-future/securing-a-clean-energyfuture/#content04

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Passage 9
Scenario: A Chinese-owned tutorial and coaching company in Australia needs this passage translated into Chinese for discussion by its senior managers.
需要对儿童阅读(障碍)问题治疗项目加以规范/管

在互联网上搜索孩子阅读问题相关信息的家长将会看
到数量惊人的信息,以及许多不同的阅读问题治疗项
目,而所有这些治疗项目都声称其具有效果,至少对
一部分儿童是如此。
许多这类治疗项目使用包含大量技术术语(专业
术语)的语言解释其有效性。有些项目有确凿的证据
支持,并且其有效性已经通过临床试验得到证实。但
考虑到进行这些试验涉及的成本和困难,这种项目只
占少数。【但是由于进行这些实验所涉及的成本和困
难度,此类项目仅占少数。】其它项目不一定经过对
照研究,但其治疗方法都有可靠的科学依据。这些项
目可能与那些经过对照试验的治疗项目相似,因而可
能有理由对自己所采用的方法充满信心。
有一些项目在科学上没有任何可信度。【有一些
项目没有任何的科学可信度。】除了技术性的语言之
外,很多这类网站还提供一系列的科技文章以支持他
们对其疗法有效性的声明/表述 。但是,只有专家才
有可能具备相关背景知识去评估这些文章是否真能支
持其表述(提供这种支持)。家长或者老师又该如何
判断可信或有效的疗法与其他疗法之间的区别呢?
【家长或老师又该如何将可信或有效的疗法与其它疗
法区分开来呢?】

What is needed is some form of regulation.
Developers of reading treatment programs could submit their programs to be included in a publiclyavailable information directory. This would involve providing details of the program, how it is administered, and any relevant scientific evidence or controlled trials.
(252 words)by Anne Castles http://theconversation.edu.au/nasty-naplan-results-what-should-parents-do-next-9591 10

目前需要的是采取一些形式加以管理。【目前需
要以某些形式对这些治疗项目加以管理。】阅读问题
治疗项目开发者可以提交项目信息,将信息列入一份
对公众开放的信息指南,包括提供项目的详情、项目
实施的方式、以及任何相关的科学证据或对照试验。
【阅读问题治疗项目开发者可以将项目上报,该项目
将被纳入对公众开放的信息目录之中或对照试验。这
就涉及提供项目的详情、项目的执行方式以及任何相
关的科学证据或对照试验。】

Page

The need for regulation of reading treatment programs for children
Parents searching the internet for relevant information about their child’s reading problem will be bombarded with information and an enormous number of different reading treatment programs, all of which claim to be effective, at least for some children. Many of these programs explain their effectiveness by using language heavy in technical terminology.
Some of them are supported by solid evidence, and their efficacy has been established by clinical trials; but these are in the minority, given the cost and difficulty involved in carrying out such trials. Others have not necessarily gone through controlled studies, but their treatment methods are based on sound science. They may be similar to other treatment programs that have gone through controlled trials, so there might be cause for confidence in their adopted methods. Some have no scientific credibility at all. Aside from the technical language, many of the sites provide a series of scientific articles to support the claims they make for efficacy, but only experts are likely to have the background knowledge to assess whether these do in fact provide such support. How can parents or teachers tell the difference between programs that are credible or effective, and those that aren’t?

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Passage 10
Has the sun smart message gone too far?
预防皮肤癌活动是否矫枉过正?
Australia has one of the highest rates of skin cancer in the world. In fact, two in three Australians will be diagnosed with skin cancer by the time they are 70. In response to these alarming figures, the Cancer
Council put the spotlight on skin cancer with the slip, slop, slap and sun smart campaigns run over the past few decades.
澳大利亚是世界上皮肤癌发病率最高的国家之一。事实上,到 70 岁时每 3 个澳洲人中就会有 2 个被
诊断出患有皮肤癌。针对这些令人担忧的数据,癌症防治委员会()在过去几十年里通过发起 3s 运
动()和明智阳光()运动预防皮肤癌。
But, the flip side of slip, slop, slap (and wrap) is that vitamin D deficiency is increasingly common in
Australia and contributes to serious illness.
但是,3s 运动的问题在于该运动使维生素 D 缺乏在澳大利亚日益普遍,并且导致严重疾病。
With one in three Australians now insufficient in vitamin D, scientists are calling for a review of the sun smart message, saying there is a dangerous dark side to staying out of the sun.
随着现在每 3 个澳洲人中就有一人维生素 D 缺乏,科学家呼吁重新考虑“明智阳光”运动的宣传,称
不接触阳光会造成危险的后果。
The negative publicity regarding sun exposure during the past 30 years has resulted in a vitamin D deficiency pandemic. The current vitamin D recommendations in Australia are seriously out of date. The governments of Australia and New Zealand have been remiss in keeping abreast of the emergent science on vitamin D and disease prevention.
过去 30 年来对于接触阳光的负面宣传造成了维生素 D 缺乏的流行。目前澳大利亚对于维生素 D 的建
议严重落后于时代。对于新兴的关于维生素 D 及其相关疾病的研究,澳大利亚和新西兰政府没能及
时掌握最新进展。

Page

(260 words)

11

In light of emergent research, both Canada and the United States have recently moved to increase the recommended daily intake for vitamin D to 600 international units per day - a level most experts contend is still too low. In contrast, the recommended daily intake for Australia and New Zealand has not budged an inch. It remains at a miniscule 200 international units per day - a level far too low to provide any serious amount of protection.
根据最新的研究,加拿大和美国最近将维生素 D 推荐日摄取量提高到每天 600 国际单位,而大多数
专家认为这一数量仍然太低。相比之下,澳大利亚和新西兰的推荐日摄取量还没有任何变化,仍然
保持在极低的每天 200 国际单位。这一数量远远不足以提供任何实质性的保护。

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

by Sarah Berry http://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/diet-and-fitness/slip-slop-or--scare-tactic-201204051wea0.html#ixzz1r8gHDEp2, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 5 April 2012

Page

12

Passage 11:

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Scenario: A Traditional Chinese Medicine college is monitoring developments worldwide and needs this passage translated into Chinese for discussion.
Deadly concerns over herbal medicines
对草药的极大担忧
While there is no doubt that some pharmaceutical drugs carry significant risks of morbidity and sometimes mortality, a recent review of traditional herbal medicines has shown that
“natural” does not always equate with “safe”.

尽管一些化学药剂确实有很大可能导致疾
病,有时甚至会威胁生命,但最近,一项
对传统草药的研究表明,“自然”并不总是
等同于/意味着“安全”。

Although there are many time-honoured traditions of herbal medicine, particularly in Asia, the world has changed and we are no longer dealing with herbal medicines based in a village context. Herbal medicine has become part of the global marketplace, and as such it is sometimes difficult to know where a particular medicine may have come from, what it may be composed of and what other ingredients or contaminants may be present.

尽管全世界,特别是亚洲,存在着很多历
史悠久的草药治疗传统,但由于世界已经
发生了变化,人们使用草药的环境已经不
再局限于村落之中。草药已经成为全球市
场的一部分,从这一点来说/因此,有时
候很难知晓一种特定的药物可能来自哪
里、由什么构成、还可能包含什么其它成
分或污染物。

Issues that have arisen around the world with Asian herbal supplies include contamination with heavy metals such as mercury and lead, the substitution of expensive herbs for cheaper ones that are sometimes more toxic, and the addition of standard pharmaceutical drugs such as steroids, antihistamines and anti-epileptics. In addition, there have been well-documented interactions between certain herbs and prescription medications. It is the latter two issues that are of particular concern.
When a person dies suddenly and unexpectedly in Australia, their death is reported to the State Coroner who determines whether an autopsy is necessary to ascertain the cause of death. The pathologist performing the autopsy relies on information provided by investigating police officers at the death scene, and this often includes a list of prescribed medications. If there is concern about a possible drug interaction, toxicological testing will be performed.
Unfortunately this information rarely, if ever, includes herbal remedies. 来自亚洲的草药在全世界出现的问题包
括:受到汞和铅等重金属的污染;以较便
宜但有时毒性更大的草药代替贵重草药;
添加类固醇、抗组胺剂和抗癫痫药等常规
化学药剂;以及有大量证据证实的草药与
处方药的相互影响。最后这两个问题尤为
令人担忧。
在澳大利亚,如果有人突然意外死亡,案
件会呈报给州验尸官,验尸官会决定是否
进行尸检以确定死因。进行尸检的病理学
家以死亡现场办案警官提供的信息为依
据。而这些信息往往包括一份处方药清
单。如果怀疑(死因)与药物的相互作用
有关,会进行毒理学检查。令人遗憾的
是,(警方提供的)信息中很少—如果不
是没有的话—包括草药的情况。

Passage 12

Page

13

(260 words) by Roger W. Byard http://www.australasianscience.com.au/article/issue-may-2010/deadly-concerns-over-herbalmedicines.html, May 2010

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

The health benefits of vitamin D
维生素 D 的健康功效
It is widely known that vitamin D helps to prevent brittle bones. But it also improves immunity, susceptibility to infection and helps to ward off depression. In addition to this, recent studies suggest vitamin
D can help to prevent cancer.
众所周知,维生素 D 有助于预防骨质脆弱。但它还可以提高免疫力、减少受感染的可能以及防止抑
郁。另外,最近的研究表明维生素 D 有助于预防癌症。
A four-year, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial found that post-menopausal women who supplemented with 1,100 IU/day of vitamin D and 1,500 mg/day of calcium reduced their risk of dying from all cancers by more than 66 per cent.
一项为期 4 年,随机双盲安慰剂对照试验发现,绝经后的妇女每天补充 1100 国际单位维生素 D 和
1500 毫克钙可以使其因各类癌症死亡的危险至少降低 66%。
Vitamin D could be the single most effective means of preventing cancer - even outpacing the benefits of a healthy lifestyle. If there had to be a choice of a single nutrient that would help to ward off heart disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity, dementia, influenza, bacterial infections, depression, insomnia, muscle weakness, fibromyalgia, osteomalacia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, and hypertension, it would be vitamin D.
维生素 D 可能是预防癌症最有效的方式,甚至比健康生活方式更有效。如果必须选择一种单独的营
养物帮助预防心脏病、癌症、糖尿病、肥胖、痴呆、流感、细菌感染、抑郁、失眠、肌无力、风湿
性纤维肌肉痛、软骨病、骨关节炎、类风湿性关节炎、骨质疏松、牛皮癣、硬化症和高血压,维生
素 D 就是最好的选择。
To obtain sufficient blood levels of vitamin D, it needs to come from sunlight. Humans cannot obtain sufficient vitamin D through the diet - that is, unless they are prepared to consume 3 or 4 tins of sardines or eat 50 to 100 eggs each day.
要使维生素 D 达到足够的血液浓度,需要从阳光中获取维生素 D。人类无法从食物中获得足够的维
生素 D,除非我们准备每天吃 3、4 罐沙丁鱼或是 50-100 个鸡蛋。
While vitamin D supplementation is recommended (particularly during winter months when the sun isn't as strong), it is best absorbed through sunshine and people need around 10-20 minutes of regular unprotected full-body exposure when the sun is high in the sky (late morning or early afternoon). Only after this time should they be slapping and wrapping.
尽管人们得到建议,要服用补充维生素 D 的药物,特别是在日照不充分的冬季,但只有通过晒太阳
维生素 D 才吸收得最好。人们需要每天在正午前后阳光较强的时候让全身不加遮蔽的接触阳光约 1020 分钟,只有在这一过程后才需要采取防晒措施。
(260 words)

Page

http://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/diet-and-fitness/slip-slop-or--scare-tactic-201204051wea0.html#ixzz1r8gHDEp2, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 13 April 2012

14

by Sarah Berry

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Passage 13:
Scenario: Agricultural scientists in China are monitoring developments worldwide, and need this passage translated into Chinese for discussion.
Supplying drinking water in Australia
澳大利亚的饮用水供应

More than 85% of the Australian population lives within
50 km of the coastline, where weather conditions are typically characterised by high relative humidity and cooling sea breezes. These conditions provide a unique opportunity, because the atmosphere near the coast contains a significant volume of water in the form of fog, ocean spray and high humidity, and this water is locally accessible to a large fraction of the Australian population.
Could it be possible to collect drinking water from the atmosphere? The potential to harness the water that is all around, as well as minimise water loss from dams due to evaporation, would be a huge boon for industry and provide a cost-effective and localised method of water capture. 近来,随着今年一月悉尼南部一座海水淡化
厂的建立,人们把注意力转向了海水淡化。
悉尼水务局也正在建设一座废水处理厂用于
提供非饮用水。但是,这些方式要消耗大量
能源,而批评者的评论中提到了这些方式对
环境的潜在影响。另外,现存水体由于蒸发
造成的浪费也是一个问题,蒸发使得饮用水
平白无故流失到了大气中。
超过 85%的澳大利亚人居住在距海岸线不到
50 公里的范围内,通常这些地区的天气条件
特征是相对湿度高并且有凉爽的海风。这种
天气条件为我们提供了一个独特的机会。因
为靠近海岸的大气中含有大量以雾气、浪花
和高湿度形式存在的水分。这些水分对于大
部分澳大利亚人来说在当地就可以获取。那
么是否能够从大气中收集饮用水呢?
利用存在于我们身边的水并最大限度地减少
由于蒸发造成的水库水分流失,这种可能性
对于产业来说是巨大的福音,并提供了一种
低价高效、可以就地解决问题的集水方式。

15

Recently, attention has turned towards desalination of seawater, with the opening of a desalination plant in southern Sydney in January this year. Sydney Water is also in the process of building wastewater recycling plants for non-drinking purposes. However, these methods are energy intensive, and critics cite the potential for environmental impact. There is also the issue of water wastage through evaporation from pre-existing bodies of water, with drinking water simply lost to the atmosphere.

保持澳大利亚饮用水供应的稳定是一项持续
的挑战。澳大利亚的主要城市同样面临这一
问题,由于担心水库会干枯,整个东海岸的
居民都受到用水限制。不幸的是,除了现存
的水库外,没有什么集水基础设施为澳大利
亚的主要城市供水。

Page

Maintaining a stable supply of drinking water in Australia is a continual challenge. Australia’s major cities have not been spared, and water restrictions have been placed on residents along the eastern seaboard, with the fear that dams may run dry. Unfortunately, there is very little infrastructure for water collection outside of the preexisting dams that provide water for Australia’s major cities. Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

(259 words) by Stuart Thickett, Chiara Neto and Andrew Harris http://www.australasianscience.com.au/article/issue-may-2010/can-mimicking-nature-quench-ourthirst.html, May 2010

Passage 14
Family influences on drug use
家庭对于毒品使用的影响
Important factors that influence drug problems are genetics, availability and social and economic backgrounds. 影响毒品问题的重要因素是遗传、来源、社会和经济背景。
Pharmacology of drugs also has an impact, illustrated by the addictive nature of heroin, methamphetamine and cocaine, compared to the low dependence potential for cannabis. Issues that come into play are things like mental health and background.
毒品药物学也有影响,大麻制品的低成瘾可能与海洛因、甲基安非他命(冰毒)和可卡因的成瘾特
性相比可以表明这一影响。其它因素还包括心理健康和背景等问题。
Drug use is far removed from the stereotype of kids rebelling against their parents. One of the myths of a decade ago was that kids want to rebel against family values, whereas one of the things we would be far clearer about now is that kids do tend to adopt parental values.
使用毒品的原因已经远远脱离了原先子女反抗家长的范畴。10 年前,为什么孩子对自己家庭的价值
观持反叛态度是一个谜,而现在我们都十分清楚的一个问题是孩子通常都会接受父母的价值观。
The type of support and supervision they get can make a huge difference in how they fare in their exposure.
That does not, by any stretch of the imagination, mean that none of them go out and do risky things. But it may mean the difference between them doing risky things as compared to getting in significant trouble with them. 子女所接受的支持和监督对于其对待毒品态度会产生巨大影响。不难想象,这并不意味着他们当中
没有人会去尝试毒品,但是这有可能意味着他们只会去尝试,而不会因毒品给自己带来大问题。
Families that communicate openly and support each other could be protective against heavy or ongoing drug use, along with education and social connections.
家人间坦诚的沟通和支持再加上教育和社会联系,可以避免青少年大量或持续使用毒品。

Page

There's a lot of luck in life. If a young person is in a reasonable neighbourhood and the school is OK, certain types of young people might not get into the trouble they might have otherwise got into.
人生中有各种不同的机遇。如果一个青少年生活在一个相对安定的社区,在一所不错的学校上学,
再加上他本人的性格,那么他可能就不会卷入到在其他情况下可能会遇到的麻烦中。

16

It isn't necessarily associated with economic status. A family that is quite well off doesn't necessarily have good communication within it, and so the nature of what is a good family can be complex.
这不一定与经济状况有关。在一个十分富有的家庭中,家人间未必可以进行很好的交流,因此一个
良好家庭的特征可能十分复杂。

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

(264 words)by Stephanie Gardiner

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17

http://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/drugs-why-some-do-and-some-dont-201204051wezf.html#ixzz1r9DkgPGS, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 17 April 2012

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Passage 15:
Scenario: A Chinese university has a course in sociology, and needs this passage translated for course materials into Chinese.
Social media more addictive than tobacco

社交媒体比烟草更易使人上瘾

Some people’s urges to stay connected to social media all day, every day leave them feeling powerless.
Results of a new study confirm what these people have been claiming: that checking email and social media is more addictive than cigarettes and alcohol.

一些人每天时刻都想使用社交媒体,这使他们
感觉无法自控。一项新研究的结果证实了这些
人多年来的感觉:查看电子邮件和使用社交媒
体比香烟和酒精更易使人上瘾。

A team from an American university conducted an experiment to test the will-power of 205 people between the ages of 18 and 85 years. Participants were asked seven times a day over the course of a week to identify desires they were experiencing and the strength of said desires. The team sifted through thousands of responses and came up with some telling results. Thankfully, the study showed that not everyone is a slave to vice and distraction, as the need for sleep and leisure topped the list. However, next on the list of “self-control failure rates” was checking in with social media, email and work, ahead of the urge to have a cigarette, while sipping on a glass of 12year-old scotch. Desires for media may be comparatively harder to resist because of their high availability and also because it feels like it does not
“cost much” to engage in these activities, even though one wants to resist. With cigarettes and alcohol there are more costs – long-term as well as monetary – and the opportunity may not always be the right one.

美国一所大学的一个小组进行了一项试验,以
检测 205 名年龄介于 18 至 85 岁人的自制力/意
志力。在为期一周的试验时间里,试验人员每
天 7 次要求参与者说明他们当时的需求,以及
对这些需求的渴望程度。该小组仔细查看了所
得的数千份回答,并得出了一些能说明问题的
结论。庆幸的是,该研究表明,并不是所有人
都受坏习惯的影响或是沉迷于娱乐,因为对睡
眠和休闲活动的需求仍处于首位。但是,在“无
法自控原因”排名中紧随其后出现的就是社交媒
体、电子邮件和工作。这几项需求的排名还在
“啜饮一杯 12 年陈苏格兰威士忌的同时享受一
支香烟”之前。即使人们想要抗拒,但由于社交
媒体的普遍性,以及人们感到从事这些活动“费
用不高”,因而使用社交媒体的需求可能相对而
言更难抗拒。就香烟和酒精而言,要付出的代
价更高,无论是长期影响和金钱开支方面都是
如此。并且,即使有满足需求的机会,也不一
定总是人们所需要的。

So, even though giving in to media desires is certainly less consequential, the frequent use may still “steal” a lot of people's time.

因此,即使屈从于对使用社交媒体的渴望确实
不算太严重,但频繁使用仍可能会占用/“偷
走”人们大量时间。

(251 words) by Nic Halverson

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18

http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2012/02/07/3424150.htm

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Passage 16:
Scenario: A Chinese overseas educational agency is monitoring developments in higher education in relevant countries, and needs this passage translated for discussion by its senior staff.
Thinking differently about higher education

以不同方式看待高等教育

With open online courses, open educational resources and many new open source academic journals, universities are no longer the sole channels for the best content. For the first time in their existence, some are questioning the university’s purpose and future.

随着大量开放式在线课程、教育资源以及很
多新学术刊物资源的出现,大学已不再是
(获得)最好资源的唯一途径。有人在质疑
大学的目的和未来,这种情况自大学存在以
来还是首次出现。

For many years, universities have said they want their students to be lifelong learners and creators of new knowledge to solve complex, interdisciplinary and illdefined problems. Australian universities have focused increasingly on outcomes and assessment to create capable graduates as employable and effective citizens.
Online courses are not the panacea for the problems faced by universities, or a replacement for traditional modes of teaching and learning, but contribute to a worldwide learning community, hungry to learn and to engage with others doing likewise. The digital economy is as inexorable as the Industrial Revolution was in its day.
Other industries — newspapers, retail, book publishers and sellers — are all changing their practices and business models. Universities would be foolish to ignore this revolution even though outcomes are not clear and many uncertainties exist. Online courses are an opportunity to re-imagine how universities can deliver excellent learning outcomes in new, more accessible and engaging ways, fit for 21st century learners and graduates.
The Australian higher education system is under pressure due to regulatory and financial pressures, but these new technologies prompt universities to think differently about what they do and how they do it. If universities are allowed to innovate, it may well turn out to be good for staff, good for students and, hopefully, good for institutions too.

多年来,大学一直在说,它们希望学生可以
活到老学到老,创造新的知识去解决复杂
的、跨学科的不确定问题。澳大利亚的大学
越来越注重结果和评估,以将有能力的毕业
生培养为可胜任工作的优秀公民。对于大学
所面临的诸多问题来说,在线课程并不是解
决问题的万全之策/“万灵药”,也不能替代
传统的授课与学习模式,但有益于全世界的
学习者。这些人渴望学习,也希望与其他情
况类似的人交流。数码经济如同当年的工业
革命一样势不可挡。报纸、零售、书籍出版
销售等产业都在改变其经营手段和商业模
式。即使结果尚不明朗,也存在着诸多不确
定因素,但大学如果无视这一变革将是愚蠢
的。如果重新构想大学如何以更易获取、更
具参与性的新方式提供优异的学习成果,并
且适合 21 世纪的学习者和毕业生,那么在
线课程是一个机会。
澳大利亚的高等教育体系面临着来自监管机
构和财政状况的压力,但是这些新技术促使
各大学从不同的角度思考应该做什么和怎么
做。如果允许大学进行创新,最终结果很可
能会有益于员工,有益于学生,也有可能有
益于学校本身。

(261 words)

Passage 17

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19

by Jane Den Hollander

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Insufficient sleep and obesity
睡眠不足与肥胖
Insufficient sleep has been associated with everything from suicide to memory loss, hyperactivity to failure at school, immune problems to obesity. Short sleepers are fatter. Most population studies find a U-shaped relationship between sleep duration and the likelihood of being overweight or obese, the risk being lowest in normal (seven to eight hours per night) sleepers, and higher for those sleeping less than five hours or more than nine hours a night.
从自杀到失忆,从过度活跃到学习成绩不佳,从免疫问题到肥胖,睡眠不足与所有问题都有关系。
睡眠时间短的人比较胖。大多数人口研究发现睡眠时间与超重或肥胖的可能性之间存在一种 U 型关
系,即睡眠时间正常的人(每晚睡 7-8 个小时)肥胖的可能性最低,而每晚睡眠时间少于 5 小时或多
于 9 小时都更有可能肥胖。
Studies in the lab have helped to identify some possible mechanisms. When people are sleep-deprived, blood sugar levels are elevated, sympathetic nervous system activity is higher, and levels of leptin and ghrelin
(hormones which respectively suppress and stimulate appetite) are tilted in favour of over-eating. All of this would be expected to lead to fat accumulation.
实验室中的研究有助于确定一些可能的机理。当人们缺乏睡眠的时候,血糖水平上升;交感神经系
统活动增加;瘦蛋白和饥饿激素(抑制和刺激食欲的两种激素)水平倾向于过量饮食。可以想象,
所有这些情况都会导致脂肪积聚。
It seems that the obesity epidemic has coincided with an epidemic of sleep loss. Over the last 100 years, globally, kids have lost 75 minutes of sleep a day, although Australia has gone against the trend, with
Australian kids sleeping longer than before.
肥胖问题的流行似乎是与睡眠不足同时发生的。在过去 100 年里,尽管澳大利亚儿童的睡眠时间比
以前更长,与世界趋势相反;但全世界儿童每天的睡眠时间减少了 75 分钟。
While kids may be sleeping less, historical trends in adult sleep are less clear. One recent study found no significant change between 1992 and 2006 in Australian adults, and UK data show a similar pattern. But about half of all adults say they need more sleep, about 25-30 minutes per night.
儿童的睡眠时间可能在减少,但成人睡眠时间的变化则不十分明确。一项最近的研究发现澳大利亚
成年人的睡眠时间在 1992-2006 年间没有显著变化,而来自英国的数据也显示了类似的情况。但大约
一半的成年人说他们每天需要多睡 25-30 分钟左右。

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20

But laboratory studies typically use extreme sleep deprivation in artificial environments (no drugs, no caffeine, no physical activity, artificial light-dark cycles), so it's not at all clear how these findings translate into real-world situations.
但是实验室研究通常是在人造环境中使用极端的睡眠剥夺手段(不用药物、咖啡因;不进行运动;
人造的昼夜循环),因此,人们完全不清楚这些研究结果应如何与实际生活情况相联系。
(260 words) by Tim Olds and Carol Maher http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2012/02/22/3435626.htm?topic=human, edited for SIIT by
David Morris

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Australia’s multicultural society, advanced services sector, natural resource endowment and transparent regulatory regime position it well to do business with Asia. That some
Australian businesses are capitalising on this opportunity is evident in the trade figures. Three of Australia’s five biggest trading partners are in Asia, and since 2004 Australia conducts more trade with Asia than with the rest of the world combined. However, the Australian Government and enterprises can, and should be doing more to build on successes, and capture the benefits of Asian growth for
Australia’s long-term economic prosperity. This is a matter of urgency, as local companies in rapidly maturing Asian markets are hungry to grow across the region, while others in developed countries are overcoming the disadvantage of distance. With improved capabilities driving better access to, and penetration of, Asian markets, Australia has the potential to lift economic performance in Asia by up to $275bn over the next ten years.
Research shows a strong correlation between business success with Asia, and a set of critical individual and organisational capabilities. For Australian enterprises, one of the biggest impediments to realising the Asian opportunity is the absence or underdevelopment of these capabilities.

亚洲经济体(各经济体/亚洲各国)是世界
上最大的且发展最为迅速的经济体。对于澳
大利亚企业来说,它们代表着/提供了/是一
个重大的机遇。亚洲的产值在世界总产值中
所占的比例在不到 60 年的时间里增长了一
倍。由于人们预计这一增长速度会继续保持
(由于这一增长预计将会持续下去),本世
纪无疑会成为“亚洲世纪”。
澳大利亚所拥有的多元文化,先进/发达的
服务业,天赋自然资源以及透明的监管体制
使其非常适合与亚洲国家开展贸易活动。
【澳大利亚是一个多元文化的社会,并拥有
先进/发达的服务业,天赋自然资源资源以
及透明的监管体制。这使其非常适合与亚洲
国家开展贸易活动。】在贸易数据中可以明
显看出一些澳大利亚企业正在从这一机遇中
获益。澳大利亚五个最大的贸易伙伴中有三
个在亚洲,而且自 2004 年起,澳大利亚与亚
洲的贸易量超过了其与世界其他地区贸易量
的总合【…超过了与世界所有其它地区的贸
易量】。但是,澳大利亚政府和企业能够,
而且应当开展更多工作,以取得新的成功
【在现有的成绩上更进一步】,并为澳大利
亚的长期繁荣从亚洲经济发展中获益。这是
一项迫切的任务,因为在快速成熟的亚洲市
场上,本地公司迫切想要在整个地区发展,
而发达国家的公司正在克服距离上的劣势。
如果澳大利亚的能力能得到提高,从而进一
步打开并深入亚洲市场,那么,澳大利亚将
有能力在未来的十年中将其在亚洲的经济业
绩提高 2750 亿元。
研究表明,与亚洲取得在经济上的成功与一
系列重要的个人或组织能力密切相关。对澳
大利亚的企业来说,抓住亚洲机遇的最大障
碍之一就是缺乏这种能力或这种能力发展不
充分。

(255 words) by the Asialink Taskforce, University of Melbourne http://www.asialink.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/619793/Developing_an_Asia_Cap able_Workforce.pdf

21

Asian economies are the world’s largest and fastest growing economies, and they represent a major opportunity for
Australian businesses. Asia’s share of world output has doubled in under 60 years. With that growth expected to continue, there can be little doubt that this is the Asian century. 需要适应亚洲情况的员工队伍/劳动力

Page

Passage 18
The need for an Asia-capable workforce

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Passage 19
Holding those responsible for hunger accountable

饥饿现象始作俑者须对此负责

In the last 12 months, more than 70 million people have been driven into extreme poverty by rising food costs. The latest Global Hunger Index report identifies climate change, demand for biofuels and market speculation as the primary drivers of the price volatility behind the global food crisis. However, a lack of accountability is the immediate challenge in the fight against hunger.

过去的 12 个月以来,不断上涨的粮食价格已经
使得/造成 7000 多万人极度贫困。最新的《全
球饥饿指数》(Global Hunger Index)报告将气候
变化、生物燃料需求以及市场投机行为确认为/
列为导致粮食价格波动并且引发全球粮食危机
的主要因素/原因。然而,缺乏问责制是消除饥
饿现象过程中所面临的直接/紧迫问题。

(255 words)
Alana Mann http://www.abc.net.au/unleashed/3577552.html 若要让政府以及非政府机构对侵犯食物权的行
为负责,并且针对饥饿问题提供解决方案,地
方、地区以及国际层面就需要广泛开展合作并
且建立复杂的机制。捐赠机构、技术伙伴、各
国政府以及国际社会需要共同承担责任,以建
立合适的问责机制。只有通过以上/这些方法,
才可以补救欠缺考虑的发展政策,并且制止诸
如强占土地、过度种植经济作物以及投机购买
农产品等掠夺式开发行为。【要制止欠缺考虑
的发展政策,以及那强占土地,盲目种植经济
作物以及炒作农产品等掠夺式开发行为,这是
唯一的办法。】

22

Holding states and non-state actors accountable for violations of the right to food and providing solutions to hunger requires broad cooperation and complex mechanisms on local, regional and international levels.
It is the joint responsibility of donor agencies, technical partners, national governments and the international community to develop suitable accountability mechanisms. These are the only remedy to ill-conceived development policies, and exploitative practices such as land-grabbing, cash-cropping and financial speculation on agricultural products.

Page

Food is a basic human right along with the rights to land, water and productive resources. The Right to
Food Guidelines established by the United Nations’
Food and Agriculture Organisation in 2004 recommends that human rights institutions and the legal systems necessary to guarantee rights-holders justice be established in all nations. Yet even those states that enshrine the right to food in their constitutions frequently fail to deliver in practice. The concentration of land and water resources persists, legal systems remain partial to large landowners and the criminalisation of human rights defenders continues with impunity. Legally binding mechanisms through which people can claim their right to food are frequently not available or are inaccessible.

拥有食物与拥有土地、水以及生产资料一样,
是人类的一项基本权利。2004 年联合国粮农组
织 (the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture
Organisation) 制 订 了 《 食 物 权 准 则 》 (Right to
Food Guidelines),提倡/倡议各国都要建立人权
机构以及必要的法律制度以确保权利拥有者的
合法权益(能够获得法律的公平对待)。然
而,即使/甚至是那些宪法中规定了食物权的国
家,现实中也往往无法真正实行。土地和水资
源仍然过度集中。法律制度仍旧偏袒大的土地
所有者,且对捍卫人权人士的定罪现象也继续
无人过问。需要具有法律约束力的机制来保障
人们拥有食物权,但这种机制至今尚未建立,
或者即便建立也无法实行。【通过具有法律约
束力的机制人们可以要求食物权//人们可以通过
具有法律约束力的机制保障食物权,而这种机
制常常都尚未建立,或者即便已经建立人们也
无法使用。】

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Passage 20
Pedestrians wearing headphones at risk
戴耳机的行人面临危险
The number of US pedestrians who have been killed or badly injured while wearing headphones has tripled in six years, according to a new study. The researchers trawled through various sets of data to identify accidents that involved pedestrians wearing iPods, MP3 players and other musical devices. It did not include mobile phones. They found that the annual tally rose from 16 in 2004 to 47 in 2011, bringing the total of cases to 116 over this period.
一项新研究表明,6 年中,美国戴耳机的行人死亡或严重受伤的人数是原来的 3 倍。研究人员彻底搜
寻各种数据以找出有戴 iPods、MP3 播放器和其它音乐设备的行人涉及的事故。他们发现每年这类事
故的数量从 2004 年的 16 起增加到 2011 年的 47 起,使这段时期内此类事故的数量达到 116 起。
Everybody is aware of the risk of cell phones and texting in automobiles, but more and more teens are distracted with the latest devices and headphones in their ears. As devices become more and more enticing, the risk of injury from distraction and blocking out other sounds increases.
大家都知道在开车时使用电话和发短信的危险,但最新的设备和戴在头上的耳机使越来越多的青少
年分散了注意力。随着各种设备变得越来越吸引人,人们因为注意力分散和听不到其他声音而受伤
的危险也增加了。
More than half of the incidents involved pedestrians who were run down by trains, while two-thirds of the victims were males and under the age of 30 years. The research warns of "inattentional blindness" when wearing headphones, meaning a distraction that lowers the resources the brain devotes to external stimuli.
在一半以上此类事故中有行人被火车撞到,而其中有三分之二的受害者是 30 岁以下的男性。该研究
警告人们注意头戴耳机时“因心不在焉造成的视而不见”(),这是指一种分散注意力的事物降低了
大脑应对外界刺激的能力。

http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2012/01/17/3409904.htm?topic=energy, edited for SIIT by
David Morris

Page

(255 words) by ABC/AFP

23

Whenever people run or walk around listening to music, they allocate some of their brain to listening to that music and the other part to the activity they are doing. They really can't do both of those activities at 100 per cent. The researchers add that the distraction is intensified by sensory deprivation, so that the pedestrian's ability to hear an oncoming train or car is masked by the sounds produced by the headphones.
当人们听着音乐奔跑或行走时,他们大脑的一部分被用来听音乐,而其他部分用来控制他们正在进
行的活动。他们不能真正完全专注于这两种活动。研究人员补充说,分散注意力的情况因感知力被
剥夺而加剧,因此来自耳机的声音影响了行人听到驶来的火车或汽车的能力。

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Passage 21
Yes - Antibiotics Used on Livestock do Breed Drug-Resistant Bacteria that Infect Humans
用于家畜的抗生素确实会产生感染人类的抗药细菌
The rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has got many experts predicting a future in which currently tractable diseases, like tuberculosis, become untreatable again. The popularity of modern antibiotics, ironically, is what is leading to their downfall.
耐抗生素细菌的出现使很多专家预言,今后像结核病这些目前容易控制的疾病会重新变得无法医治。具
有讽刺意味的是,现代抗生素的普遍使用却正是导致抗生素衰落的原因。
Antibiotics in consumer products, like soaps, as well as the excessive use of antibiotics by people who have no bacterial infections, help create strains of bacteria that don’t respond to drugs. Factory-farmed livestock, which receive tremendous doses of antibiotics in their feed, are also a likely breeding ground for resistant bacteria that could potentially infect humans.
两种因素对于对药物没有反应的菌株的产生起了作用。包括肥皂这类消费品中的抗生素;以及没有发生
细菌感染的人服用的过多的抗生素。在工厂化农场饲养的家畜通过饲料接受了大剂量的抗生素,它们也
可能成为可能感染人类的耐药细菌的滋生地。
Proponents of factory farming have scoffed at such claims but now scientists have provided definitive evidence that this happens. Through genetic analysis, they found that a strain of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus
Aureus (MRSA), already resistant to one family of drugs, had hopped from people to farmed pigs, acquired resistance to another antibiotic being fed to the pigs and then leapt back into humans, taking its new resistance with it.
工厂化农业的支持者对这一说法嗤之以鼻,但科研人员已经提供了这一情况确实会发生的可靠证据。通
过基因分析,他们发现已经耐受一系药物的抗青霉素金黄葡萄球菌()从人类身上转移到农场养殖的猪
身上,获得对另一种投喂给猪的抗生素的抗药性后,又带着这种新的抗药性返回到人类身上。

Page

这一菌株被称为 MRSA ST398。现在在这种菌株的出现地荷兰的一些地区,每 4 例 MRSA 病例中就有一
起是这一菌株造成的。另外在大西洋彼岸的美国市场上,几乎近半数的肉类产品中也发现了这种菌株。
自这一菌株在 2004 年出现以来,欧盟就开始禁止在牲畜饲料中使用抗生素。然而在美国,尽管市场上流

24

That strain, called MRSA ST398, is now causing 1 out of 4 cases of MRSA in some regions of the Netherlands, where it arose, and it has also been found across the Atlantic in nearly half of the meat in US commerce. After this strain arose in 2004, the European Union began to ban the use of antibiotics in livestock feed. In the United States, however, where most of the antibiotics in circulation are being used in farming, no such regulation exists. If this goes un-checked, the US could be the epicentre of a breakout of new antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

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通的大多数抗生素都被用于养殖业,却没有这类规定。如果这一情况不加以控制,美国可能成为新耐抗
生素细菌爆发的中心。
Words: 272
Source: February 2012. Adapted from an article in Discover Magazine

Passage 22
All in the Same Boat - The Challenges of Mixed Migration
多种类型移民同时出现带来的问题
Climbing over razor wire fences, taking to sea in leaking boats or stowing away in airless containers, refugees and migrants around the world risk their lives every day in desperate attempts to find safety or a better life.
爬过铁丝网;登上漏水的船只;或是藏身于密不透风的集装箱中—世界各地的难民和移民每
天冒着生命危险不顾一切地寻找安全保障或是更好的生活。
Behind the dramatic headlines and the striking images of people on the move, there are personal stories of courage, tragedy and compassion and, although refugees and migrants often use the same routes and modes of transport, they often have different protection needs.
在那些关于这些人的引人注目的新闻标题和触目惊心的图片背后有着不同的故事,诉说着勇
气、悲剧和同情。而尽管难民和移民经常以相同的交通方式使用相同的路线,他们需要得到
保护的原因往往各不相同。
Factors that have contributed to the increase in the scale of international migration include

Page

Among the people on the move today, many are seeking employment or educational opportunities,

25

globalization and growing disparities in living conditions, both within and between countries.

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others want to reunite with family members and still more are fleeing persecution, conflict or blind violence in their countries, where often their lives are at risk.
造成全世界移民规模增加的因素包括全球化以及国家之间和一国内部生活条件的差异日益增
大。目前迁移的人口中很多人是为了寻求就业或受教育机会;另一些人是为了与家庭成员团
聚;而还有很多人是为了逃离他们国家,因为那里发生的迫害、冲突盲目的暴力活动往往会
危及他们的生命。
While refugees and asylum seekers account for only a small proportion of the global movement of people, they frequently travel alongside migrants, with many of these movements being irregular, in the sense that they often take place without the requisite documentation, use unauthorized border crossing points or involve smugglers.
虽然难民和寻求政治避难的人在全球人口迁移中只占很少的部分,他们经常和移民一起行
动,而其中很多迁移活动是不合法的,因为这些迁移活动通常缺少必需的文件;使用不合法
的过境地点或是与走私者有关。
The people who move in this manner place their lives at risk and are often obliged to travel in inhumane conditions and may be exposed to exploitation and abuse. States regard such movements as a threat to their sovereignty and security and yet, this may be in some cases, the only escape route open to those fleeing war or persecution.
使用这些方式迁移的人使自己的生命面临危险,并且往往被迫在不人道的条件下旅行,还可
能受到盘剥和虐待。各国将这种迁移活动视为对其主权和安全的威胁,但是在某些情况下,
这可能是逃离战火和迫害的人唯一可以使用的逃生方法。
Words: 267

Page

26

Source: Adapted from an article on the UNHCR website.

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Passage 23

Brain Gain - Stimulating the Brain Delays but does Not Prevent Dementia
益智游戏促进大脑活动,可以延迟但不能杜绝痴呆症发生

Page

随着婴儿潮一代人开始考虑其不得不使用齐默助行架行走的前景,对于延缓衰老过程的关注
也空前高涨。这种现象的结果之一就是智力训练游戏的普及率大幅上升。但是,每天做一次
填字游戏到底有多大作用呢?

27

As the baby-boomer generation contemplates the prospect of the Zimmer frame there has never been more interest in delaying the process of ageing. One consequence has been a dramatic rise in the popularity of brain-training games but how effective really is a daily dose of cryptic crosswords? Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

As the chief neuropsychologist at Monash University in Melbourne, I decided to find out by following a group of people without dementia. Participants were asked to rate how frequently they engaged in cognitively stimulating activities and my team looked for such things as reading newspapers, books and magazines, playing challenging games like chess, listening to the radio and watching television and visiting museums.
作为墨尔本莫纳什大学首席神经心理学家,我决定通过跟踪观察一组没有患痴呆症的人去找
出答案。我们要求观察对象估计自己进行促进认知能力的活动的频率。我的团队则从中寻找
诸如阅读报纸、书籍和杂志;玩象棋等有挑战性的游戏;收听广播;看电视和参观博物馆等
认知促进行为。
The good news that came from this study is that frequent activity of this sort seems to slow the rate of mental decline in those without cognitive impairment. The bad news is that in those who do then develop Alzheimer’s disease, it is associated with a more rapid subsequent decline.
这一研究得出的好消息是,对那些没有认知问题的人来说,频繁进行上述活动似乎可以降低
智力衰退的速度。坏消息是,对于罹患上阿兹海默症()的人来说,上述活动引起了相应更
迅速的衰退。
What seems to be happening is that cognitive stimulation helps overcome the effect of the neurodegenerative lesions associated with dementia but it does not make them go away. They continue to accumulate, so that when the disease does eventually take hold there are more of them around than there otherwise would be, which results in a more rapid cognitive fall off.
情况似乎是认知促进活动抑制了与痴呆症有关的神经组织退化病变的影响,但是并不能消除
这些影响。这种影响会持续积累,因此当痴呆症最终出现的时候,神经退化病变的影响会比
正常情况更严重,从而导致更快速的认知能力减退。
This is not a message of despair, though, because the length of time someone suffers from dementia is thus reduced and their healthy life prolonged, so the message is, carry on with the crosswords.
但是这并不是一个使人绝望的消息,因为这些活动可以缩短人们受痴呆症折磨的时间,延长
健康生命周期。所以我们要说的是:继续玩字谜游戏吧!

Page

Source: Adapted from a September 2010 article in The Economist

28

Words: 268

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Passage 24
Feuds threaten Asia's family businesses

Page

Family businesses dominate Asia's, and increasingly the world's, corporate landscape. They account for half of Asia's publicly listed companies, a third of the region's stock market value and employ millions of people, making their success key to Asia's emerging economies. They are very significant components in their respective economies.
家族企业主导着亚洲的企业格局,在世界范围内的影响也日益增加。家族企业占亚洲公开上
市公司的一半,股票市场价值的三分之一,雇用着数百万人。这些情况使得家族企业的成功
对于亚洲的新兴经济至关重要,它们在各自国家的经济中都是非常重要的组成部分。

29

家庭纷争威胁亚洲家族企业

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But these corporate dynasties, most founded in the aftermath of World War II, are facing new challenges as their elderly founders hand over the reins to the next generation. Many are failing to plan for this transition, leading to uncertainty at best, and potentially ruinous family feuds at worst.
但是,这些大多在二战后成立的企业王朝在年老的创立者将管理权交给下一代时面临着新的
挑战。很多企业没能为这一转变做好规划,这轻则导致不确定的前景,重则有可能引起毁灭
性的家族内部纷争。
Many Asian entrepreneurs are very successful businessmen but they fail on this simple question.
The business - and gossip - pages of Asia's magazines and newspapers are rife with examples of corporate families locked in bitter court battles over the family fortune:
很多亚洲企业家是非常成功的商人,但他们没能处理好这一问题。亚洲报刊杂志的商业版和
花边新闻版充斥着企业家族因家族财产而陷入激烈讼争的事例。
Given that many of Asia's tycoons are now in their 80s and 90s, the next decade will probably see a number of leadership successions.
鉴于很多亚洲企业巨头现在已 80,甚至 90 岁高龄,未来 10 年很可能会出现很多领导层更替
的情况。
While not all family businesses experience bitter power struggles, the generational shift still has a profound impact on a company's stock market performance.
尽管并非所有家族企业都会出现激烈的权利争夺,但新老两代的转换仍会对企业在股票市场
上的业绩产生深远影响。
A recent study tracked the market performance of 250 family companies that underwent a succession. It found that, on average, these companies' stock values declined by almost 60% during the period starting five years before the succession up until three years afterwards.
一项最近的研究跟踪记录了 250 家出现领导层更替情况的家族企业的市场业绩。该研究发现,
平均来说,从领导层更替前 5 年开始,直到更替后的 3 年,这些公司的股票价值在这一期间
下降了近 60%。

Page

(261 words) by Katie Hunt

30

The success of a family firm is often down to the skills, charisma and connections of the founder, something that subsequent generations may find hard to replicate.
一家家族企业的成功往往是由于创始人的技巧、魅力和社会关系,而这些因素很可能是下一
代人很难复制的。

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-17309144, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 26 March 2012

Passage 25
Want a high-risk future? Try taking a job as a labourer

Coast's Q1 building or working as a police officer. The State Government's "harm index" has

Page

WHAT is Queensland's most dangerous job? It isn't skydiving, washing the windows of the Gold

31

体力工作风险最高

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

determined labouring jobs are the most dangerous. The harm index is an industry tool that looks at workers' compensation claims data and other statistics. Introduced in 2011, the index has since become a commonly used instrument for Workplace Health and Safety Queensland's planning processes. 昆士兰最危险的工作是什么?不是高空跳伞,不是擦洗黄金海岸 Q1 大厦的窗户,也不是去
当警察。昆士兰州政府的“伤害指数”
()将体力工作定为最危险的工作。伤害指数是一种
查看工人赔偿申请数据及其它统计数据的产业工具。自 2011 年开始使用以来,该指数已经
成为昆士兰工作场所健康与安全署()经常使用的工具。
The 2011-12 results show labouring is nearly three times as dangerous as the average for all occupations. Injuries to workers in these occupations are also "three to six times more severe" than for the average Queensland worker.
2011-2012 年度结果显示,在所有职业中,体力劳动的危险性是平均水平的 3 倍。这些职业
中的工人受伤的严重程度也是昆士兰平均水平的“3 至 6 倍”

Workplace Health and Safety Queensland head Simon Blackwood said the index combined workers' compensation claim costs with the number of workers in specific industry sectors to show the relative harm workers were likely to sustain during their working lives. He said labourers contributed more than 25,000 claims, almost one-third of all claims finalised in 2011-12, the largest share of any main occupation group. They were followed by machinery operators and drivers, who recorded an index value 2.4-times greater than the state average and contributed the fourth-highest proportion of claims by occupations. According to him, “it was the truck drivers who were by far the highest risk in this category"。
昆士兰工作场所健康与安全署负责人西蒙 布莱克伍德()说,该指数将工人申请赔偿金额
与特定行业中工人数量结合,以表明工人在工作期间有可能受到的有关伤害。他说,体力劳
动者的赔偿申请有 25000 件,几乎是 2011-2012 年度所有已处理赔偿申请的三分之一,在所

业中风险最高的”。

Page

2.4 倍,从职业角度来说,司机的赔偿申请数占第四位。他指出,“目前,卡车司机是这一职

32

有职业中所占比例最大。其后是机器操作人员和司机,其中司机的伤害指数是州平均水平的

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A Queensland Health spokeswoman said 468 people had presented at Nambour General Hospital with injuries linked to workers' compensation between May 1 2012 and April 30 2013. Lacerations, fractures and sprains were among the prevalent injuries.
一位昆士兰卫生署()的女发言人说,在 2012 年 5 月 1 日到 2013 年 4 月 30 日间 468 位到南
博全科医院()就诊的受伤工人要申请赔偿。割伤、骨折和扭伤是常见伤害。
267 words
Adapted from Kathy Sundstrom

Page

33

http://www.sunshinecoastdaily.com.au/news/labourers-feel-the-pain/1867940/

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Passage 26
Scenario: The Chinese Foreign Affairs Department has a newsletter for staff in diplomatic posts in countries around the world, and needs this passage translated into Chinese for inclusion.
World Health Organization agrees to address research on neglected diseases

世界卫生组织同意解决研究被忽视疾病所遇到的
问题

Campaigners have welcomed a World Health
Organization pledge to tackle research and funding gaps concerning some of the developing world’s biggest killer diseases. Member countries are expected to hold talks later this year on an expert group’s recommendation that a globally binding convention is needed to address neglected tropical diseases, tuberculosis and others currently overlooked by the research industry.

针对发展中国家一些最致命疾病所进行的研究不充
分,投入资金不足,世界卫生组织(World Health
Organization)承诺要解决这一问题。呼吁此事的
人们对此表示欢迎。世卫组织成员国预计将于今年
晚些时候举行会谈,讨论专家组提出的建议。该建
议称,需要达成一项具有全球效力的协议,以应对
被忽视的热带疾病、肺结核,以及其它目前被研究
工作【科研行业】忽视的疾病。

This follows a meeting of the organisation’s decision-making body, the World Health
Assembly, where members adopted a resolution calling on the organisation’s director-general to set up the meeting. The resolution, the result of three days of negotiations, urges governments and the private sector to boost investment in health research for diseases which disproportionately affect the developing world. The expert group said in its report that public investment in health research was currently dominated by wealthy countries and their own needs. It recommended a globally binding convention to help developing countries access the drugs and technologies they require and suggested member states commit
0.01% of their GDP to fund the work. Where drugs and technologies do exist, they often fail to meet the specific needs of developing countries and are too costly. Lacking are more effective treatments for drug-resistant tuberculosis, child versions of
HIV drugs and vaccines that do not need to be refrigerated. 这一结果是在世卫组织决策机构,即世界卫生大会
(World Health Assembly)的一次会议后达成的。
在这次会议上,成员国通过了一项决议,要求总干
事安排上述会谈。这一经过三天协商通过的决议敦
促各国政府和私有部门增加对一些疾病所进行的医
疗研究的投资,(因为)这些疾病严重影响着发展
中国家【增加对那些严重影响发展中国家疾病的医
疗研究的投入】。专家组在其报告中说,对于医疗
研究的公共投资目前受富裕国家及富裕国家自身需
求左右。专家组建议达成具有国际效力的协议,以
帮助发展中国家获得所需要的药品和技术,并建议
各成员国贡献其国内生产总值(GDP)的 0.01%资
助这一工作。即使在有药品和技术的情况下,它们
通常也不能满足发展中国家特定的需要,而且过于
昂贵。目前缺少的是治疗抗药性肺结核更有效的疗
法、用于儿童的艾滋病病毒(HIV)药物,以及无
需冷藏的疫苗。

(254 words)

34
Page

At this time of financial crises, strong public commitment is needed to ensure that new and adapted medical tools are made available, at an affordable price, to neglected patients in developing countries.

在目前金融危机的时刻,需要有力的公共投入来确
保发展中国家被忽视的病人得到新型、适用且价格
合理的医疗手段。

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Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

by Agençe France-Presse http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/news/5627/who-agrees-address-research-neglected-diseases Passage 27
The National Broadband Network
国家宽带网络
The National Broadband Network is one of the largest infrastructure projects in Australia's history.
The organisation involved (NBN Co) is building a brand new fibre optic, fixed wireless and satellite network. It is set to make high-speed broadband available to 100% of Australian homes and businesses. 国家宽带网络是澳大利亚有史以来最大的基础设施项目。该项目涉及的组织(NBN Co)正
在建设一个全新的光纤、固定无线和卫星网络。NBN 致力于使澳大利亚所有家庭和企业都
可以使用高速宽带。
The landline phone network currently in Australia was built over many decades. In contrast, installing the NBN across Australia is expected to take about 10 years, so although it's a long-term project, it's also a very fast-paced rollout. The plan is to install 6,000 homes and businesses every day in the peak of the rollout. By the end of 2015, more than 3.5 million homes and businesses across Australia are planned to have construction commenced or completed.
澳大利亚目前的固定电话网络是经过很多年才建成的。相比之下,在全国安装国家宽带网络
预计仅需 10 年时间。因此,尽管这是一个长期项目,但是它的推广速度会很快。在推广的
高峰期,计划每天为 6000 户家庭和企业进行安装。到 2015 年底,预计全澳将有 350 万户家
庭和企业已经开始安装或已安装完毕。
Most customers will be connected to the NBN via fibre optic technology, which was first developed

not need an electrical current to carry a signal. When wet, fibre optic lines can still carry signals and

Page

technology capable of connecting faster broadband to homes right across a country. Fibre cables do

35

in the 1970s. Despite around 40 years of research, there's still no commercially-available

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support services (as long as electronic devices connected to either end of the fibre optic cable are still operational). In areas hooked up to optic-fibre, the NBN will deliver super-fast broadband with speed to service providers of up to 100 Mbps download and 40 Mbps upload; it can also deliver high speeds to customers' premises no matter how far they live from the exchange.
大多数用户将通过光纤技术连接到国家宽带网络,这一技术开发于 20 世纪 70 年代。尽管又
经过了 40 年的研究,但仍然没有其它商业化的技术可以将全国住宅与更快的宽带网络连
接。光缆不需要电流携带信号。在潮湿条件下,光缆仍然可以传送信号和提供服务(只要连
接光缆两端的电子设备仍然可以工作)
。在连接光缆的地区,国家宽带网络将向服务商提供
超级高速宽带,下载速度达 100Mbps,上载速度为 40Mbps。它还可以向用户住所提供高速
宽带服务,无论他们的住所与交换机的距离有多远。

255 words
Adapted from http://www.nbnco.com.au/faq.html

Passage 28
Scenario: A Chinese popular science magazine is publishing a series of articles on topics of current interest, and needs this passage translated for inclusion.

The enhanced greenhouse effect is not the only factor acting on the climate system. In the short term, the influence of greenhouse gases can be obscured by other competing forces. These include other anthropogenic factors such as increased industrial aerosols and ozone depletion, as well as natural changes in solar radiation and volcanic aerosols, and the cycle of El Niño and La Niña events. By choosing a range of indicators, averaging over decades rather than years, and looking at the pattern of change through the entire climate system, scientists are able to clearly discern the fingerprint of human-induced change.

温室效应加剧并不是影响气候系统的唯一
因素。从短期来看,其它因素造成的影响
可能超过温室气体。这些因素包括其它人
为因素,比如不断增加的工业烟雾、臭氧
减少,还包括太阳辐射及火山烟雾的自然
变化,以及厄尔尼诺和拉尼娜现象周期。
科学家通过选择一系列指标,以 10 年而不
是每年为单位计算平均值,并观察整个气
候系统的变化模式,可以明确找出人类活
动所造成变化的迹象。

If the warming over the 20th century was due to deep ocean processes, scientists would not expect to see continents

如果在 20 世纪发生的变暖现象是由于深海

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影响气候系统的因素

Page

Factors acting on the climate system

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warming more rapidly than the oceans, or the oceans warming from the top down. For increases in solar radiation, they would expect to see warming of the stratosphere rather than the observed cooling trend.
Similarly, greater global warming at night and during winter is more typical of increased greenhouse gases, rather than an increase in solar radiation.
A range of other observations shows the enhanced greenhouse effect is real. The additional carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been identified through its isotopic signature as being fossil fuel in origin. The increased carbon dioxide absorbed by the oceans is being recorded as a measured decrease in ocean alkalinity. Satellite measurements of outgoing long-wave radiation from the planet reveal increased absorption of energy in the spectral bands corresponding to carbon dioxide, exactly as expected from fundamental physics.

活动造成的,科学家就不会发现大陆变暖
的速度高于海洋,也不会发现海洋变暖是
自上而下发生的。如果太阳辐射增加,科
学家会发现平流层【上层大气】在变暖,
而不是目前观察到的平流层冷却趋势。同
样,在夜间和冬季更严重的变暖情况是更
典型的温室气体增加的结果,而不是太阳
辐射增加的结果。
一系列其它观察结果表明,加剧的温室效
应确实存在。科学家通过检查同位素特
征,已经确定大气中增加的二氧化碳来源
于化石燃料。海洋吸收二氧化碳量的增加
体现为海洋碱度的逐步稳定下降。地球发
射的长波辐射的卫星测量数据表明二氧化
碳对应光谱带吸收的能量增加,这与基础
物理学的原理相符。

(260 words) by Karl Braganza http://theconversation.edu.au/the-greenhouse-effect-is-real-heres-why-1515 Passage 29
Scenario: The managing director of Tourism Australia has released information about his agency’s marketing to second-tier cities in China. The travel agents’ association in Shenzhen wants to include this information (in Chinese) on its website.
Australia Tourism targets China's secondary cities
澳大利亚旅游业锁定中国的二级城市为目标
Australia says it plans to target China's rapidly growing second-tier cities to boost tourism revenue, based on new findings of research commissioned by Tourism Australia into China's secondary cities.
根据由澳大利亚旅游局()委托,对中国二级城市所作调查的新发现,澳大利亚方面声称将把中国
快速发展的二级城市作为目标,以大大增加旅游业的利润。

Page

A record number of 558,600 Chinese visited Australia in the 12 months from January 2011. Tourism officials believed that the Chinese market has the potential to grow annual overnight visitor expenditure between A$7bn and up to A$9bn by 2020.

37

China is already Australia's fastest growing tourism market, worth more than A$3.8bn in 2011. Tourism
Australia's marketing is currently focused on Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou.
中国已成为澳大利亚发展最快的旅游市场,2011 年的利润超过 38 亿。澳大利亚旅游局的市场营销目
前把目标锁定北京,上海以及广州。

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根据记录,从 2011 年 1 月开始的 12 个月内,有 55 万 8 千 6 百名中国人来到澳大利亚。旅游局工作
人员认为,到 2020 年,中国市场每年“过夜旅客”消费有可能增长 70 亿澳元至多达 90 亿澳元。
The research into 13 Chinese cities including rising secondary cities such as Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin,
Suzhou and Hangzhou found that Australia was the long haul travel destination many people wanted to visit.
对于 13 个中国城市所开展的研究包括诸如重庆,深圳,天津,苏州以及杭州的新兴二级城市,研究
发现澳大利亚是许多人希望游览的长途旅行目的地。
The findings also indicated that Australia was viewed an aspirational, highly regarded, 'must-visit' destination among many middle-class Chinese. Attractions such as the Sydney Opera House and the Great
Barrier Reef were listed as the most desired places to visit in the country.
研究发现同时指出,中国多数中产阶级认为澳大利亚是一个让人充满强烈愿望,受到人们高度重视
并且“必须一去”的旅游地。诸如悉尼歌剧院()以及大堡礁()这些极具吸引力的景点都被人们列
为在澳大利亚最渴望游览的地方。
Tourism Australia plans to use these findings to help prioritise marketing activities in China. A further record investment will be made in marketing resources in China this year.
澳大利亚旅游局计划使用这些发现结果以助于列出中国市场的优先市场营销活动。旅游局将在今年
对中国进行更高的创纪录投资。
Australia announced its China 2020 Strategic Plan in June 2011, to target up to 30 Chinese cities for tourism growth. 澳大利亚方面在 2011 年 6 月公布了其 2020 年对中国的战略计划,为达到旅游业利润增长,将目标
锁定多达 30 个中国城市。
The response in China to Tourism Australia's current 'There's nothing like Australia' campaign has been better than anywhere else overseas, with over 90% of those who see the campaign confirming they had started researching a future trip to Australia.
对于澳大利亚旅游局目前“澳大利亚尽是不同”的宣传活动,中国的回应比海外其他国家都好。有超
过 90%看过该宣传活动的人表示,他们已开始研究未来的澳洲之行。
(260 words) http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/17336019, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 13 March 2012, reference translation provided by Elaine QI

Page

Farmers are fighting soil loss by planting trees and shrubs that help keep the soils moist, buffer the winds and slow rainwater. West African countries have already achieved remarkable improvements in soil fertility as a result of tree-planting programmes, and there is now an ambitious plan for a “Great Green Wall of Africa” to cross the continent in a tree barrier against the encroaching deserts.
农民通过种植树木以及灌木来防御土壤流失,而树木及灌木能够帮助保持土壤湿润,缓冲风力以及
减缓雨水下降的速度。非洲西部国家已经通过植树计划大大提高了土壤的肥沃程度。现在又推出了

38

Passage 30
Scenario: This passage needs to be translated for an international conference on agriculture in the 21st century
Strategies to fight soil loss
防御土壤流失的策略

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

名为“非洲绿色长城”()这样具有远大目标的计划,通过实行该计划,使得树木屏障跨越非洲大陆,
以抵御正在侵蚀土地的沙漠。
In Indonesia, farmers are planting vetiver – an Indian grass – to protect their soils from erosion, because its roots grow down deep and hold it in place. Solutions like this offer multiple benefits – vetiver reduces weed and pest incursion, produces marketable oil and is also useful for animal feed.
香根草(一种印度草)的根向下生长至深处并且十分牢固,因此,印度尼西亚的农民通过种植香根
草来避免土地受蚀。类似这样的解决方法会给人们带来许多好处:香根草能够减少杂草数量并且控
制害虫的入侵,人们也可以将其利用于生产畅销的香根草油,同时香根草也可用作动物饲料。
Essential minerals, such as nitrates, that crops suck up from the soil take a long time to be replaced naturally.
Although nitrogen is very common in the air, only a few organisms are able to break the tough chemical bond in the gas to create the nitrate form that plants and animals use to develop proteins.
作物会从土壤中吸收诸如硝酸盐这样重要的矿物质,而这些重要矿物质要被自然替换掉需要花费很
长的时间。虽然氮在空气中很普遍,但是只需要少数的有机体便可以破坏气体中牢固的化学键,产
生植物以及动物为产生蛋白质所需要的硝酸盐形式。
Animal faeces contain many of these chemicals, and are the easiest and cheapest way of replenishing the soil.
In many places in the world, livestock dung is the only fertiliser available, but is becoming scarcer because, in trying to preserve the few trees and shrubs around cropland, farmers are burning dung for cooking.
动物粪便中由于含有许多化合物,因此成为修复土壤最简单且廉价的方法。在许多国家,牲畜粪便
是人们所能使用的唯一一种肥料。然而,农民为了保护农田周围少数的树木以及灌木,不得不使用
粪便作为煮食的燃料,因此用作肥料的粪便越来越少。
One solution is to use a biodigester – a tank in which bacteria break down the waste. The methane gas produced by the bacteria is used to fuel cooking stoves, and the decomposed manure spread on the fields as fertiliser. 有一种解决方法是使用生物柴油——将废物置入一个大槽,让细菌对其进行腐蚀。由细菌所产生的
甲烷气体可用做煮食炉的燃料,同时也可将分解肥料施在耕地上作为肥料使用。
(266 words) by Gaia Vince http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20120209-mud-mud-glorious-vanishing-mud/1, edited for SIIT by David
Morris, 23 March 2012, translation reference provided by Elaine QI

Passage 31 scenario: A Chinese university has a course on sociology, and needs this passage translated for course material Page

These days, online comments are extraordinarily aggressive without resolving anything. A perfect storm of factors come together to engender the rudeness and aggression seen in the comments sections of web pages.

39

Why is everyone on the internet so angry?

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First, commenters are often virtually anonymous, and thus unaccountable for their rudeness. Second, they are at a distance from the target of their anger — be it the article they're commenting on or another comment on that article — and people tend to antagonise distant abstractions more easily than living, breathing interlocutors. Third, it's easier to be nasty in writing than in speech.
Because comment-section discourses don't happen in real time, commenters can write lengthy monologues, which tend to entrench them in their extreme viewpoint. In conversation in person, no-one actually gets to deliver a monologue. Even if they get angry, people are talking back and forth and so eventually they have to calm down and listen so they can have a conversation. Communication is really about taking someone else's perspective, understanding it and responding. Tone of voice and gesture can have a large influence on people’s ability to understand what someone is saying. The further away from face-to-face, real-time dialogue people get, the harder it is to communicate.
Working out solutions to the kinds of hard problems that tend to garner the most comments online requires lengthy discussion and compromise. The back-and-forth negotiation that goes on in having a conversation with someone who holds another opinion is a skill which is languishing, both among members of the public and our leaders.
(259 words) by Natalie Wolchover http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=why-is-everyone-on-the-internet-so-angry, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 6 September 2012

为什么人们在因特网上都那么愤怒?
如今,网上的评论非常具有攻击性,而并没有解决什么问题。许多因素结合在一起导致了网页上
评论部分所出现的粗鲁和攻击性的言辞。首先,评论者实际上常常是匿名的,因此不需要为他们的
粗鲁行为负责。第二,他们离所愤怒的对象很远,无论是他们所评论的文章还是其他人对该文章的
评论。人们往往更容易激怒远处抽象的东西,而不是活生生的,可以对话的人。第三,写恶毒的内
容比说要容易得多。
因为评论部分的讨论事实上并不存在,评论者可以写很长的独白,这往往加强了他们极端的观点。
在面对面的谈话中,没有独白。即使他们生气了,你一言我一语,因此最终会冷静下来,听对方说,
这样他们就可以进行谈话。交流实际上是聆听别人的观点,加以理解并做出回应。声调和姿势可以

Page

要解决通常获得最多评论的困难问题需要很长的讨论和妥协。和持不同观点的人进行谈判是一种
技能,这是让普通大众和领导头疼的问题。

40

很大程度上影响到对别人所说内容的理解能力。离面对面的、真实的对话越远,就越难交流。

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Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

Reference translation provided by Xiaomin WANG

Passage 32
Scenario: This passage needs to be translated for an international conference on agriculture in the 21st century
Producing nutritious food
制造营养食品
The next green revolution will have to be accompanied by a rethink about how nutritious the food put on the table of millions of people every day is. Too many people in Asia and Africa suffer from “hidden hunger”, or deficiencies in key micronutrients. These people’s diets are dominated by staples that are high in calories but lack iron, zinc, vitamin A and other micronutrients. Deficiencies can reduce IQ, lower disease resistance, stunt growth and even cause blindness, which greatly increases a person’s risk of death in the developing world. 下一场绿色革命到来时,人们应当重新思考关于几百万人每天摄入食物的营养程度这个问题。在亚
洲以及非洲,有许多人患有“隐藏饥饿”症()或是缺乏重要微量营养元素。这类人群的日常饮食
主要是由高含卡路里,但缺含铁,锌,维他命 A 以及其它微量元素的食物组成。缺乏重要营养成分
会导致智商降低,疾病抵抗力下降,发育不良,甚至是失明问题。失明在发展中国家会大大增加死
亡风险。
The best-known example of boosting nutrition in staple crops is golden rice, which was engineered with genes from daffodils and bacteria to produce beta-carotene, a nutrient that the body can convert into vitamin
A. Developed in the 1990s, and field tested in the 2000s, golden rice is still not available for general use.
Some environmental groups fear that this modified strain could contaminate other vital rice strains.
要提高主要农作物中的营养程度,最为人所知的例子便是金色稻米。金色稻米将黄水仙以及细菌中
的基因进行转化,以制造出 β-胡萝卜素,而人体能够将 β-胡萝卜素转化成维他命 A。人们在 20 世纪
90 年代对金色稻米进行研发,并于 21 世纪对其种植地进行检测。一些环保团体担心,这种转基因品
种有可能会污染其他重要的稻米品种。

Page

They found a small number of maize varieties that grow in both tropical and temperate climates and which carry a gene variant that slows down the conversion of beta-carotene to other substances, leaving more to make vitamin A. As important, they also found a genetic marker that signals when this sought-after gene variant is in place.

41

Researchers are now trying to find strains that naturally produce high levels of beta-carotene. One team screened around 300 maize strains, and unearthed some with boosted beta-carotene levels. They then looked for any genes in these maize strains that resembled genes linked to high beta-carotene levels in other plants.
研究人员目前正尝试找出本身就能产生高含量 β-胡萝卜素的品种。一个研究小组筛选了大约 300 个
玉米品种,并发现其中一些品种本身的 β-胡萝卜素含量较高。于是,研究人员便开始在这些玉米的
品种内寻找特定的基因,这些基因类似其它高含 β-胡萝卜素植物所含基因。

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研究人员发现,有少量玉米品种是生长在热带及温带气候下,其所含的基因变体会减缓 β-胡萝卜素
转化到其它物质的过程,从而使得能够转化成维他命 A 的 β-胡萝卜素含量较高。同样重要的是,研
究人员也发现,在优良基因变体合适时,基因标记会发出信号。
(265 words) by Catherine Clabby http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20120210-is-this-the-new-green-revolution/1, edited for SIIT by David
Morris, 26 March 2012, translation reference provided by Elaine QI

Passage 33
Scenario: An institute of interpreting and translating is starting an elective introducing issues regarding machine translation (automated translation using computers). The following needs to be translated for the information kit to be sent to prospective students in China.
Machine translation: problems and early approaches
机器翻译的问题及早期的解决方法
Despite billions of dollars of research and massive demand from businesses, politicians, the military and tourists, today’s machine translation technology is still only stuttering along. The field has made a lot of progress, but a time when a computer can match the interpretive skills of a professional is still a long way off.
虽然人们为机器翻译投资了数十亿美元,同时商人,政治家,军人以及游客也对它有大量的需求,
但是现在的机器翻译技术依然是在缓慢发展着。人们在该领域上取得了很大的进步,可是要电脑达
到与专业人士拥有一样的翻译技巧依然有很长的路要走。
Why is it so hard to automatically translate texts?
为什么要自动翻译文本是如此困难?

Page

Language is too complex. It is always ambiguous, so rules cannot always be used, and new vocabulary is always coming in, so someone is needed to continually maintain those rules. There are simply too many possible rules for them all to be written down. There are also too many exceptions to those rules.
语言太复杂。它经常会使人难以理解,因此没有能一种规则能一直使用。同时,人们也一直在使用
新的词汇,所以需要一直继续维持/更新这些规则。有太多需要记下的,可能会用到的规则。而对于
这些规则来说,也有太多的例外情况。

42

Scientists and academics have been trying to automate translation for almost as long as computers have existed. In the 1940s and 1950s it was assumed that once the vocabulary and the rules of grammar of a language were codified, it would make automated translation easy. But attempts to make computers learn languages in this way over the next forty years were largely unsuccessful, unless the words to be translated were very limited.
几乎从电脑的出现开始,科学家以及学者就一直在尝试自动化翻译。在 20 世纪 40 年代以及 20 世纪
50 年代,人们认为,一种语言中的词汇及语法规则一经编撰,实现自动化翻译便易如反掌。可是,
在接下来的四十年里,除非翻译的词句非常有限,否则按照这种方法让电脑学习语言的多次试验都
失败了 。

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
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In the 1980s, computer giant IBM carried out pioneering research into the use of words in sentences.
Specifically, its researchers examined the relative frequency of different groups of three words occurring in a sentence. For example, "going to go" occurs far more frequently than "going too, go" or "going two go".
Although the three phrases sound almost identical, the first is statistically most likely to be correct.
在 20 世纪 80 年代,电脑巨头 IBM 展开了对于句子中词语使用的开创性研究。确切的说,研究人员
对出现在一个句子中,三种词语不同类别的相对频率进行了研究。例如,“going to go”的出现率远远
高于“going too, go”或“going two go”。虽然这三个词组的发音几乎一样,但是从统计角度来说,第一
个更有可能是正确的。
(260 words) by Paul Rubens http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20120306-lost-in-machine-translation, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 12
March 2012, translation reference provided by Elaine QI

Passages 34 scenario: A Chinese university has a course on sociology, and needs this passage translated for course material The human body influences people’s preferences

Page

The theory of embodied cognition, widely embraced by cognitive scientists in recent years, holds that abstract ideas are grounded in physical experiences of the world. If human bodies shape thinking, do people with different bodies think differently? Researchers have been using handedness to test this body-specific hypothesis. A set of studies published in 2009 found that right-handers associate right with good and left with bad and that left-handers make the reverse associations. People prefer objects, job candidates and images of alien creatures on their dominant side to those on their non-dominant side. To rule out the possibility that this bias is purely genetic, like handedness is, the researchers handicapped people's preferred hands, by wearing a bulky ski glove on their good hand. Afterward, they showed a bias against things on that side. The results suggest that people look kindly on half the world because they can interact with that side fluently. Make it a hassle, and opinions flip.

43

If a person is right-handed, the chances are that they will make different choices than their left-handed friends. A series of recent studies shows that people associate their dominant side with good and their nondominant side with bad, preferring products and people on their good side over those closer to the other half of their body.

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People have lopsided bodies and have to interact with the environment in systematically different ways.
Given how broadly those interactions can influence thinking, body specificity may be shaping judgments in the real world in ways that they never suspected.
(259 words) by Matthew Hutson http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=your-body-influences-prefences, edited for SIIT by David
Morris, 4 September 2012
人体影响人们的偏好
如果一个人习惯用右手,那么他做出的选择可能会和惯用左手的人不同。一系列的研究表明人们
将优势面与好相联系,而将非优势面和坏相联系。他们会倾向于选择在其优势面的产品,而不是离
非优势面近的产品。
近年来,体验认知理论广受认知科学家的欢迎,他们认为抽象的概念是以对世界的体验为基础的。
如果人体可以形成思想,那么不同的人是不是有不同的想法?研究人员一直用偏手性测试这种因身
体而异的假设。2009 年发表的一系列研究发现惯用右手的人将右和好相联系,惯用左手的人则与之
相反。人们会偏向于选择在其优势面而非另一面的物体、应聘者和外星生物图像。为了排除这一偏
见和偏手性一样完全是基因所致的可能性,研究人员让人们在惯用的手上戴上笨重的滑雪手套,之
后,人们会对位于那面的事物产生偏见。这一结果表明,人们对一半世界持好的看法,这是因为他
们惯用那一面。如果为优势面制造麻烦,那么他们的观点会发生改变。
身体不平衡的人必须以不同的系统方式与环境相互联系。鉴于这些相互作用对思想所产生的广泛
影响,在真实世界中,特定人体形成判断的方式可能从未引起人们的怀疑。

Passage 35
Scenario: A Chinese university has a course on meteorology, and needs this passage translated for class material Page

Labels like category 1 hurricane and tropical storm are based only on top sustained wind speeds. Although that's important, it's by no means the only factor that determines a storm's appetite for destruction. Other factors can be critical as well, and storms that are comparatively low on the scale can still cause horrific damage. 44

Determining a storm’s potential for destruction

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Along with wind speed, the sheer size of a storm, how quickly it is moving and the angle at which it's approaching land also influence its potential to wreak havoc. Bigger storms have a wider reach, affecting more people, and are tied to more severe storm surge, or the ocean being pushed ashore. A slowly moving storm affects the same area with heavy downpours for hours, even days, at a time. Even relatively weak storms can cause terrible damage if they stay in one place since the unending rains can spark inland flooding.
The direction of a storm's approach also plays a role in its destructive power — certain angles promote greater storm surge. Hurricanes and tropical storms usually hit the south-facing Mexican Gulf coast of the
USA moving from southeast to northwest. Since storms in the northern hemisphere spin anti-clockwise, areas to the east of the storm’s centre lie in the path of the winds as they swing northward and westward, allowing them to push even more ocean water toward land.
However, none of these other factors are used to rank hurricanes, and some scientists argue that it's time to change the way tropical storms and hurricanes are categorised.
(259 words) by Andrea Mustain and OurAmazingPlanet http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=isaacs-impacts-destruction, edited for SIIT by David
Morris, 3 September 2012
确定暴风雨潜在的破坏性
像一级飓风和热带风暴这样的标签只是以最高持续风速为依据的。尽管这是非常重要的因素,
但是不能仅凭一个因素就确定暴风雨所造成的破坏性。其他因素也非常重要,并且级别相对较低的
暴风雨仍可能会造成巨大的破坏。
除风速外,暴风雨的大小、移动速度以及接近地面的角度也会影响其潜在的破坏性。较大的暴
风雨影响的范围较广,人数较多,并会引起更严重的风暴潮或将海水推向内陆。移动较慢的暴风雨
会给同一区域带来强降雨,这种情况每次会持续数小时,甚至数日。如果暴风雨在同一个地方持续,
那么即使相对较弱,也会造成很大的破坏,因为持续不断的降雨会在内陆引发洪水。暴风雨来临的
方向也会影响其破坏力—某些角度会造成更大的风暴潮。美国朝南的墨西哥湾沿岸通常会遭受飓风
和热带风暴的袭击,它们是从东南向西北方向移动的。因为北半球的暴风雨是沿逆时针方向旋转的,
位于暴风雨中心以东的区域在其向北和向西移动的风向上,使它们将更多的海水推向内陆。
然而,这些因素未被用于评定飓风的级别,有些科学家认为是时候改变热带风暴和飓风的分类
方式了。

Page

45

Reference translation provided by Xiaomin WANG

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Passage 36
Scenario: A Chinese urban development company is monitoring issues worldwide, and needs this passage translated into Chinese for internal discussion
Building social cities: the value of the human connection
The crucial factor in whether cities are good places to live is neither the number of residents nor the height of skyscrapers. It is whether the city helps people connect with other people or leaves them feeling lonely, and that depends largely on what happens inside and in between the buildings in which people live and work.
Loneliness is very bad for health: just like smoking and obesity, it is associated with lower life expectancy.
More people are living for longer, more people are living alone and the number of sole parent families is increasing. All three groups face a higher risk of isolation. While there is no easy way to change these trends, the way authorities build and organise cities can help to bring people together or keep them apart. Streets that are pleasant for walking encourage people to get outside, increasing their chance of a chat on the pavement.
Walking is not only good for physical health but also for mental health: it helps people feel a sense of safety and belonging in their local area. It is possible to build common areas and shared facilities in residential complexes so that neighbours meet by chance and become acquainted. This emphasis on face-to-face interaction might sound old-fashioned in an era of social networking but connecting online is not the same as connecting in person.
Human beings are social animals; thousands of years of evolutionary biology means they still need to meet in the physical, as well as the virtual world.
(260 words)
Jane-Frances Kelly http://www.abc.net.au/unleashed/3926388.html, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 28 August 2012
建设社会城市:人类关系的价值
衡量一个城市是否宜居的关键因素不是居民的数量和摩天大楼的高度。而是这个城市是否有助于
人们之间的相互联系或他们是否感到孤独。这在很大程度上取决于人们的生活和工作方式。

Page

虽然改变这些趋势并非易事,但是有关部门建造和组织城市的方式可以有助于增强人们之间的联
系,或使他们疏远。让人感到惬意的街道会使人想出去走走,从而增加了在人行道上聊天的机会。
散步不仅对身体有好处,对精神健康也是非常有益的,它可以让人们在所居住的区域有安全感和归
属感。建立公共区域和共享设施是可能的,这样邻居可以偶然遇到,从而变得熟识。在社交网络时
代,强调面对面的交流听上去可能有点过时,但是网上的联系和面对面的交流是不一样的。

46

正如抽烟和肥胖症一样,孤独对健康是非常有害的,它可以降低人类的寿命。越来越多的人寿命
更长了,更多的人独自居住,单亲家庭的数量在日益增加。这三类人群更有可能被社会所隔离。

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人类是社会性动物,数千年的进化生物学表明,他们仍然需要在现实及虚拟世界中进行交流。
Reference translation provided by Xiaomin WANG

Pasage 37
Scenario: The Australian Department of Foreign Affairs is organising an education expo in China, and needs this passage translated into Chinese for one of the documents
International students: in Australia’s best interests
The benefits of international students into Australia’s universities are easy to identify. First, international education generates well-paid employment for highly qualified people in Australia. These are valuable roles for academics and professional staff in Australia’s universities; jobs that should be fostered and grown.
Second, the benefits spill over into other sectors of the economy. More than $6.4 billion per annum is spent by international students on tuition and $4.3 billion on food and accommodation. They are often visited by family and friends, and are likely to return after they graduate, spending more money as they visit their former stamping grounds.
Third, international students foster long-term goodwill and international understanding between Australia and their own countries. Many business and government leaders in the region are alumni of Australian universities. They have fond memories and appreciation of their formative years in Australia, which influences their perceptions of Australia and promotes its standing in the region.
Fourth, higher education has all the attributes of a luxury product, where brand equity associated with university names carries substantial prestige and opportunities for premium pricing. It is not commoditised, and not subject to serious price-based competition from international competitors with lower labour rates.
Finally, almost all of the economic benefits are retained in Australia and reinvested in education and research capability. This is crucial to Australia, where education and research are drivers of productivity and hence prosperity. Growth in higher education generates future wealth, and the ability to develop the physical and social resources associated with institutions of higher learning.

国际学生:符合澳大利亚的最佳利益

Page

47

(260 words)Alec Cameron http://www.abc.net.au/unleashed/40900.html, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 28
August 2012

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

国际学生为澳大利亚大学所带来的益处是显而易见的。首先,国际教育为澳大利亚资质高的人提
供了高薪就业机会。这对澳大利亚大学的科研人员和专业人员来说是非常有价值的角色。人们应该
促进和增加就业机会。
第二,他们也为其他行业带来了好处。国际学生每年所缴纳的学费超过 64 亿澳元,在食物和住宿
方面的花费达 43 亿澳元。家人和朋友经常来探望他们,并且他们毕业后可能会故地重游,从而花费
更多的钱。
第三,国际学生对澳大利亚长期友好,并促进了对澳大利亚和本国之间关系的国际理解。所在地
区的许多商界和政府领导是澳大利亚大学校友。在他们的成长阶段,澳大利亚给他们留下了美好的
记忆,他们为此感到感激,这会影响到他们对澳大利亚的看法并在该地区提升其地位。
第四,高等教育具有奢侈品的特征,与大学名字相联系的品牌资产具有相当大的声望并可以收取高
额费用。它没有商品化,不需要和劳动成本低廉的国际竞争者展开激烈的价格战。
最后,几乎所有的经济收益都保留在澳大利亚,并对教育及研究能力进行再投资。这对澳大利亚
是非常关键的,因为教育和研究是生产力的动力,从而实现经济繁荣。高等教育的增长可以为未来
创造财富并提高开发与高等教育机构相关的物质和社会资源的能力。

Passage 38
Scenario: A Chinese car manufacturer is monitoring developments worldwide, and needs this passage translated into Chinese for internal discussion
Electric car owners all plug in at once

Page

Early statistics from a study of 10 households in a new “green” housing development in the USA say that car owners all plug in at similar times. People come home at the end of a day and turn everything on, along with plugging in their electric car for a recharge. This pattern holds up even on weekends, when it might be easy to plug in during the morning hours, and even though dozens of charging stations have been installed at convenient locations. The resulting demand on the power grid can be significant. The number of plugged-in cars begins to rise at 3 pm and continues to 8 pm — the same time period when home air conditioners are

48

Environmentalists and renewable energy enthusiasts have been extolling electric cars for years, and now consumers are actually buying them. Electricity utilities favour them as well, because plugging in the cars to recharge batteries adds to electricity sales. They are worried, however, that too many people in a community charging their vehicles at the same time of day would create spikes in power demand that could force them to turn on expensive “peak generators” such as gas turbines — costs they would rather avoid, and would ultimately pass on to consumers.

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being turned on or up. Charging a depleted battery pack takes about four hours, so the cumulative electric vehicle load peaks toward midnight.
Once 15 to 20 percent of residents in a neighborhood own electric cars, utilities could have real trouble meeting peak demand.
(258 words) by Mark Fischetti http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=electric-car-owners-charge-at-once, edited for SIIT by
David Morris, 12 September 2012
电力车车主在同一时间充电
环境保护主义者和可再生能源支持者已经倡导电力驱动车许多年。事实上,目前消费者在购买
这种车。电力公司对此也非常支持,因为为车充电可以增加电力销售量。然而,他们担心社区中太
多的人同时为车充电会使电力需求激增,这会迫使他们使用昂贵的“高峰发电机”,如燃气涡轮。
他们宁愿避免这些费用,并且最终会将费用转移到消费者身上。
对美国 10 户家庭新“绿色”住房发展方面的早期研究数据表明,车主都在类似的时间充电。人
们傍晚回家后,把电源打开,并为电力车充电。这种情况即使在周末仍会持续,可能在早上充电容
易些。即使在方便的地点已经设立了几十个充电站,但人们仍在同一时间充电。结果导致电力的需
求量相当大。充电的电力车数量在下午 3 点开始增加,一直持续到晚上 8 点。这正是人们开空调或
将空调调大的时间段。将耗尽电量的电池充满电大约需要 4 个小时。电力车累计负荷量在午夜时达
到高峰。
一旦居民区有 15 到 20%的居民拥有电力车,那么电力公司可能真的很难满足高峰时的电力需求。

Passage 39
Scenario: An international conference on genetic research needs this passage translated into Chinese for session papers

Page

Geneticists focus on finding disease genes, but their discoveries rarely benefit the people who enable this research to happen. Instead, they are rewarded for how many papers they publish, and in which journals.
遗传学家专注于寻找疾病基因,但是他们的发现却很为那些促成此研究的人带来好处。相反,他们
的回报在于发表多少论文,以及在哪份期刊上刊登。

49

Genetic discoveries rarely benefit the people at risk
基因学的发现极少为有患病风险的人带来好处

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Since the human genome was first sequenced in 2000, genome science has accelerated at a remarkable rate.
Rapid advances in DNA-sequencing technology mean that affordable decoding of the human genome is not far away. In fact, human genomes could be sequenced for as little as $1,000 in the next few years.
Unfortunately, the current biomedical research establishment is entirely unprepared for such a scenario.
Researchers often believe that their mission is to uncover new biology and genetics, and that someone else will translate them to the clinical arena. Accordingly, many geneticists have worked on “big-science” genomics, including genome-wide association studies focused on common genetic variation in the human species. But it is widely known that certain mutations can run in families, increasing dramatically the risks of certain diseases, for example, breast cancer, sickle-cell anemia and cystic fibrosis. Unfortunately, many human molecular geneticists have abdicated any responsibility for trying to decrease the overall burden of such diseases. While this trend has many causes — most of which have been debated extensively — one very important factor is rarely discussed.
自 2000 年首次人类基因组序定序以来,基因科学就以惊人的速度迅猛发展。DNA 测序技术的快速
进步,意味着离人们可负担得起解码人类基因组费用已经不远了。实际上,在未来几年,人们仅花
费$1000 便可进行人类基因组定序。不幸的是,目前的生物医学研究机构还未完全对此局面做好准备。
研究人员常常认为,他们的任务就是发现新的生物学和基因学,而其他人则称之为临床领域。相应
地,许多基因学家研究“大科学”基因组学,包括全基因组关联(genome-wide association)研究,
集中研究不同人类物种间的常见遗传变异。但是,众所周知,在家庭成员中可能会产生某些基因突
变,使得人们患上包括乳腺癌、镰状细胞贫血症和囊性纤维化等在内的某些疾病的风险骤增。不幸
的是,许多人类分子遗传学家已经放弃了承担试图减少这些疾病总体负担的责任。尽管造成这一趋
势有很多原因,而且人们已广泛讨论了大部分原因,然而却极少谈到一个非常重要的因素。
Scientific research — and biomedical research in particular — largely resembles a race. Human geneticists, like big-game hunters, specialise in finding disease genes — the “prize”. Once they succeed, they usually do not continue to develop their findings; instead, they move on to their next target.
科学研究,尤其是生物医学研究,很大程度上类似于一场竞赛。人类基因学家,就好像超级游戏里
的猎人,专门去寻找疾病基因来作为“奖品”。他们一旦成功了,通常就不再会继续研究他们的发
现;相反,他们会继续去寻找下一个目标。
(260 words) by Gholson J. Lyon http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2012/08/06/3560206.htm, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 6 August
2012, reference provided by Emily YANG
Passage 40
Minimising risk to banks and the banking system 将银行和银行体系的风险降到最低

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50

Recent events have strongly suggested that the international financial system is not optimally designed. Of course, it never was “designed”, but has evolved over many centuries, guided by changing customs and beliefs, which have rarely been grounded on evidence that would pass muster in the physical or biological sciences. Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail: info@siit.nsw.edu.au

最近的事件强有力地表明了国际金融体系并非设计得完美无瑕。当然,它从没有被“设计”,
而是经过许多个世纪演变而来的,它以不断变化的风俗和信仰为指导,很少有证据证明这符合物理
学或生物科学的要求。
In particular, the broad international regulatory framework focuses on issues of minimising risk for individual banks and other financial institutions. It is now increasingly recognised that the diversification thus encouraged – spreading risks more widely – was indeed sensible for each individual bank, viewed in isolation. But the consequence for the banking system as a whole was to diminish diversity, as banks became more similar in their asset holdings and more densely interconnected.
特别是,广泛的国际管理框架的重心在于将不同银行和其他金融机构的风险降到最低。现在人
们日益意识到多样化可以更广泛地分摊风险,因此受到鼓励,单独来看,对于各个银行来说,这确
实是很明智的做法,但结果却损害了整个银行体系的多样化,因为银行在资产持有方面变得更加类
似并且联系更加紧密。
Not surprisingly, much work is now focused on systemic risk. The basic idea is to make it more difficult for the failure of any single bank to propagate throughout the banking network, producing cascades of collapse.
现在人们将许多工作的重心放在系统风险上,这并不让人觉得惊讶。这么做的基本目的是避免让
任何单个银行的失败影响到整个银行网络,从而导致许多银行倒闭。
Regulatory bodies seem likely to recommend that all banks be required to keep larger capital reserves and/or other forms of liquidity than has recently been the case. Recognising the disproportionate influence of the biggest banks, there is also the strong suggestion that such banks hold relatively larger capital reserves; the contrary has been the recent practice. Other suggestions are that leverage levels be hauled back well below those of recent years, and that the magnitude of capital reserves be countercyclical (larger in boom times, lower in bust times, again to the contrary of the recent past).
管理机构似乎可能建议要求所有银行比目前保留更多的资本储备和/或其他形式的流动资金。意识
到各大银行不均衡的影响后,人们也强烈建议这类银行持有相对较多的资本储备。而最近的做法却
与之相反。其他的建议包括财务杠杆水平应该低于近年来的水平,以及资本储备的多少是逆周期的
(在繁荣时期较多,在萧条时期较少,这同样和最近的做法相反)。
(260 words) by Robert M May

Page

51

http://www.australasianscience.com.au/article/issue-januaryfebruary-2012/science-advice-and-policymaking.html, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 8 March 2012, reference translation provided by Xiaomin
WANG…...

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