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Translating Reference

In: Business and Management

Submitted By auditdurian
Words 15962
Pages 64
Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

Passage 1:
Scenario: An international conference on issues relating to elderly people needs this passage translated into Chinese for session papers.
Medicine and law and the euthanasia debate
Medicine and law are the main social institutions at the heart of the euthanasia debate. Where euthanasia is legalised, doctors have the problematic gate-keeping role as the arbiters of terminal illness, deciding how terminal it is, administering pain relief and treatment and ultimately, depending on the legislation adopted, prescribing or delivering terminal medication.
Medicine shares this gate-keeping role with the law, which serves a regulating and restraining function, providing safeguards for both doctors and individuals. The many safeguards required in most versions of euthanasia legislation, covering issues such as the meaning of terminal illness and suffering, the patient's decision-making capacity, the interpretation of intention and coercion, the availability of alternative relief, the responsibilities of medical professionals and provision for scrutiny of doctors' decisions, underline the complexity of the issue. A strong view put forward by antieuthanasia advocates is that the very soul of medicine is placed on trial by euthanasia and that doing harm to medicine would also harm society. This argument is based on the position of trust doctors have in society. Allowing doctors to intentionally inflict death is regarded as fundamentally undermining that trust. A distinguishing characteristic of euthanasia as a public policy problem is its moral dimension. It goes to the fundamental principles on which society is based and challenges longestablished, previously widely shared societal values. In the absence of institutionalised religion and in the face of the diversity of views in a pluralist, secular society, policymakers and politicians need to search for an ethical base and confront conflicting values.


(260 words)
By Scott Prasser


1, 14 August 2012

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

Passage 2:
Scenario: The NSW Community Services Department is preparing a series of brochures in community languages for use by community/family support workers, and needs this passage translated into Chinese.

Hanging out with parents boosts teen self-esteem


Despite their increasing independence, teens continue to spend time with their parents, and this shared time, especially time spent with fathers, has important implications for their psychological and social development. The stereotype that teenagers spend all their time holed up in their rooms or hanging out with friends may, indeed, just be a stereotype. 尽管青少年越来越独立,但他们仍有很多时
众多家庭的普遍情况。(or: 通过调查青少年从青
的时间越来越少”。)在 7 年时间里,研究人员通
过登门拜访和打电话的方式访问了近 200 个家庭

Researchers have studied whether the image of teens growing apart from their parents and spending less time with them reflects the everyday experiences of families by examining changes in the amount of time young people spent with their parents from early to late adolescence. Over seven years, the researchers conducted home and phone interviews with mothers, fathers and the two oldest children in almost 200 families. The teens reported about their social skills with peers, their self-esteem and their activities that day, including who else participated in them.
According to these reports, although parent-teen time when others were also present declines from the early to late teen years, parent-teen time with just the parent and the teen present increases in early and middle adolescence.
The researchers caution that the study was not representative of the whole country as the families studied are "almost exclusively of a European background, working- and middle-class families living in small cities." Further studies are needed to look at more diverse samples.
The researchers’ findings contradict the stereotype of teens growing apart from their parents and suggest that while adolescents become more independent, they continue to have one-on-one opportunities to maintain close relationships with their parents.



Passage 3


(261 words)

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

Scenario: The Board of the Reserve Bank of Australia has just released a statement on the state of Australia’s economy.
A Chinese investment bank is monitoring economic developments in relevant countries and needs this passage translated into Chinese for discussion by its senior staff.

The state of Australia’s economy in 2012

2012 年澳大利亚经济状况

In Australia, most indicators suggest economic growth is close to the long-term average of 3.5%. Labour market data show moderate employment growth, despite job shedding in some industries, and the unemployment rate has remained low. Inflation remains low, near 2%, and headline Consumer Price Index inflation remains even lower. The effects of the price on carbon will start to affect these measures over the next few quarters.

接近 3.5%这一长期平均水平。劳动力市场数
货膨胀率保持在 2%的低水平,而最主要的消
持不变:预计在未来 1 到 2 年中,通货膨胀
率将符合 2%-3%的目标水平。要在更长时期
决定而变得比 2011 年更为宽松,贷款利率略
低于 5-6%的中期平均水平。尽管目前还无法
过去 6 个月里也取得了几年来最大的增长。
在 8 月份的会议上,储备银行董事会认

The Reserve Bank's assessment of the outlook for inflation is unchanged: it is expected to be consistent with the target of 2 to 3% over the next one to two years.
Maintaining low inflation over the longer term will require growth in domestic costs to continue their recent moderation as the effects of the earlier exchange rate appreciation wane. As a result of earlier decisions, monetary policy is easier than it was during 2011, with interest rates for borrowers just below their medium-term averages of 5 to 6%. While it is too soon to see the full impact of those changes, housing prices have firmed over the past few months, and business credit has over the past six months recorded its strongest growth for several years. The exchange rate, however, has remained high, despite the weaker global outlook.
At its August meeting, the Bank’s board decided that, with inflation expected to be consistent with the target and growth close to average, but with a more subdued international outlook than was the case a few months ago, the stance of monetary policy remained appropriate.

(257 words) by Glenn Stevens

Surprising twist in debate over lab-made H5N1


Passage 4

3, 7 August 2012

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

有关实验室制造的 H5N1 病毒的争论出现新问题
For the past several months, the media, the public, scientific groups, and a key US government advisory panel on biosecurity have wrestled with how to deal with two unpublished studies they thought described the creation of a bird flu virus capable of triggering an influenza pandemic with the potential to kill millions of people. Now, a researcher who created one of the H5N1 mutants and a leading US health official say the threat has been blown out of proportion, offering clarifications and new data to better gauge the risk it presents. Contrary to widespread reports, the researcher revealed that the virus made in his lab does not kill ferrets infected by the aerosol route. And it is more difficult to transmit the virus than he previously described.
病毒可以引发流感流行并可能导致数百万人死亡。现在,制造了其中一种 H5N1 病毒变体的
These revelations promise to influence—although certainly not end—a contentious debate about whether to publish details about this virus and a second, related one that's less virulent. The wildtype H5N1 virus has decimated chicken flocks across Asia but has caused confirmed cases of disease in only about 600 humans, as it rarely spreads from person to person. Publishing the exact mutations the virus needs in order to spread among mammals could guide research on defensive measures and help derail an emerging pandemic, but many fear that the knowledge could help bioterrorists start one. To date, this debate has taken place largely in an information vacuum. Only a select group of people outside the two research groups involved have read drafts of papers describing the work.
上述披露的情况尽管肯定不会终止这一争论,但很可能会产生影响。野生型()H5N1 病毒
在整个亚洲使鸡大量死亡,但由于该病毒很少在人群中传播,确认的人类病例只有约 600 例。
(260 words)
Jon Cohen


4, edited for SIIT by David Morris

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

Passage 5
Scenario: A Chinese university is running a course in sociology, and needs this passage translated into Chinese for the course material.

Internet hype may blur the line between fact and fiction The ability for computer technology to automatically create a society of smart, tolerant citizens may be more hype and hope than reality. In fact, society may have moved backwards in many respects.
With the rapid increase in news and information distributed by such technologies as the Internet and mobile phones, people are struggling to tell the difference between facts and opinion, entertainment and outright disinformation. In addition to the amount of information, the number of tools used to access information has increased. The Internet, satellite television, smart phones and social networks are examples of tools people now use to receive news and information that were unavailable just a few decades ago.
As corporations increasingly try to make money from information, economic pressure is blurring the line between news and entertainment. There is so much information that companies are trying to get the most attention, leading to a concession to the grandiose and sensational. This does not mean that information technologies should be eliminated completely, but that citizens and scholars must begin to critically question and assess information sources and tools. It’s about people and culture. Information and technology are just tools, and tools remain tools.
The transition to an information age is similar to the change to society caused by industrial age technology.
Society is just at the beginning of the information age and people are just starting to ask the questions. Just like people learned to adapt to the industrial age, they have to adapt to the information age.
(260 words)


Passage 6


5, April 2012

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

Scenario: The NSW Health Department is creating a series of information papers in community languages for community health workers, and needs this passage translated into Chinese.

Most drug-related deaths are caused by tobacco.
Through changing social attitudes and legislation, there has been a reduction in the prevalence of smoking and the harm from it, and an improvement in community health. But huddles of addicts stand outside public buildings, creating clouds of smoke to welcome visitors.
Alcohol, Australia’s favourite drug, is also subject to policy control, which has undergone considerable liberalisation in the last 20 years. Widespread availability is tough for alcoholics, whose recovery is made more difficult by being surrounded by supermarket liquor outlets. There’s political resistance to taxing alcohol according to alcoholic content, which would slug the wine industry, but reduce the overall consumption of alcohol and improve public health.
The debate on cannabis is intense, with pro- and antigroups lobbying hard and different states taking different positions. The key question is whether the effort needed to control the drug is disproportionate to its harm. Cannabis' ability to precipitate psychosis in the vulnerable increases with greater potency, although, for the bulk of users, it is a weekend escape from the pressures of life.
Cocaine is the rich man’s coffee. Professionals, seeking to meet deadlines, find stimulants useful, as do those using them socially at clubs or music festivals. Speed is more downmarket, but both these drugs can have long-term detrimental effects, and people using them can show considerable psychological instability.
(258 words) by Alan Gijsbers

Passage 7

管制。而相关政策在过去 20 年里已经宽松了很


The mantra “war against drugs” sounds great from a distance, but there are many different drugs and just as many different policies on drug use control.



Controlling drugs: different policies for different drugs Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

Obesity: The story so far
No-one noticed at the time, but the 1960s was the turning point for what has become the obesity epidemic.
As the world embraced the era of free love, they also began eating more. In truth, the foundations had probably already been laid during the first half of the 20th century when people started using cars more and doing less physical jobs. But this was accompanied by a decrease in food consumption because of shortages during and after the two world wars. By the swinging 60s the food chain had recovered and within a decade obesity started rising. At first it was mainly limited to rich countries, but today it is sweeping through low and middle-income countries as well.

尽管当时没有人注意,但 20 世纪 60 年代对于后来出现的肥胖问题是一个转折点。随着全世
界迎来性解放的时代,人们也开始吃得越来越多。实际上,当人们在 20 世纪上半叶开始越
“活跃的 60 年代”,食品供应已经恢复,因而在 10 年之内肥胖问题开始出现。最初,肥胖
It is getting so bad that experts are beginning to question the ability of individuals to take responsibility for their own actions because of factors such as the increasing availability of cheap, fast food. In practice it is easier for people to gain weight than to lose it. Increasing fatness is the result of a normal response, by normal people, to an abnormal situation.

An estimated 500 million people across the world are now classed as obese. In the UK, one in four are.
Across the Atlantic it is even worse - a third of adults are obese. Tonga has a particular problem among its female population with seven in 10 women obese. But even in countries such as Japan and China, which hardly saw any movement in obesity initially, more and more cases are being registered.

据估计,现在全世界有 5 亿人属于肥胖的范畴。在英国,有四分之一的人肥胖。在美国,情
(260 words)

Page, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 5 April 2012


by Nick Triggle

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

Passage 8
Scenario: A Chinese foreign investment group is monitoring developments in relevant countries worldwide, and needs this passage translated for discussion by its members.
Information about Australia’s new carbon price 澳大利亚新的碳排放费情况

The carbon price is not a tax on households or small businesses. Small businesses are not liable, and more than half of the revenue raised from the carbon price will assist households to help meet price impacts through tax cuts, increased family payments and pensions, benefits and allowances.
With the rest of the money, the government will support jobs and competitiveness in the most affected industries and invest in a clean energy future through a number of programs.
Voluntary action, by Australian households and businesses, will be an important part of Australia’s climate change strategy. The carbon price is just one part of the suite of measures under the clean energy future program. Australia is not acting alone on climate change. Countries like the United States,
China, India and Brazil are also acting to reduce their carbon footprint.

体量)至少相当于 25000 吨二氧化碳(至少相当于
25000 吨二氧化碳当量)。澳大利亚近 500 家污染
澳大利亚近 500 家污染最严重的工商企业需要为其


The carbon pricing mechanism will cover the direct emissions of a range of large polluters which currently emit at least the equivalent 25,000 tons of carbon dioxide a year. Australia’s biggest polluters
– nearly 500 businesses and industries – are now required to pay for the pollution they emit under the carbon pricing mechanism.



Putting a price on carbon is the cheapest and most efficient way to cut pollution and build a clean energy economy for the future. A carbon price will cut the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere by Australia’s biggest polluters.
Reducing carbon pollution will help limit the environmental impacts of climate change.

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:



(249 words)

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

Passage 9
Scenario: A Chinese-owned tutorial and coaching company in Australia needs this passage translated into Chinese for discussion by its senior managers.

们对其疗法有效性的声明/表述 。但是,只有专家才

What is needed is some form of regulation.
Developers of reading treatment programs could submit their programs to be included in a publiclyavailable information directory. This would involve providing details of the program, how it is administered, and any relevant scientific evidence or controlled trials.
(252 words)by Anne Castles 10



The need for regulation of reading treatment programs for children
Parents searching the internet for relevant information about their child’s reading problem will be bombarded with information and an enormous number of different reading treatment programs, all of which claim to be effective, at least for some children. Many of these programs explain their effectiveness by using language heavy in technical terminology.
Some of them are supported by solid evidence, and their efficacy has been established by clinical trials; but these are in the minority, given the cost and difficulty involved in carrying out such trials. Others have not necessarily gone through controlled studies, but their treatment methods are based on sound science. They may be similar to other treatment programs that have gone through controlled trials, so there might be cause for confidence in their adopted methods. Some have no scientific credibility at all. Aside from the technical language, many of the sites provide a series of scientific articles to support the claims they make for efficacy, but only experts are likely to have the background knowledge to assess whether these do in fact provide such support. How can parents or teachers tell the difference between programs that are credible or effective, and those that aren’t?

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

Passage 10
Has the sun smart message gone too far?
Australia has one of the highest rates of skin cancer in the world. In fact, two in three Australians will be diagnosed with skin cancer by the time they are 70. In response to these alarming figures, the Cancer
Council put the spotlight on skin cancer with the slip, slop, slap and sun smart campaigns run over the past few decades.
澳大利亚是世界上皮肤癌发病率最高的国家之一。事实上,到 70 岁时每 3 个澳洲人中就会有 2 个被
诊断出患有皮肤癌。针对这些令人担忧的数据,癌症防治委员会()在过去几十年里通过发起 3s 运
But, the flip side of slip, slop, slap (and wrap) is that vitamin D deficiency is increasingly common in
Australia and contributes to serious illness.
但是,3s 运动的问题在于该运动使维生素 D 缺乏在澳大利亚日益普遍,并且导致严重疾病。
With one in three Australians now insufficient in vitamin D, scientists are calling for a review of the sun smart message, saying there is a dangerous dark side to staying out of the sun.
随着现在每 3 个澳洲人中就有一人维生素 D 缺乏,科学家呼吁重新考虑“明智阳光”运动的宣传,称
The negative publicity regarding sun exposure during the past 30 years has resulted in a vitamin D deficiency pandemic. The current vitamin D recommendations in Australia are seriously out of date. The governments of Australia and New Zealand have been remiss in keeping abreast of the emergent science on vitamin D and disease prevention.
过去 30 年来对于接触阳光的负面宣传造成了维生素 D 缺乏的流行。目前澳大利亚对于维生素 D 的建
议严重落后于时代。对于新兴的关于维生素 D 及其相关疾病的研究,澳大利亚和新西兰政府没能及


(260 words)


In light of emergent research, both Canada and the United States have recently moved to increase the recommended daily intake for vitamin D to 600 international units per day - a level most experts contend is still too low. In contrast, the recommended daily intake for Australia and New Zealand has not budged an inch. It remains at a miniscule 200 international units per day - a level far too low to provide any serious amount of protection.
根据最新的研究,加拿大和美国最近将维生素 D 推荐日摄取量提高到每天 600 国际单位,而大多数
保持在极低的每天 200 国际单位。这一数量远远不足以提供任何实质性的保护。

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

by Sarah Berry, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 5 April 2012



Passage 11:

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

Scenario: A Traditional Chinese Medicine college is monitoring developments worldwide and needs this passage translated into Chinese for discussion.
Deadly concerns over herbal medicines
While there is no doubt that some pharmaceutical drugs carry significant risks of morbidity and sometimes mortality, a recent review of traditional herbal medicines has shown that
“natural” does not always equate with “safe”.


Although there are many time-honoured traditions of herbal medicine, particularly in Asia, the world has changed and we are no longer dealing with herbal medicines based in a village context. Herbal medicine has become part of the global marketplace, and as such it is sometimes difficult to know where a particular medicine may have come from, what it may be composed of and what other ingredients or contaminants may be present.


Issues that have arisen around the world with Asian herbal supplies include contamination with heavy metals such as mercury and lead, the substitution of expensive herbs for cheaper ones that are sometimes more toxic, and the addition of standard pharmaceutical drugs such as steroids, antihistamines and anti-epileptics. In addition, there have been well-documented interactions between certain herbs and prescription medications. It is the latter two issues that are of particular concern.
When a person dies suddenly and unexpectedly in Australia, their death is reported to the State Coroner who determines whether an autopsy is necessary to ascertain the cause of death. The pathologist performing the autopsy relies on information provided by investigating police officers at the death scene, and this often includes a list of prescribed medications. If there is concern about a possible drug interaction, toxicological testing will be performed.
Unfortunately this information rarely, if ever, includes herbal remedies. 来自亚洲的草药在全世界出现的问题包

Passage 12



(260 words) by Roger W. Byard, May 2010

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

The health benefits of vitamin D
维生素 D 的健康功效
It is widely known that vitamin D helps to prevent brittle bones. But it also improves immunity, susceptibility to infection and helps to ward off depression. In addition to this, recent studies suggest vitamin
D can help to prevent cancer.
众所周知,维生素 D 有助于预防骨质脆弱。但它还可以提高免疫力、减少受感染的可能以及防止抑
郁。另外,最近的研究表明维生素 D 有助于预防癌症。
A four-year, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial found that post-menopausal women who supplemented with 1,100 IU/day of vitamin D and 1,500 mg/day of calcium reduced their risk of dying from all cancers by more than 66 per cent.
一项为期 4 年,随机双盲安慰剂对照试验发现,绝经后的妇女每天补充 1100 国际单位维生素 D 和
1500 毫克钙可以使其因各类癌症死亡的危险至少降低 66%。
Vitamin D could be the single most effective means of preventing cancer - even outpacing the benefits of a healthy lifestyle. If there had to be a choice of a single nutrient that would help to ward off heart disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity, dementia, influenza, bacterial infections, depression, insomnia, muscle weakness, fibromyalgia, osteomalacia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, and hypertension, it would be vitamin D.
维生素 D 可能是预防癌症最有效的方式,甚至比健康生活方式更有效。如果必须选择一种单独的营
素 D 就是最好的选择。
To obtain sufficient blood levels of vitamin D, it needs to come from sunlight. Humans cannot obtain sufficient vitamin D through the diet - that is, unless they are prepared to consume 3 or 4 tins of sardines or eat 50 to 100 eggs each day.
要使维生素 D 达到足够的血液浓度,需要从阳光中获取维生素 D。人类无法从食物中获得足够的维
生素 D,除非我们准备每天吃 3、4 罐沙丁鱼或是 50-100 个鸡蛋。
While vitamin D supplementation is recommended (particularly during winter months when the sun isn't as strong), it is best absorbed through sunshine and people need around 10-20 minutes of regular unprotected full-body exposure when the sun is high in the sky (late morning or early afternoon). Only after this time should they be slapping and wrapping.
尽管人们得到建议,要服用补充维生素 D 的药物,特别是在日照不充分的冬季,但只有通过晒太阳
维生素 D 才吸收得最好。人们需要每天在正午前后阳光较强的时候让全身不加遮蔽的接触阳光约 1020 分钟,只有在这一过程后才需要采取防晒措施。
(260 words)

Page, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 13 April 2012


by Sarah Berry

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

Passage 13:
Scenario: Agricultural scientists in China are monitoring developments worldwide, and need this passage translated into Chinese for discussion.
Supplying drinking water in Australia

More than 85% of the Australian population lives within
50 km of the coastline, where weather conditions are typically characterised by high relative humidity and cooling sea breezes. These conditions provide a unique opportunity, because the atmosphere near the coast contains a significant volume of water in the form of fog, ocean spray and high humidity, and this water is locally accessible to a large fraction of the Australian population.
Could it be possible to collect drinking water from the atmosphere? The potential to harness the water that is all around, as well as minimise water loss from dams due to evaporation, would be a huge boon for industry and provide a cost-effective and localised method of water capture. 近来,随着今年一月悉尼南部一座海水淡化
超过 85%的澳大利亚人居住在距海岸线不到
50 公里的范围内,通常这些地区的天气条件


Recently, attention has turned towards desalination of seawater, with the opening of a desalination plant in southern Sydney in January this year. Sydney Water is also in the process of building wastewater recycling plants for non-drinking purposes. However, these methods are energy intensive, and critics cite the potential for environmental impact. There is also the issue of water wastage through evaporation from pre-existing bodies of water, with drinking water simply lost to the atmosphere.



Maintaining a stable supply of drinking water in Australia is a continual challenge. Australia’s major cities have not been spared, and water restrictions have been placed on residents along the eastern seaboard, with the fear that dams may run dry. Unfortunately, there is very little infrastructure for water collection outside of the preexisting dams that provide water for Australia’s major cities. Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

(259 words) by Stuart Thickett, Chiara Neto and Andrew Harris, May 2010

Passage 14
Family influences on drug use
Important factors that influence drug problems are genetics, availability and social and economic backgrounds. 影响毒品问题的重要因素是遗传、来源、社会和经济背景。
Pharmacology of drugs also has an impact, illustrated by the addictive nature of heroin, methamphetamine and cocaine, compared to the low dependence potential for cannabis. Issues that come into play are things like mental health and background.
Drug use is far removed from the stereotype of kids rebelling against their parents. One of the myths of a decade ago was that kids want to rebel against family values, whereas one of the things we would be far clearer about now is that kids do tend to adopt parental values.
使用毒品的原因已经远远脱离了原先子女反抗家长的范畴。10 年前,为什么孩子对自己家庭的价值
The type of support and supervision they get can make a huge difference in how they fare in their exposure.
That does not, by any stretch of the imagination, mean that none of them go out and do risky things. But it may mean the difference between them doing risky things as compared to getting in significant trouble with them. 子女所接受的支持和监督对于其对待毒品态度会产生巨大影响。不难想象,这并不意味着他们当中
Families that communicate openly and support each other could be protective against heavy or ongoing drug use, along with education and social connections.


There's a lot of luck in life. If a young person is in a reasonable neighbourhood and the school is OK, certain types of young people might not get into the trouble they might have otherwise got into.


It isn't necessarily associated with economic status. A family that is quite well off doesn't necessarily have good communication within it, and so the nature of what is a good family can be complex.

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

(264 words)by Stephanie Gardiner


17, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 17 April 2012

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Passage 15:
Scenario: A Chinese university has a course in sociology, and needs this passage translated for course materials into Chinese.
Social media more addictive than tobacco


Some people’s urges to stay connected to social media all day, every day leave them feeling powerless.
Results of a new study confirm what these people have been claiming: that checking email and social media is more addictive than cigarettes and alcohol.


A team from an American university conducted an experiment to test the will-power of 205 people between the ages of 18 and 85 years. Participants were asked seven times a day over the course of a week to identify desires they were experiencing and the strength of said desires. The team sifted through thousands of responses and came up with some telling results. Thankfully, the study showed that not everyone is a slave to vice and distraction, as the need for sleep and leisure topped the list. However, next on the list of “self-control failure rates” was checking in with social media, email and work, ahead of the urge to have a cigarette, while sipping on a glass of 12year-old scotch. Desires for media may be comparatively harder to resist because of their high availability and also because it feels like it does not
“cost much” to engage in these activities, even though one wants to resist. With cigarettes and alcohol there are more costs – long-term as well as monetary – and the opportunity may not always be the right one.

检测 205 名年龄介于 18 至 85 岁人的自制力/意
天 7 次要求参与者说明他们当时的需求,以及
“啜饮一杯 12 年陈苏格兰威士忌的同时享受一

So, even though giving in to media desires is certainly less consequential, the frequent use may still “steal” a lot of people's time.


(251 words) by Nic Halverson



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Passage 16:
Scenario: A Chinese overseas educational agency is monitoring developments in higher education in relevant countries, and needs this passage translated for discussion by its senior staff.
Thinking differently about higher education


With open online courses, open educational resources and many new open source academic journals, universities are no longer the sole channels for the best content. For the first time in their existence, some are questioning the university’s purpose and future.


For many years, universities have said they want their students to be lifelong learners and creators of new knowledge to solve complex, interdisciplinary and illdefined problems. Australian universities have focused increasingly on outcomes and assessment to create capable graduates as employable and effective citizens.
Online courses are not the panacea for the problems faced by universities, or a replacement for traditional modes of teaching and learning, but contribute to a worldwide learning community, hungry to learn and to engage with others doing likewise. The digital economy is as inexorable as the Industrial Revolution was in its day.
Other industries — newspapers, retail, book publishers and sellers — are all changing their practices and business models. Universities would be foolish to ignore this revolution even though outcomes are not clear and many uncertainties exist. Online courses are an opportunity to re-imagine how universities can deliver excellent learning outcomes in new, more accessible and engaging ways, fit for 21st century learners and graduates.
The Australian higher education system is under pressure due to regulatory and financial pressures, but these new technologies prompt universities to think differently about what they do and how they do it. If universities are allowed to innovate, it may well turn out to be good for staff, good for students and, hopefully, good for institutions too.

且适合 21 世纪的学习者和毕业生,那么在

(261 words)

Passage 17



by Jane Den Hollander

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Insufficient sleep and obesity
Insufficient sleep has been associated with everything from suicide to memory loss, hyperactivity to failure at school, immune problems to obesity. Short sleepers are fatter. Most population studies find a U-shaped relationship between sleep duration and the likelihood of being overweight or obese, the risk being lowest in normal (seven to eight hours per night) sleepers, and higher for those sleeping less than five hours or more than nine hours a night.
睡眠时间短的人比较胖。大多数人口研究发现睡眠时间与超重或肥胖的可能性之间存在一种 U 型关
系,即睡眠时间正常的人(每晚睡 7-8 个小时)肥胖的可能性最低,而每晚睡眠时间少于 5 小时或多
于 9 小时都更有可能肥胖。
Studies in the lab have helped to identify some possible mechanisms. When people are sleep-deprived, blood sugar levels are elevated, sympathetic nervous system activity is higher, and levels of leptin and ghrelin
(hormones which respectively suppress and stimulate appetite) are tilted in favour of over-eating. All of this would be expected to lead to fat accumulation.
It seems that the obesity epidemic has coincided with an epidemic of sleep loss. Over the last 100 years, globally, kids have lost 75 minutes of sleep a day, although Australia has gone against the trend, with
Australian kids sleeping longer than before.
肥胖问题的流行似乎是与睡眠不足同时发生的。在过去 100 年里,尽管澳大利亚儿童的睡眠时间比
以前更长,与世界趋势相反;但全世界儿童每天的睡眠时间减少了 75 分钟。
While kids may be sleeping less, historical trends in adult sleep are less clear. One recent study found no significant change between 1992 and 2006 in Australian adults, and UK data show a similar pattern. But about half of all adults say they need more sleep, about 25-30 minutes per night.
成年人的睡眠时间在 1992-2006 年间没有显著变化,而来自英国的数据也显示了类似的情况。但大约
一半的成年人说他们每天需要多睡 25-30 分钟左右。



But laboratory studies typically use extreme sleep deprivation in artificial environments (no drugs, no caffeine, no physical activity, artificial light-dark cycles), so it's not at all clear how these findings translate into real-world situations.
(260 words) by Tim Olds and Carol Maher, edited for SIIT by
David Morris

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Australia’s multicultural society, advanced services sector, natural resource endowment and transparent regulatory regime position it well to do business with Asia. That some
Australian businesses are capitalising on this opportunity is evident in the trade figures. Three of Australia’s five biggest trading partners are in Asia, and since 2004 Australia conducts more trade with Asia than with the rest of the world combined. However, the Australian Government and enterprises can, and should be doing more to build on successes, and capture the benefits of Asian growth for
Australia’s long-term economic prosperity. This is a matter of urgency, as local companies in rapidly maturing Asian markets are hungry to grow across the region, while others in developed countries are overcoming the disadvantage of distance. With improved capabilities driving better access to, and penetration of, Asian markets, Australia has the potential to lift economic performance in Asia by up to $275bn over the next ten years.
Research shows a strong correlation between business success with Asia, and a set of critical individual and organisational capabilities. For Australian enterprises, one of the biggest impediments to realising the Asian opportunity is the absence or underdevelopment of these capabilities.

所占的比例在不到 60 年的时间里增长了一
个在亚洲,而且自 2004 年起,澳大利亚与亚
绩提高 2750 亿元。

(255 words) by the Asialink Taskforce, University of Melbourne able_Workforce.pdf


Asian economies are the world’s largest and fastest growing economies, and they represent a major opportunity for
Australian businesses. Asia’s share of world output has doubled in under 60 years. With that growth expected to continue, there can be little doubt that this is the Asian century. 需要适应亚洲情况的员工队伍/劳动力


Passage 18
The need for an Asia-capable workforce

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Passage 19
Holding those responsible for hunger accountable


In the last 12 months, more than 70 million people have been driven into extreme poverty by rising food costs. The latest Global Hunger Index report identifies climate change, demand for biofuels and market speculation as the primary drivers of the price volatility behind the global food crisis. However, a lack of accountability is the immediate challenge in the fight against hunger.

过去的 12 个月以来,不断上涨的粮食价格已经
使得/造成 7000 多万人极度贫困。最新的《全
球饥饿指数》(Global Hunger Index)报告将气候

(255 words)
Alana Mann 若要让政府以及非政府机构对侵犯食物权的行


Holding states and non-state actors accountable for violations of the right to food and providing solutions to hunger requires broad cooperation and complex mechanisms on local, regional and international levels.
It is the joint responsibility of donor agencies, technical partners, national governments and the international community to develop suitable accountability mechanisms. These are the only remedy to ill-conceived development policies, and exploitative practices such as land-grabbing, cash-cropping and financial speculation on agricultural products.


Food is a basic human right along with the rights to land, water and productive resources. The Right to
Food Guidelines established by the United Nations’
Food and Agriculture Organisation in 2004 recommends that human rights institutions and the legal systems necessary to guarantee rights-holders justice be established in all nations. Yet even those states that enshrine the right to food in their constitutions frequently fail to deliver in practice. The concentration of land and water resources persists, legal systems remain partial to large landowners and the criminalisation of human rights defenders continues with impunity. Legally binding mechanisms through which people can claim their right to food are frequently not available or are inaccessible.

是人类的一项基本权利。2004 年联合国粮农组
织 (the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture
Organisation) 制 订 了 《 食 物 权 准 则 》 (Right to
Food Guidelines),提倡/倡议各国都要建立人权

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Passage 20
Pedestrians wearing headphones at risk
The number of US pedestrians who have been killed or badly injured while wearing headphones has tripled in six years, according to a new study. The researchers trawled through various sets of data to identify accidents that involved pedestrians wearing iPods, MP3 players and other musical devices. It did not include mobile phones. They found that the annual tally rose from 16 in 2004 to 47 in 2011, bringing the total of cases to 116 over this period.
一项新研究表明,6 年中,美国戴耳机的行人死亡或严重受伤的人数是原来的 3 倍。研究人员彻底搜
寻各种数据以找出有戴 iPods、MP3 播放器和其它音乐设备的行人涉及的事故。他们发现每年这类事
故的数量从 2004 年的 16 起增加到 2011 年的 47 起,使这段时期内此类事故的数量达到 116 起。
Everybody is aware of the risk of cell phones and texting in automobiles, but more and more teens are distracted with the latest devices and headphones in their ears. As devices become more and more enticing, the risk of injury from distraction and blocking out other sounds increases.
More than half of the incidents involved pedestrians who were run down by trains, while two-thirds of the victims were males and under the age of 30 years. The research warns of "inattentional blindness" when wearing headphones, meaning a distraction that lowers the resources the brain devotes to external stimuli.
在一半以上此类事故中有行人被火车撞到,而其中有三分之二的受害者是 30 岁以下的男性。该研究
大脑应对外界刺激的能力。, edited for SIIT by
David Morris


(255 words) by ABC/AFP


Whenever people run or walk around listening to music, they allocate some of their brain to listening to that music and the other part to the activity they are doing. They really can't do both of those activities at 100 per cent. The researchers add that the distraction is intensified by sensory deprivation, so that the pedestrian's ability to hear an oncoming train or car is masked by the sounds produced by the headphones.

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Passage 21
Yes - Antibiotics Used on Livestock do Breed Drug-Resistant Bacteria that Infect Humans
The rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has got many experts predicting a future in which currently tractable diseases, like tuberculosis, become untreatable again. The popularity of modern antibiotics, ironically, is what is leading to their downfall.
Antibiotics in consumer products, like soaps, as well as the excessive use of antibiotics by people who have no bacterial infections, help create strains of bacteria that don’t respond to drugs. Factory-farmed livestock, which receive tremendous doses of antibiotics in their feed, are also a likely breeding ground for resistant bacteria that could potentially infect humans.
Proponents of factory farming have scoffed at such claims but now scientists have provided definitive evidence that this happens. Through genetic analysis, they found that a strain of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus
Aureus (MRSA), already resistant to one family of drugs, had hopped from people to farmed pigs, acquired resistance to another antibiotic being fed to the pigs and then leapt back into humans, taking its new resistance with it.


这一菌株被称为 MRSA ST398。现在在这种菌株的出现地荷兰的一些地区,每 4 例 MRSA 病例中就有一
自这一菌株在 2004 年出现以来,欧盟就开始禁止在牲畜饲料中使用抗生素。然而在美国,尽管市场上流


That strain, called MRSA ST398, is now causing 1 out of 4 cases of MRSA in some regions of the Netherlands, where it arose, and it has also been found across the Atlantic in nearly half of the meat in US commerce. After this strain arose in 2004, the European Union began to ban the use of antibiotics in livestock feed. In the United States, however, where most of the antibiotics in circulation are being used in farming, no such regulation exists. If this goes un-checked, the US could be the epicentre of a breakout of new antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

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Words: 272
Source: February 2012. Adapted from an article in Discover Magazine

Passage 22
All in the Same Boat - The Challenges of Mixed Migration
Climbing over razor wire fences, taking to sea in leaking boats or stowing away in airless containers, refugees and migrants around the world risk their lives every day in desperate attempts to find safety or a better life.
Behind the dramatic headlines and the striking images of people on the move, there are personal stories of courage, tragedy and compassion and, although refugees and migrants often use the same routes and modes of transport, they often have different protection needs.
Factors that have contributed to the increase in the scale of international migration include


Among the people on the move today, many are seeking employment or educational opportunities,


globalization and growing disparities in living conditions, both within and between countries.

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others want to reunite with family members and still more are fleeing persecution, conflict or blind violence in their countries, where often their lives are at risk.
While refugees and asylum seekers account for only a small proportion of the global movement of people, they frequently travel alongside migrants, with many of these movements being irregular, in the sense that they often take place without the requisite documentation, use unauthorized border crossing points or involve smugglers.
The people who move in this manner place their lives at risk and are often obliged to travel in inhumane conditions and may be exposed to exploitation and abuse. States regard such movements as a threat to their sovereignty and security and yet, this may be in some cases, the only escape route open to those fleeing war or persecution.
Words: 267



Source: Adapted from an article on the UNHCR website.

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Passage 23

Brain Gain - Stimulating the Brain Delays but does Not Prevent Dementia




As the baby-boomer generation contemplates the prospect of the Zimmer frame there has never been more interest in delaying the process of ageing. One consequence has been a dramatic rise in the popularity of brain-training games but how effective really is a daily dose of cryptic crosswords? Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
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As the chief neuropsychologist at Monash University in Melbourne, I decided to find out by following a group of people without dementia. Participants were asked to rate how frequently they engaged in cognitively stimulating activities and my team looked for such things as reading newspapers, books and magazines, playing challenging games like chess, listening to the radio and watching television and visiting museums.
The good news that came from this study is that frequent activity of this sort seems to slow the rate of mental decline in those without cognitive impairment. The bad news is that in those who do then develop Alzheimer’s disease, it is associated with a more rapid subsequent decline.
What seems to be happening is that cognitive stimulation helps overcome the effect of the neurodegenerative lesions associated with dementia but it does not make them go away. They continue to accumulate, so that when the disease does eventually take hold there are more of them around than there otherwise would be, which results in a more rapid cognitive fall off.
This is not a message of despair, though, because the length of time someone suffers from dementia is thus reduced and their healthy life prolonged, so the message is, carry on with the crosswords.


Source: Adapted from a September 2010 article in The Economist


Words: 268

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Passage 24
Feuds threaten Asia's family businesses


Family businesses dominate Asia's, and increasingly the world's, corporate landscape. They account for half of Asia's publicly listed companies, a third of the region's stock market value and employ millions of people, making their success key to Asia's emerging economies. They are very significant components in their respective economies.



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But these corporate dynasties, most founded in the aftermath of World War II, are facing new challenges as their elderly founders hand over the reins to the next generation. Many are failing to plan for this transition, leading to uncertainty at best, and potentially ruinous family feuds at worst.
Many Asian entrepreneurs are very successful businessmen but they fail on this simple question.
The business - and gossip - pages of Asia's magazines and newspapers are rife with examples of corporate families locked in bitter court battles over the family fortune:
Given that many of Asia's tycoons are now in their 80s and 90s, the next decade will probably see a number of leadership successions.
鉴于很多亚洲企业巨头现在已 80,甚至 90 岁高龄,未来 10 年很可能会出现很多领导层更替
While not all family businesses experience bitter power struggles, the generational shift still has a profound impact on a company's stock market performance.
A recent study tracked the market performance of 250 family companies that underwent a succession. It found that, on average, these companies' stock values declined by almost 60% during the period starting five years before the succession up until three years afterwards.
一项最近的研究跟踪记录了 250 家出现领导层更替情况的家族企业的市场业绩。该研究发现,
平均来说,从领导层更替前 5 年开始,直到更替后的 3 年,这些公司的股票价值在这一期间
下降了近 60%。


(261 words) by Katie Hunt


The success of a family firm is often down to the skills, charisma and connections of the founder, something that subsequent generations may find hard to replicate.

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Passage 25
Want a high-risk future? Try taking a job as a labourer

Coast's Q1 building or working as a police officer. The State Government's "harm index" has


WHAT is Queensland's most dangerous job? It isn't skydiving, washing the windows of the Gold



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determined labouring jobs are the most dangerous. The harm index is an industry tool that looks at workers' compensation claims data and other statistics. Introduced in 2011, the index has since become a commonly used instrument for Workplace Health and Safety Queensland's planning processes. 昆士兰最危险的工作是什么?不是高空跳伞,不是擦洗黄金海岸 Q1 大厦的窗户,也不是去
查看工人赔偿申请数据及其它统计数据的产业工具。自 2011 年开始使用以来,该指数已经
The 2011-12 results show labouring is nearly three times as dangerous as the average for all occupations. Injuries to workers in these occupations are also "three to six times more severe" than for the average Queensland worker.
2011-2012 年度结果显示,在所有职业中,体力劳动的危险性是平均水平的 3 倍。这些职业
中的工人受伤的严重程度也是昆士兰平均水平的“3 至 6 倍”

Workplace Health and Safety Queensland head Simon Blackwood said the index combined workers' compensation claim costs with the number of workers in specific industry sectors to show the relative harm workers were likely to sustain during their working lives. He said labourers contributed more than 25,000 claims, almost one-third of all claims finalised in 2011-12, the largest share of any main occupation group. They were followed by machinery operators and drivers, who recorded an index value 2.4-times greater than the state average and contributed the fourth-highest proportion of claims by occupations. According to him, “it was the truck drivers who were by far the highest risk in this category"。
昆士兰工作场所健康与安全署负责人西蒙 布莱克伍德()说,该指数将工人申请赔偿金额
动者的赔偿申请有 25000 件,几乎是 2011-2012 年度所有已处理赔偿申请的三分之一,在所



2.4 倍,从职业角度来说,司机的赔偿申请数占第四位。他指出,“目前,卡车司机是这一职



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A Queensland Health spokeswoman said 468 people had presented at Nambour General Hospital with injuries linked to workers' compensation between May 1 2012 and April 30 2013. Lacerations, fractures and sprains were among the prevalent injuries.
一位昆士兰卫生署()的女发言人说,在 2012 年 5 月 1 日到 2013 年 4 月 30 日间 468 位到南
267 words
Adapted from Kathy Sundstrom



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Passage 26
Scenario: The Chinese Foreign Affairs Department has a newsletter for staff in diplomatic posts in countries around the world, and needs this passage translated into Chinese for inclusion.
World Health Organization agrees to address research on neglected diseases


Campaigners have welcomed a World Health
Organization pledge to tackle research and funding gaps concerning some of the developing world’s biggest killer diseases. Member countries are expected to hold talks later this year on an expert group’s recommendation that a globally binding convention is needed to address neglected tropical diseases, tuberculosis and others currently overlooked by the research industry.

分,投入资金不足,世界卫生组织(World Health

This follows a meeting of the organisation’s decision-making body, the World Health
Assembly, where members adopted a resolution calling on the organisation’s director-general to set up the meeting. The resolution, the result of three days of negotiations, urges governments and the private sector to boost investment in health research for diseases which disproportionately affect the developing world. The expert group said in its report that public investment in health research was currently dominated by wealthy countries and their own needs. It recommended a globally binding convention to help developing countries access the drugs and technologies they require and suggested member states commit
0.01% of their GDP to fund the work. Where drugs and technologies do exist, they often fail to meet the specific needs of developing countries and are too costly. Lacking are more effective treatments for drug-resistant tuberculosis, child versions of
HIV drugs and vaccines that do not need to be refrigerated. 这一结果是在世卫组织决策机构,即世界卫生大会
(World Health Assembly)的一次会议后达成的。
各成员国贡献其国内生产总值(GDP)的 0.01%资

(254 words)


At this time of financial crises, strong public commitment is needed to ensure that new and adapted medical tools are made available, at an affordable price, to neglected patients in developing countries.


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by Agençe France-Presse Passage 27
The National Broadband Network
The National Broadband Network is one of the largest infrastructure projects in Australia's history.
The organisation involved (NBN Co) is building a brand new fibre optic, fixed wireless and satellite network. It is set to make high-speed broadband available to 100% of Australian homes and businesses. 国家宽带网络是澳大利亚有史以来最大的基础设施项目。该项目涉及的组织(NBN Co)正
在建设一个全新的光纤、固定无线和卫星网络。NBN 致力于使澳大利亚所有家庭和企业都
The landline phone network currently in Australia was built over many decades. In contrast, installing the NBN across Australia is expected to take about 10 years, so although it's a long-term project, it's also a very fast-paced rollout. The plan is to install 6,000 homes and businesses every day in the peak of the rollout. By the end of 2015, more than 3.5 million homes and businesses across Australia are planned to have construction commenced or completed.
预计仅需 10 年时间。因此,尽管这是一个长期项目,但是它的推广速度会很快。在推广的
高峰期,计划每天为 6000 户家庭和企业进行安装。到 2015 年底,预计全澳将有 350 万户家
Most customers will be connected to the NBN via fibre optic technology, which was first developed

not need an electrical current to carry a signal. When wet, fibre optic lines can still carry signals and


technology capable of connecting faster broadband to homes right across a country. Fibre cables do


in the 1970s. Despite around 40 years of research, there's still no commercially-available

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support services (as long as electronic devices connected to either end of the fibre optic cable are still operational). In areas hooked up to optic-fibre, the NBN will deliver super-fast broadband with speed to service providers of up to 100 Mbps download and 40 Mbps upload; it can also deliver high speeds to customers' premises no matter how far they live from the exchange.
大多数用户将通过光纤技术连接到国家宽带网络,这一技术开发于 20 世纪 70 年代。尽管又
经过了 40 年的研究,但仍然没有其它商业化的技术可以将全国住宅与更快的宽带网络连
超级高速宽带,下载速度达 100Mbps,上载速度为 40Mbps。它还可以向用户住所提供高速

255 words
Adapted from

Passage 28
Scenario: A Chinese popular science magazine is publishing a series of articles on topics of current interest, and needs this passage translated for inclusion.

The enhanced greenhouse effect is not the only factor acting on the climate system. In the short term, the influence of greenhouse gases can be obscured by other competing forces. These include other anthropogenic factors such as increased industrial aerosols and ozone depletion, as well as natural changes in solar radiation and volcanic aerosols, and the cycle of El Niño and La Niña events. By choosing a range of indicators, averaging over decades rather than years, and looking at the pattern of change through the entire climate system, scientists are able to clearly discern the fingerprint of human-induced change.

科学家通过选择一系列指标,以 10 年而不

If the warming over the 20th century was due to deep ocean processes, scientists would not expect to see continents

如果在 20 世纪发生的变暖现象是由于深海




Factors acting on the climate system

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warming more rapidly than the oceans, or the oceans warming from the top down. For increases in solar radiation, they would expect to see warming of the stratosphere rather than the observed cooling trend.
Similarly, greater global warming at night and during winter is more typical of increased greenhouse gases, rather than an increase in solar radiation.
A range of other observations shows the enhanced greenhouse effect is real. The additional carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been identified through its isotopic signature as being fossil fuel in origin. The increased carbon dioxide absorbed by the oceans is being recorded as a measured decrease in ocean alkalinity. Satellite measurements of outgoing long-wave radiation from the planet reveal increased absorption of energy in the spectral bands corresponding to carbon dioxide, exactly as expected from fundamental physics.


(260 words) by Karl Braganza Passage 29
Scenario: The managing director of Tourism Australia has released information about his agency’s marketing to second-tier cities in China. The travel agents’ association in Shenzhen wants to include this information (in Chinese) on its website.
Australia Tourism targets China's secondary cities
Australia says it plans to target China's rapidly growing second-tier cities to boost tourism revenue, based on new findings of research commissioned by Tourism Australia into China's secondary cities.


A record number of 558,600 Chinese visited Australia in the 12 months from January 2011. Tourism officials believed that the Chinese market has the potential to grow annual overnight visitor expenditure between A$7bn and up to A$9bn by 2020.


China is already Australia's fastest growing tourism market, worth more than A$3.8bn in 2011. Tourism
Australia's marketing is currently focused on Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou.
中国已成为澳大利亚发展最快的旅游市场,2011 年的利润超过 38 亿。澳大利亚旅游局的市场营销目

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根据记录,从 2011 年 1 月开始的 12 个月内,有 55 万 8 千 6 百名中国人来到澳大利亚。旅游局工作
人员认为,到 2020 年,中国市场每年“过夜旅客”消费有可能增长 70 亿澳元至多达 90 亿澳元。
The research into 13 Chinese cities including rising secondary cities such as Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin,
Suzhou and Hangzhou found that Australia was the long haul travel destination many people wanted to visit.
对于 13 个中国城市所开展的研究包括诸如重庆,深圳,天津,苏州以及杭州的新兴二级城市,研究
The findings also indicated that Australia was viewed an aspirational, highly regarded, 'must-visit' destination among many middle-class Chinese. Attractions such as the Sydney Opera House and the Great
Barrier Reef were listed as the most desired places to visit in the country.
Tourism Australia plans to use these findings to help prioritise marketing activities in China. A further record investment will be made in marketing resources in China this year.
Australia announced its China 2020 Strategic Plan in June 2011, to target up to 30 Chinese cities for tourism growth. 澳大利亚方面在 2011 年 6 月公布了其 2020 年对中国的战略计划,为达到旅游业利润增长,将目标
锁定多达 30 个中国城市。
The response in China to Tourism Australia's current 'There's nothing like Australia' campaign has been better than anywhere else overseas, with over 90% of those who see the campaign confirming they had started researching a future trip to Australia.
过 90%看过该宣传活动的人表示,他们已开始研究未来的澳洲之行。
(260 words), edited for SIIT by David Morris, 13 March 2012, reference translation provided by Elaine QI


Farmers are fighting soil loss by planting trees and shrubs that help keep the soils moist, buffer the winds and slow rainwater. West African countries have already achieved remarkable improvements in soil fertility as a result of tree-planting programmes, and there is now an ambitious plan for a “Great Green Wall of Africa” to cross the continent in a tree barrier against the encroaching deserts.


Passage 30
Scenario: This passage needs to be translated for an international conference on agriculture in the 21st century
Strategies to fight soil loss

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

In Indonesia, farmers are planting vetiver – an Indian grass – to protect their soils from erosion, because its roots grow down deep and hold it in place. Solutions like this offer multiple benefits – vetiver reduces weed and pest incursion, produces marketable oil and is also useful for animal feed.
Essential minerals, such as nitrates, that crops suck up from the soil take a long time to be replaced naturally.
Although nitrogen is very common in the air, only a few organisms are able to break the tough chemical bond in the gas to create the nitrate form that plants and animals use to develop proteins.
Animal faeces contain many of these chemicals, and are the easiest and cheapest way of replenishing the soil.
In many places in the world, livestock dung is the only fertiliser available, but is becoming scarcer because, in trying to preserve the few trees and shrubs around cropland, farmers are burning dung for cooking.
One solution is to use a biodigester – a tank in which bacteria break down the waste. The methane gas produced by the bacteria is used to fuel cooking stoves, and the decomposed manure spread on the fields as fertiliser. 有一种解决方法是使用生物柴油——将废物置入一个大槽,让细菌对其进行腐蚀。由细菌所产生的
(266 words) by Gaia Vince, edited for SIIT by David
Morris, 23 March 2012, translation reference provided by Elaine QI

Passage 31 scenario: A Chinese university has a course on sociology, and needs this passage translated for course material Page

These days, online comments are extraordinarily aggressive without resolving anything. A perfect storm of factors come together to engender the rudeness and aggression seen in the comments sections of web pages.


Why is everyone on the internet so angry?

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

First, commenters are often virtually anonymous, and thus unaccountable for their rudeness. Second, they are at a distance from the target of their anger — be it the article they're commenting on or another comment on that article — and people tend to antagonise distant abstractions more easily than living, breathing interlocutors. Third, it's easier to be nasty in writing than in speech.
Because comment-section discourses don't happen in real time, commenters can write lengthy monologues, which tend to entrench them in their extreme viewpoint. In conversation in person, no-one actually gets to deliver a monologue. Even if they get angry, people are talking back and forth and so eventually they have to calm down and listen so they can have a conversation. Communication is really about taking someone else's perspective, understanding it and responding. Tone of voice and gesture can have a large influence on people’s ability to understand what someone is saying. The further away from face-to-face, real-time dialogue people get, the harder it is to communicate.
Working out solutions to the kinds of hard problems that tend to garner the most comments online requires lengthy discussion and compromise. The back-and-forth negotiation that goes on in having a conversation with someone who holds another opinion is a skill which is languishing, both among members of the public and our leaders.
(259 words) by Natalie Wolchover, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 6 September 2012






Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

Reference translation provided by Xiaomin WANG

Passage 32
Scenario: This passage needs to be translated for an international conference on agriculture in the 21st century
Producing nutritious food
The next green revolution will have to be accompanied by a rethink about how nutritious the food put on the table of millions of people every day is. Too many people in Asia and Africa suffer from “hidden hunger”, or deficiencies in key micronutrients. These people’s diets are dominated by staples that are high in calories but lack iron, zinc, vitamin A and other micronutrients. Deficiencies can reduce IQ, lower disease resistance, stunt growth and even cause blindness, which greatly increases a person’s risk of death in the developing world. 下一场绿色革命到来时,人们应当重新思考关于几百万人每天摄入食物的营养程度这个问题。在亚
主要是由高含卡路里,但缺含铁,锌,维他命 A 以及其它微量元素的食物组成。缺乏重要营养成分
The best-known example of boosting nutrition in staple crops is golden rice, which was engineered with genes from daffodils and bacteria to produce beta-carotene, a nutrient that the body can convert into vitamin
A. Developed in the 1990s, and field tested in the 2000s, golden rice is still not available for general use.
Some environmental groups fear that this modified strain could contaminate other vital rice strains.
的基因进行转化,以制造出 β-胡萝卜素,而人体能够将 β-胡萝卜素转化成维他命 A。人们在 20 世纪
90 年代对金色稻米进行研发,并于 21 世纪对其种植地进行检测。一些环保团体担心,这种转基因品


They found a small number of maize varieties that grow in both tropical and temperate climates and which carry a gene variant that slows down the conversion of beta-carotene to other substances, leaving more to make vitamin A. As important, they also found a genetic marker that signals when this sought-after gene variant is in place.


Researchers are now trying to find strains that naturally produce high levels of beta-carotene. One team screened around 300 maize strains, and unearthed some with boosted beta-carotene levels. They then looked for any genes in these maize strains that resembled genes linked to high beta-carotene levels in other plants.
研究人员目前正尝试找出本身就能产生高含量 β-胡萝卜素的品种。一个研究小组筛选了大约 300 个
玉米品种,并发现其中一些品种本身的 β-胡萝卜素含量较高。于是,研究人员便开始在这些玉米的
品种内寻找特定的基因,这些基因类似其它高含 β-胡萝卜素植物所含基因。

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

研究人员发现,有少量玉米品种是生长在热带及温带气候下,其所含的基因变体会减缓 β-胡萝卜素
转化到其它物质的过程,从而使得能够转化成维他命 A 的 β-胡萝卜素含量较高。同样重要的是,研
(265 words) by Catherine Clabby, edited for SIIT by David
Morris, 26 March 2012, translation reference provided by Elaine QI

Passage 33
Scenario: An institute of interpreting and translating is starting an elective introducing issues regarding machine translation (automated translation using computers). The following needs to be translated for the information kit to be sent to prospective students in China.
Machine translation: problems and early approaches
Despite billions of dollars of research and massive demand from businesses, politicians, the military and tourists, today’s machine translation technology is still only stuttering along. The field has made a lot of progress, but a time when a computer can match the interpretive skills of a professional is still a long way off.
Why is it so hard to automatically translate texts?


Language is too complex. It is always ambiguous, so rules cannot always be used, and new vocabulary is always coming in, so someone is needed to continually maintain those rules. There are simply too many possible rules for them all to be written down. There are also too many exceptions to those rules.


Scientists and academics have been trying to automate translation for almost as long as computers have existed. In the 1940s and 1950s it was assumed that once the vocabulary and the rules of grammar of a language were codified, it would make automated translation easy. But attempts to make computers learn languages in this way over the next forty years were largely unsuccessful, unless the words to be translated were very limited.
几乎从电脑的出现开始,科学家以及学者就一直在尝试自动化翻译。在 20 世纪 40 年代以及 20 世纪
50 年代,人们认为,一种语言中的词汇及语法规则一经编撰,实现自动化翻译便易如反掌。可是,
失败了 。

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

In the 1980s, computer giant IBM carried out pioneering research into the use of words in sentences.
Specifically, its researchers examined the relative frequency of different groups of three words occurring in a sentence. For example, "going to go" occurs far more frequently than "going too, go" or "going two go".
Although the three phrases sound almost identical, the first is statistically most likely to be correct.
在 20 世纪 80 年代,电脑巨头 IBM 展开了对于句子中词语使用的开创性研究。确切的说,研究人员
对出现在一个句子中,三种词语不同类别的相对频率进行了研究。例如,“going to go”的出现率远远
高于“going too, go”或“going two go”。虽然这三个词组的发音几乎一样,但是从统计角度来说,第一
(260 words) by Paul Rubens, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 12
March 2012, translation reference provided by Elaine QI

Passages 34 scenario: A Chinese university has a course on sociology, and needs this passage translated for course material The human body influences people’s preferences


The theory of embodied cognition, widely embraced by cognitive scientists in recent years, holds that abstract ideas are grounded in physical experiences of the world. If human bodies shape thinking, do people with different bodies think differently? Researchers have been using handedness to test this body-specific hypothesis. A set of studies published in 2009 found that right-handers associate right with good and left with bad and that left-handers make the reverse associations. People prefer objects, job candidates and images of alien creatures on their dominant side to those on their non-dominant side. To rule out the possibility that this bias is purely genetic, like handedness is, the researchers handicapped people's preferred hands, by wearing a bulky ski glove on their good hand. Afterward, they showed a bias against things on that side. The results suggest that people look kindly on half the world because they can interact with that side fluently. Make it a hassle, and opinions flip.


If a person is right-handed, the chances are that they will make different choices than their left-handed friends. A series of recent studies shows that people associate their dominant side with good and their nondominant side with bad, preferring products and people on their good side over those closer to the other half of their body.

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

People have lopsided bodies and have to interact with the environment in systematically different ways.
Given how broadly those interactions can influence thinking, body specificity may be shaping judgments in the real world in ways that they never suspected.
(259 words) by Matthew Hutson, edited for SIIT by David
Morris, 4 September 2012
体而异的假设。2009 年发表的一系列研究发现惯用右手的人将右和好相联系,惯用左手的人则与之

Passage 35
Scenario: A Chinese university has a course on meteorology, and needs this passage translated for class material Page

Labels like category 1 hurricane and tropical storm are based only on top sustained wind speeds. Although that's important, it's by no means the only factor that determines a storm's appetite for destruction. Other factors can be critical as well, and storms that are comparatively low on the scale can still cause horrific damage. 44

Determining a storm’s potential for destruction

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

Along with wind speed, the sheer size of a storm, how quickly it is moving and the angle at which it's approaching land also influence its potential to wreak havoc. Bigger storms have a wider reach, affecting more people, and are tied to more severe storm surge, or the ocean being pushed ashore. A slowly moving storm affects the same area with heavy downpours for hours, even days, at a time. Even relatively weak storms can cause terrible damage if they stay in one place since the unending rains can spark inland flooding.
The direction of a storm's approach also plays a role in its destructive power — certain angles promote greater storm surge. Hurricanes and tropical storms usually hit the south-facing Mexican Gulf coast of the
USA moving from southeast to northwest. Since storms in the northern hemisphere spin anti-clockwise, areas to the east of the storm’s centre lie in the path of the winds as they swing northward and westward, allowing them to push even more ocean water toward land.
However, none of these other factors are used to rank hurricanes, and some scientists argue that it's time to change the way tropical storms and hurricanes are categorised.
(259 words) by Andrea Mustain and OurAmazingPlanet, edited for SIIT by David
Morris, 3 September 2012



Reference translation provided by Xiaomin WANG

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

Passage 36
Scenario: A Chinese urban development company is monitoring issues worldwide, and needs this passage translated into Chinese for internal discussion
Building social cities: the value of the human connection
The crucial factor in whether cities are good places to live is neither the number of residents nor the height of skyscrapers. It is whether the city helps people connect with other people or leaves them feeling lonely, and that depends largely on what happens inside and in between the buildings in which people live and work.
Loneliness is very bad for health: just like smoking and obesity, it is associated with lower life expectancy.
More people are living for longer, more people are living alone and the number of sole parent families is increasing. All three groups face a higher risk of isolation. While there is no easy way to change these trends, the way authorities build and organise cities can help to bring people together or keep them apart. Streets that are pleasant for walking encourage people to get outside, increasing their chance of a chat on the pavement.
Walking is not only good for physical health but also for mental health: it helps people feel a sense of safety and belonging in their local area. It is possible to build common areas and shared facilities in residential complexes so that neighbours meet by chance and become acquainted. This emphasis on face-to-face interaction might sound old-fashioned in an era of social networking but connecting online is not the same as connecting in person.
Human beings are social animals; thousands of years of evolutionary biology means they still need to meet in the physical, as well as the virtual world.
(260 words)
Jane-Frances Kelly, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 28 August 2012





Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

Reference translation provided by Xiaomin WANG

Pasage 37
Scenario: The Australian Department of Foreign Affairs is organising an education expo in China, and needs this passage translated into Chinese for one of the documents
International students: in Australia’s best interests
The benefits of international students into Australia’s universities are easy to identify. First, international education generates well-paid employment for highly qualified people in Australia. These are valuable roles for academics and professional staff in Australia’s universities; jobs that should be fostered and grown.
Second, the benefits spill over into other sectors of the economy. More than $6.4 billion per annum is spent by international students on tuition and $4.3 billion on food and accommodation. They are often visited by family and friends, and are likely to return after they graduate, spending more money as they visit their former stamping grounds.
Third, international students foster long-term goodwill and international understanding between Australia and their own countries. Many business and government leaders in the region are alumni of Australian universities. They have fond memories and appreciation of their formative years in Australia, which influences their perceptions of Australia and promotes its standing in the region.
Fourth, higher education has all the attributes of a luxury product, where brand equity associated with university names carries substantial prestige and opportunities for premium pricing. It is not commoditised, and not subject to serious price-based competition from international competitors with lower labour rates.
Finally, almost all of the economic benefits are retained in Australia and reinvested in education and research capability. This is crucial to Australia, where education and research are drivers of productivity and hence prosperity. Growth in higher education generates future wealth, and the ability to develop the physical and social resources associated with institutions of higher learning.




(260 words)Alec Cameron, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 28
August 2012

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

第二,他们也为其他行业带来了好处。国际学生每年所缴纳的学费超过 64 亿澳元,在食物和住宿
方面的花费达 43 亿澳元。家人和朋友经常来探望他们,并且他们毕业后可能会故地重游,从而花费

Passage 38
Scenario: A Chinese car manufacturer is monitoring developments worldwide, and needs this passage translated into Chinese for internal discussion
Electric car owners all plug in at once


Early statistics from a study of 10 households in a new “green” housing development in the USA say that car owners all plug in at similar times. People come home at the end of a day and turn everything on, along with plugging in their electric car for a recharge. This pattern holds up even on weekends, when it might be easy to plug in during the morning hours, and even though dozens of charging stations have been installed at convenient locations. The resulting demand on the power grid can be significant. The number of plugged-in cars begins to rise at 3 pm and continues to 8 pm — the same time period when home air conditioners are


Environmentalists and renewable energy enthusiasts have been extolling electric cars for years, and now consumers are actually buying them. Electricity utilities favour them as well, because plugging in the cars to recharge batteries adds to electricity sales. They are worried, however, that too many people in a community charging their vehicles at the same time of day would create spikes in power demand that could force them to turn on expensive “peak generators” such as gas turbines — costs they would rather avoid, and would ultimately pass on to consumers.

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

being turned on or up. Charging a depleted battery pack takes about four hours, so the cumulative electric vehicle load peaks toward midnight.
Once 15 to 20 percent of residents in a neighborhood own electric cars, utilities could have real trouble meeting peak demand.
(258 words) by Mark Fischetti, edited for SIIT by
David Morris, 12 September 2012
对美国 10 户家庭新“绿色”住房发展方面的早期研究数据表明,车主都在类似的时间充电。人
求量相当大。充电的电力车数量在下午 3 点开始增加,一直持续到晚上 8 点。这正是人们开空调或
将空调调大的时间段。将耗尽电量的电池充满电大约需要 4 个小时。电力车累计负荷量在午夜时达
一旦居民区有 15 到 20%的居民拥有电力车,那么电力公司可能真的很难满足高峰时的电力需求。

Passage 39
Scenario: An international conference on genetic research needs this passage translated into Chinese for session papers


Geneticists focus on finding disease genes, but their discoveries rarely benefit the people who enable this research to happen. Instead, they are rewarded for how many papers they publish, and in which journals.


Genetic discoveries rarely benefit the people at risk

Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

Since the human genome was first sequenced in 2000, genome science has accelerated at a remarkable rate.
Rapid advances in DNA-sequencing technology mean that affordable decoding of the human genome is not far away. In fact, human genomes could be sequenced for as little as $1,000 in the next few years.
Unfortunately, the current biomedical research establishment is entirely unprepared for such a scenario.
Researchers often believe that their mission is to uncover new biology and genetics, and that someone else will translate them to the clinical arena. Accordingly, many geneticists have worked on “big-science” genomics, including genome-wide association studies focused on common genetic variation in the human species. But it is widely known that certain mutations can run in families, increasing dramatically the risks of certain diseases, for example, breast cancer, sickle-cell anemia and cystic fibrosis. Unfortunately, many human molecular geneticists have abdicated any responsibility for trying to decrease the overall burden of such diseases. While this trend has many causes — most of which have been debated extensively — one very important factor is rarely discussed.
自 2000 年首次人类基因组序定序以来,基因科学就以惊人的速度迅猛发展。DNA 测序技术的快速
费$1000 便可进行人类基因组定序。不幸的是,目前的生物医学研究机构还未完全对此局面做好准备。
地,许多基因学家研究“大科学”基因组学,包括全基因组关联(genome-wide association)研究,
Scientific research — and biomedical research in particular — largely resembles a race. Human geneticists, like big-game hunters, specialise in finding disease genes — the “prize”. Once they succeed, they usually do not continue to develop their findings; instead, they move on to their next target.
(260 words) by Gholson J. Lyon, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 6 August
2012, reference provided by Emily YANG
Passage 40
Minimising risk to banks and the banking system 将银行和银行体系的风险降到最低



Recent events have strongly suggested that the international financial system is not optimally designed. Of course, it never was “designed”, but has evolved over many centuries, guided by changing customs and beliefs, which have rarely been grounded on evidence that would pass muster in the physical or biological sciences. Sydney Institute of Interpreting & Translating
Address: Suite 206, 4 Goulburn Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Tel : 61 2 9283 5759 Fax: 61 2 9264 2380 E-mail:

In particular, the broad international regulatory framework focuses on issues of minimising risk for individual banks and other financial institutions. It is now increasingly recognised that the diversification thus encouraged – spreading risks more widely – was indeed sensible for each individual bank, viewed in isolation. But the consequence for the banking system as a whole was to diminish diversity, as banks became more similar in their asset holdings and more densely interconnected.
Not surprisingly, much work is now focused on systemic risk. The basic idea is to make it more difficult for the failure of any single bank to propagate throughout the banking network, producing cascades of collapse.
Regulatory bodies seem likely to recommend that all banks be required to keep larger capital reserves and/or other forms of liquidity than has recently been the case. Recognising the disproportionate influence of the biggest banks, there is also the strong suggestion that such banks hold relatively larger capital reserves; the contrary has been the recent practice. Other suggestions are that leverage levels be hauled back well below those of recent years, and that the magnitude of capital reserves be countercyclical (larger in boom times, lower in bust times, again to the contrary of the recent past).
(260 words) by Robert M May


51, edited for SIIT by David Morris, 8 March 2012, reference translation provided by Xiaomin

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...In a list of references, you need to include: (with each type of text there are some examples) 1. Books: Author, Year. Title of book. Edition (only include this if not the first edition). Place of publication: Publisher. Ulrich, W., 1983. Critical heuristics of social planning. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2. Newspaper articles: Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Newspaper, Date. Page numbers. Slapper, Gary., 2005. Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers. The Times, 3 Sep. p.4-5. 3. Scientific articles: Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers. Website Address [Accessed date] Beaver, M., 2000. Errant greenhouse could still be facing demolition. Building Design. 24 Nov., p.3. Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an indepth look. Political Science Quarterly. 42 (6). Hamill, C., 1999. Academic essay writing in the first person: a guide for undergraduates. Nursing Standard. 21 Jul., 13 (44), p. 38-40. Jenkings, R.,1989. Clashing with caching. ARIADNE. Issue 21,10 September. Wright, A. & Cottee, P., 2000. Consumer understanding of US and EU nutrition labels. British Food Journal [Online] 103 (8), p. 615-629. Emerald. Available at: <> [accessed 8 September 2001]. 4. Other sources on the Internet: Author, Initials., Year. Title of......

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Reference The last source that I feel like will contribute to my paper is the child specialist article. My whole paper revolves around child welfare specialist and child abuse and neglect. So I feel like this article is very helpful because it lets you know exactly what the role of child welfare specialist is. Because of the ever growing numbers of children with learning disabilities, a new idea, one of a “child specialist” is presented. According to Sapir (1984) the role of the “child specialist” is clear and the ethics and philosophy supporting this method are deliberated. The importance of this new role originates from the many socio-economic forces in our society which are counter-productive to children’s best welfares. 4 Reference Johnson, C.F. (2004). Child sexual abuse. The Lancet, 364(9432), 462-70. Retrieved from http:// Northcott, F.S., & Jeffries, W. (2013). Forgotten families: International family connections for Children in the American public child-welfare system. Family Law Quarterly, 47(2), 273- 298. Retrieved from Accounted=27965 Sapir, S.C. (1984). The child Specialist. Journal of Learning Disabilites, 17(5) Wedge, P. (1998). Social work and child abuse. The state of welfare. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health “ CBMH, 8......

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...REFERENCE LIST Alibaba Group Holding Limited, 2015. [online] Available at: <> Alibaba Group Holding Limited, 2015. Company Overview [online] Available at: <> Alibaba Group Holding Limited, 2015. Culture and Values [online] Available at: <> Alibaba Group Holding Limited, 2015. Frequently Asked Questions [online] Available at: <>, Inc, 2015. [Online] Available at: <> Daxue Consulting, 2014. The Success of Taobao on the Chinese Internet. [online] Available at: <> Ding, Ran. China New Legal Approaches to E-Commerce: Prosperity and Challenge. 2010 International Conference on E-business, Management and Economics IPEDR vol.3 (2011). IACSIT Press, Hong Kong. Incitez Pte Ltd,, 2015. Taobao Total Sales Reached USD5.7 billion On A Single Day [online] Available at: <> Investopedia, 2015. What is Alibaba? [online] Available at: <> Li, W., Wu, D. & Xu, H. (2008) ‘Reputation in China’s online auction market: evidence from’, Frontiers of Business Research in China, 14(2): pp. 13-18 Liu, Ying......

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...References American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition, “Prevention of Pediatric Overweight and Obesity: Policy Statement.”Pediatrics 112, no. 2 (August 2003): 424-430. American Academy of Pediatrics, Prevention of Pediatric Overweight and Obesity, 2003 (Outside Source). Downloaded June 18, 2012. American Heart Association, “Exercise (Physical Activity) and Children.” American Heart Association, (accessed June 10, 2012). Associated Press, “State study suggests national child obesity problem.”, June 4, 2004, (accessed June 15, 2012). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preventing Obesity and Chronic Diseases Through Good Nutrition and Physical Activity (PDF; Outside Source). Accessed May 2012 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (accessed June 8, 2012). “Community Nutrition: Obesity Prevention Program.” Duval County Health Department, May 31, 2012). Just, David R. and Brian Wansink (2009), “Better School Meals on a Budget: Using Behavioral Economics and Food Psychology to Improve Meal Selection,” Choices, 24:3, 1-6 Wansink, Brian, and David Just (2011), “Healthy Foods First: Students Take the First Lunchroom Food 11% More Often Than the Third,” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, Volume......

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