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外国文学研究

2001年第3期

加喜大华裔英语文学的并起




内窖提要:加拿大华裔英语文学诞生于20世纪70年代,是当代加牵大文坛上一股不可忽视
的新兴力量。本文通过探析华裔作家笔下的主要创作主题,指出加拿大华裔英语文学是以书写华
人的集体经验和社区历史为主旨,批判加拿大社会中的种族歧视和白人文化中的霸权思想,并通
过审视华人社区的文化传统,构建了华人的身份模式。
关键词:华裔英语文学集体经验社区历史

身份模式

华人在加拿大的历史已有130多年,但长迭一个世纪的种族歧视和隔离使他们处于加拿大
社会的边缘位置。直到本世纪70年代,随着北美民权运动、女权运动的兴盛以及后殖民主义思潮
的产生,加拿大华人如同其他少数民族,开始冲破万马齐暗般的沉寂和有系统的种旗压迫,书写
自己社区的历史和故事。
加拿大华裔英语文学诞生于70年代中期温哥华的“加拿大华裔作家协会”之中,以1979年

出版的作品集《不可剥夺的大米}(Inalienable Rice)为标志。20年来,加拿大华裔作家以不同的
文学体裁和形式表达华人社区集体的和个人的经验,创作了一大批优秀作品。例如,温斯顿・克
里斯特菲・康(Winston
(Fred

Christopher

Kam)的戏剧《单身汉》(Bachelor—Man,1985),弗莱德・王

Wong)的诗集《等待萨斯喀彻温河》(Waiting

For

Saskachewan,1986),保尔・叶(Paul

Yee)的故事集《金山的故事}(Tales From Gold Mountain,1989),丹尼斯・钟(Denis Chong)的
家族传记《妾的孩子们》(The Concubine's Children,1989),埃美林・劳(Evelyn Lau)的散文作
品《逃离:一个街头女孩的日记}(Runaway:Diary of



Street

Kid,1989),李群英(Sky Lee)的长

篇小说《残月楼》(Disappearing Moon Caf6,1990)以及华裔作协出版的第二部作品集《多嘴的
鸟}(Many—mouthed Birds,1991)等作品引人注目,使华裔文学成为当代加拿大文坛上一股不可

忽视的新兴力量。
加拿大华裔英语文学是基于集体的经验和华人社区这一独特语境中的文学。它以打破华人
集体的沉默,书写华人社区的历史为使命,批判了加拿大社会中的种族主卫和白人文化中的霸权
主卫,并通过审视社区自身的文化传统,重塑社区的人物形象,建构了当代加拿大华人的身份模
式。

华人在加章大一百多年的历史包含了辛酸和泪水。种族主义的幽灵游荡于加拿大社会的各
个角落,把华人视为“异已”、“他者”。尽管早期华人在加拿大的建设中付出了辛勤的劳动,甚至生
命的代价,但他们未被写进加拿大的历史。相反,在相当长的一段时期,排华势力愈演愈烈。华人
被迫从事修筑铁路,砍伐树木,洗衣,煮饭等白人不屑干的活计。即便如此,白人还是对华人课以
重税,或干脆把他们挤走。为加强对华人的排斥和隔离,白人种族主义者通过新闻报道、通俗文化
・127・

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加拿大华裔英语文学的兴起
等大肆渲染华人社区的阴暗面,把中国城描绘成肮脏、邪恶、危险之地,把华人看成喜好赌博、贪
吸鸦片之徒。更有甚者,利用文学为种族主义、排华政策张目。格列恩・华德(H・Glynn Ward)
在《墙上的作品》(The Writing

On

thejwall)中,把华人丑化成无恶不作的恶棍、淫徒,并用鸦片

逼迫白人妇女为娟。罗伯特・克瑞奇(Robert Kroetsch)给《恶土》(The Badland)这部小说中的

华人厨师取了一个污辱性的名字——中国佬“灰熊”,把厨师烹饪、伺候进餐与女人做爱的方式以
及他的沉默与作者所见的一只灰熊联系起来。小说通过把华人厨师“野蛮”的行为与船上自人的
“文明”举止相对照,进一步宣扬白人种族主义的优越论。



因此,批判种族主义与重写社区的历史是当代加拿大华裔作家的首要任务,也是他们文学创
作中的重要主题。作家唐拉德・叶(Donald Yee)指出,加拿大华裔作家在歌颂个人与社区的抗
争、生存和发屉的同时,必须写种族主义,“种族主义是我们历史的一部分”。而且,他还勾划了华
裔作家的政治任务:第一,重写现有的加拿大历史、纠正过去的错误;第二,矫正现有种族主义文
化中的社区人物形象,使当代加拿大华人具有更多令人尊敬的个人身份。o
旱在一个世纪以前,以笔名“水仙花”著称的华裔女作家E・伊顿深入了解华人的身世和疾
苦,描写华人遭受的歧视和艰辛,其短篇集《春香夫人》(Mrs

Spring Fragrance,1912)状写了早

期华人移民的艰辛生活和遭受的种族歧视,作品中的“苦人”(Ku Rum)是早期华人的象征。当代
加章大华裔文学继承了这样的主题,再现了早期华人在加拿大的生活经历。“金山”这一具有历史
见证意义和神秘色彩的环境不断出现于华裔作家的笔下。然而,在进块象征繁荣、希望,神奇、泊
漫的北美土地上,早期华人并没有实现他们的梦想。也没有感受到自由世界里的平等。在恶劣的

自然环境和人文环境中,他们饱受了生活的磨难与种族主义的歧视。戏剧《单身汉》中的华工们抱
着淘金的梦想,背井离乡,来到金山,他们中有人在铁路上工作了50年,却一无所获;有人干尽各
种苦活,仍贫困潦倒;有人参加过世界大战,伤残归来后,倍受歧视;有人甚至丧命于人为的事故。
《铁路的灵魂》(保尔-叶)中的小徐从中国来到金山寻找父亲,一路所见满目凄凉,所闻怨声载
道,最后在一个来完工的隧道里见到了父亲的鬼魂。沾满血迹和泥土的鬼魂向儿子气愤地说道:
“我死了,但不解恨。这里的一次事故使很多人丧生。在工人们离开前,他们就引爆了。一块巨石
掉下来,把我们压得糟碎。他们把白人埋在教堂附近,把我们扔进河里,河水把我们冲走,我们设
有最后的安息地。”这如泣如怨的述说把白人种族主义者草管人命的本性揭示得淋漓尽致。
华裔作家通过描绘早期华工的悲惨遭遇揭示了种族主义对华人的迫害吼盈金山梦的谎言,
同时也展示了华人在建设加拿大的历史上所做出的不可磨灭的功绩。因此,重新发现金山的历史
必要性在于通过文学创作探寻杜区的历史,创建华人自己的神话。
“寻找尸骨”这一隐喻,以回应历史的真实性,在加拿大华裔文学作品中反复出现。1891年,
维多利亚。华人慈善协会”组织了拾捡、收埋铁路华工尸骨的活动。源于这一历史事件,“寻找尸骨
之族”成了许多华裔作家创作中的共同主题。他们把“寻找尸骨”与探寻社区的历史结合起来,谱
写了华人牡区的英雄故事。吉姆・王・徐(Jim Wong Chu)的诗集《中国城的鬼》(Chinatown’s
Ghosts)通过歌颂华人作为加拿大建设者和社区祖先的地位,重写了加拿大的部分历史。《残月
楼》中的王伟昌在拾捡尸骨的旅程中,先辈们的英魂不仅使他萤建丁自我,也使他找到了生存的

勇气。当他见到散落在铁路旁的尸骨时,他明白了“在这寂静无声的森林里,他拥有了他们——那
些从高山上摔下来的叔父,那些被激流卷走的叔父,那些被埋在山洞里的叔父。此时,他不再害
怕,也不再感到陌生。象他们一样,他将再次从这些四散的尸骨中重建自我,他将忍受一切。”保尔
・叶把“寻找父亲”与“寻找尸骨”结合起来,通过鬼魂的述说以及富有神秘、象征意义的安葬仪
・】28・

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外国文学研究

2001年第3期

式,创造丁华人英雄的传岢故事。故事中的小椽遵照父亲鬼魂的授意,把筷子当作死难华工的厂
骨,把草垫当作他们的躯体,然后将它们紧紧捆牢,埋在高山之蚶,止他们的灵魂得到安息。在小
棣完成这一神圣的仪式之后,发现他用于登山的绳索变成丁一条神奇的巨龙,守护着高山上的坟
墓。正是这些永生不灭的铁路之魂使小徐及成千上万的华工以顽强的毅力抗争于北美这块土地
之上。

在表现加拿大华工的生存境遇及集体价值的同时,加拿大华裔作家,尤其是女作家以深情的
笔触叙说了华人妇女的不幸遭遇,并从历史、文化的导探寻了华人妇女命运的变迁,构建了华人
社区妇女的历史。种族主义与性别压迫,人权与妇女问题是加拿大华裔英语文学中的另一重要主
题。



如果说种族主义使“金山”的华人劳工生活失意,那么种族与性别的双重压迫使早期的华人
妇女受到更大的伤害。反华政策的推行,使得华人社区的男女比例严重失调。1929年的多伦多,
男女之间的比例为16比1。生活在北美的早期华人妇女大多是邮寄新娘,或被拐骗而来的妇女。
她们固守在中国城的餐馆、洗衣房,从事白人不愿干的苦活,或靠出卖肉体维持生计。种族隔离与

男权压迫使她们的生活苦不堪言。温斯顿・克里斯特菲・康、李群英、丹尼斯・钟等华裔女作家
在她们的作品中再现了华人妇女的生存困境,批判了种族主义,尤其是男权主义对妇女的迫害。

《单身汉》中吴太太和春妮的苦难可以说是早期北美华人妇女不幸生活的缩影。象征中国传
统妇女命运的吴^太,一辈子沉默彝占,谦卑柔顺。她在传统婚蛔的安排下,嫁给晏先生,在多伦
多的中国城开丁一家咖啡馆。她恪尽职守,操持家业,任劳任怨,仍得不到平等的人格和丈夫的尊
重。她不过是倒候男人的工具,性的玩偶,或是丈夫的私有财产。当荣馆里的男人们见到吴太太
时,不禁想起自己的婆娘,想起用奶喂养白已的母亲,想起曾摘过的一朵菊花或茉莉犯。性压抑所
造成的变奄心理使男人们不尊重妇女的人格。为,儿十钱是先生竞要自己的妻于陪别的男人睡

觉。这种耻辱使吴^^饮恨自杀。戏剧中的一男一位女性——春妮,也遭受丁生活的艰辛和性的
摧残。她被父亲嫁给一个年老的商凡,女儿-生下来就桃丈夫扔进丁垃圾堆。j球愤的春牲逃离丈
夫后,几经磨难被卖到盘山当了妓女:坎坷的命运造就丁春妮不剧的性格。吴太太的悲剧使春妮
打破沉默痛斥男权主义者及男权文化给妇女带来的种种苦难,诸如强迫女孩缠足,威逼成年女子

嫁给小丈夫,拐卖妇女到旧金山,典妻赚钱。春妮在斥责这些男人们时,把批判的矛头更多指向传
统的男权主义观念。在戏的结尾,春妮为首主持吴太太的葬礼仪式。她没有按照传统习俗烧纸钱,
而以扔响当当的硬币和哭丧的形式慰藉死者。“我们埋葬吴太太……为她的苦难哭泣;”“我们埋
葬吴太太,但仍听到她的哭喊。…‘我们尊重吴太太以及她的种种一切……”就在吴太太葬礼仪式
开始时,多伦多欢庆自治领日的游行喧闹声消失了。显然,吴太太的葬礼不仅埋葬了她的躯体,也

埋葬了她及华人妇女的沉默,埋葬了造成她们苦难的种族主义与性别主义。而且,葬礼仪式还象
征着觉醒了的春妮的心灵愈合。在春妮象征性地找到一块被异性欣赏的“黄金”时,她感受到一种
从未有过的尊严。“兄弟们,感谢你们……我埋葬十年后,把我的尸骨挖出来,擦干净,把断裂的尸
骨补好,让我的双脚完整。这样,我能站在祖先面前……按照他们的意愿。”无疑,剧作家把春妮的
口头“遗嘱”与金山环境中的“寻找尸骨”的主题联系起来,肯定了华人妇女在社区中的平等地位。
加拿大华裔作家在描述华人妇女的不幸遭际时,走出了单一的性别对抗模式,不仅批判了种
族主义与男权主义,而且审视了妇女自身的心理缺陷。中国传统伦理观念历史地积淀成中国妇女
・1 29・

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加拿大华裔英语文学的兴起
的软弱、依附、顺从心理。男尊女卑、男主女从的传统思想成为一种“集体无意识”使华人妇女循环
在古老的、压抑自身的生命方式之中。一些妇女自己是男权文化的受害者,却又无意识地充当了
它的同谋,压抑一代又一代年轻的女性生命。《残月楼》中的三代妇女就生存于这种女性自我压
抑、自我摧残的文化怪圈。小说中的第一代女性人物,王伟昌的妻子李木兰,42岁时带着儿子从
中国广东来到加拿大温哥华与丈夫团聚。作为温哥华中国城最富裕的商人妻子,李木兰并没有感

到生活的幸福。“金山的男人像石头一样冷漠无情”。在这块陌生的土地上,她只能依靠丈夫而获
得自己的身份。即使丈夫对她冷淡、疏远,“她也必须默默地忍受一切。”儿子成年后,她张罗从家
乡娶了媳妇冯梅。儿媳结婚五年没有怀孕使她恼怒不安。“不孝有三,无后为大”的封建传统观念
深入她的灵魂。为让王家传宗接代,她导演了一幕幕荒唐的悲剧。首先,她毫无怜悯地要冯梅带着
所有证件离开加拿大回中国娘家,明知这种耻辱会使被休弃的媳妇宁愿自杀也不愿回家。当冯梅
表示坚斑不服从时,她卫想到借肚生子,强迫儿子与啦馆的士仆同居,却不知借肚生的儿子不是
王家的血脉。而冯梅由此"始醒悟,知道H有生育才能保住她在壬家的地位。于是,她与器馆的一
位伙计(王伟昌的私生儿于)暗地往来,先后生丁二女一儿。有r藏子以后,冯梅学会开车,卫经营
生意,把房地产干得红红火火,成了王采最有权力的女人。冯梅在自己的婚姻中尝尽丁苦头,但在
女儿们的婚事上叉横加干涉。当她知道小女儿掰:子的男友是她过去情人的儿子时,她充当起传统
伦理道德的卫道土威逼女儿。苏子生产时失去摈子,不A古恨自杀。苏于的悲剧可以说是冯梅的
父权制观念以及她过去的罪孽所致。作者通过冯梅的鬼魂之口,诉说了父枉制观念对妇女的身、

心戕害。“如果我拒绝为男人或他们的种姓生育藏干,那告怎样?我的女儿能按自己的意腻生育燕
子,那该多么自由!我忘了我不应该与男性权威同谋对付她们……”在小说结尾,第四代女性——
小说的叙述者终于高呼道:“经过三代人的抗争,女儿们自由了!”小说通过描述金山这一特定历
史、环境中一家四代女性命运的变迁,审视了“父权制庙宇”里女性自身的心理缺陷,并通过女性
意识的集体觉醒,解构了男权主义文化,颠覆了父权制的统治。

在重写社区历史、创建社区文学的过程中,华裔作家都十分关注文学中的华人身份问题以及
对两种文化的取舍态度。生于加拿大的华人不同于他们的先辈们,他们接受了西方的教育和文

化,认同了西方的价值观念和生活方式,故国对他们来说是遥远的。但是其种族身份,又使他们游
离于主流社会,成为“永久的外人”。在西方强势文化的“俯视”下,华裔对本族文化产生了自卑感。
对故国的价值观持审视甚至批判的态度。,对本族文化的排斥与认同、爱与恨的矛盾心态,成为了
加拿大华裔英语文学中的又一重要主题。而文学中反映出的矛盾与分裂常常通过两代之间的冲
突来展开。

第一代移居加拿大的华人由于生活在从语言文化到风土人情全然不同的社会中,往往由于
思乡,由于受到歧视与迫害并且不为社会所接受而牢牢固守故国的传统。《我母亲为何不会讲英
语}(Garry Engkent)故事里的母系米加章大30年,却不会≯l・半句越语。“母亲不学英语,并不足

因为她不聪明,年龄太大,也不足田为父裟的阻挠.而是因为她害怕学英文告改变她的中国灵
魂。”母亲年逾70年时,为获得政府的养老金.婴儿子陪她击移民局申请加拿大公民身份,便反复
催促儿予给移民官“红包”,使得儿子在移民官面前尴尬难堪,丢尽面子。《巾周城他们说话声音
大》(Ann jew)中的立主人公小时候常跟着奶奶中去国城拜访亲友,懂事后却讨厌去那里。她4:

喜欢中国城怕人说话声音太,也不蒋欢f;l=亲喝汤时的咕嘟声。拈她看来,潍岳声音大,喝场声音响
・】30・

万方数据

外国文学研究

2001年第3期

是不文刚的举止。而她小愿与中国人交朋友,喜欢和白人在一起,这使得她母亲心神不安,因为
“她怀疑其它所有的文化”。当父母发现她找丁一个白人男朋友时,母亲气得大骂,父亲扇了她一
耳光。无疑,这种两代人之问的冲突是由于两种文化之间的相互排斥以及西方社会对东方文化的
褒贬所致。在西方人眼里,东文人有着“懒惰”、“愚昧”的习性,远离文明的中心。生长于加拿大的

华人认同了两方的价值观念,对父母迫切要求他们接受故国的文化传统感到困惑、苦闷,甚至以
逃离家庭来摆脱本族文化的影响。《逃离:一个街头女菝的日记》是反映这一主题的典型作品。
这部作品基于作者个人的经历,描述了一位14岁的姑娘逃离家庭、成为街暑妓女和吸毒者

的心理过程。移民父母由于生恬的艰难、社会的歧视便把仝部希望寄托在女儿身上,盼她以后能
当医生或律师。望子成龙的期待,对女儿的严格管束以及把女儿看成自己财产的行为使在西方文
化里长大的女儿难以接受。父母固守本族的文化传统,对加拿大文化一无所知,对女儿的要求也
不甚了解。母亲经常给她讲中国古代学者勤学苦读的传奇故事,甚至用体罚来逼女儿学习。尽管

她每年获得荣誉,甚至得到过文学竞赛奖,但父母不支持她写作,不赞同她参加和平运动,皿不准
她出去玩耍。母亲还不给她买牛仔裤和T恤衫,把自己穿过的绿简裙给女儿,结果使女儿被同学
们取笑。叛逆的女儿斌图逃离家庭寻找自由,殊不知投身色相市场使她更加“边缘”化。叙述者把
父母看成文化上的“他者”,把自己看成性别r的“他者”,不可避免地把自己写进了双重殖民文化

的身份。这种双重殖民化——作为交易的性物体的性别身份和作为非白人的种族身份导致叙述
者的自我否定。

面对两代人、两种文化之间的冲突这一不可避免的事实,大多数华裔作家持着客观、理性的

态度,认识到仅仅肯定其中之一而摈弃另一种文化与价值观是不能解决闽题的,特别是对生长在
加章大的华人,必须正确了解与尊重中华文化的传统,将处于两个世界之间的无归属状态转化为
连接两个世界的力量。丹尼斯・钟的《妾的孩子们》是展示这一冲突与融合主题的长篇力作。

作品以家族传记的形式,嘲绕一家三代妇女命运的变迁以及在加拿大和中国的两个家庭的
历史沧桑,讲述了两代母女之间由对立到接受,由币理解到理解,由矛盾到和谐的嬗变过程。祖
母梅英作为陈山的妾来到温哥华,在中国城的一家咖啡馆干活。梅英聪明、能干、漂亮,是两个家
庭生话的主要供养者。但作者没有把她“理想化”,而把她看成特定文化背景中的历史人物。梅英
生育了三个女儿,两个大盘儿被丈夫送回中国的家由大蚂抚养。小女儿威妮的出生使梅英想有个
儿子的梦幻破灭。在威妮的童年记忆巾,有次母亲把她的头发剪了,装扮成男孩的模样,照了一张
“母子”像。母亲的古怪行为在女儿的心理投下了阴影,使她的童年充满了“恐惧和困惑”。母亲困
家庭生活的失意而导致的嗜赌、酗洲以及跟其他男人的往来使女儿感到羞辱。加之在学校读书、
在医院当护士时所受到的种种蛙视使她对父母坚守的故国的价值观念及生活方式持否定态度。
父母反复提起的中国家及两位姐姐对她来说是遥远而陌生的。她与父母的关系也时常紧张,甚至

恶化到要对簿公堂。在母亲的葬礼上,威妮没有哭,也不想要母亲的首饰。作为第二代加拿大华
人,威妮生活在两种文化剧烈冲突的夹缝之中。父母的生活方式及种族自卑感使她试图抹去她的
“中国性”,斩断她与故同的联系。她儿次拒绝女儿提出的回中国老家看看的想法,对女儿说道:

“在中国我没有任何人”。然而,斩不断的血缘,分不开的亲情叉使她以复杂的情感去接受她的“中
国性”。她把母亲生前的照片仔细剪贴在相册上,珍藏在自己的柜里,也珍藏在自己的心里。当回
到中国老家见到胞姐姐时,她仿佛从姐妣身上“看到了母亲”,发现“姐姐的声音也像母亲的。”而
当中国亲人对母亲做出不公正的评价时,她觉得只有她才了解母亲。“他们视为父亲纪念物的房
屋”实际上是建在母_班的背上,建在“她作侍应生的工资和智慧”之上。威妮对母亲由怨恨到思念,
・1 3]・

万方数据

加拿大华裔英语文学的兴起
由不理解到理解的过程是新的时代里两种不同文化由冲突走向和谐的象征。而架起这座桥梁的
使者是生活在新时代的第三代华人。作为叙述者的第三代女性,丹妮斯难以忘怀与自己血脉相连
的故国文化,难以忘怀祖辈的历史沧桑。她留学中国,学习中国晤言文化,催促母亲回中国老家,
是为了恢复失去的历史,恢复对故国文化的尊重。“母亲讲给女儿的故事激起我这样一种感情:我
们曾有过的生活,以后还将继续。由于母亲、陈山和梅英,我从不幸中发现善良,从过去的耻辱中
发现自尊。失去的历史由我和母亲恢复,并赋予过去新的意义,也许足以为子孙后代在人生的旅
途上提供方向。”1989年,丹妮斯同母亲再次回到中国,家庭的经济发展和亲人们的生活变化使
她们感到了由衷的欣喜。这不仅改变了她们过去对中国的认识,也解构7西方文化中将东方看成
提供原材料和廉价劳力,等待西方的金钱和技术的=分法的对立观念。


加拿大华裔英语文学基于华人种族语境和集体经验之上,以作品集为最早的创建方式,以现
有的文学类型为工具,通过运用多种对话手段来接近加拿大的历史,再现华人的生活经历。华裔
作家往往采用第一人称的叙述手法,把家庭历史与社区历史结合起来,通过与家庭或社区先人们
的对话来恢复社区的历史、矫正社区的形象。社区历史与文学之间的联系构成了华裔作家创作中
的鲜明特色,并促使“集体自我”这一身份模式的建构。
“集体自我”是加拿大华裔文学中一种有效的身份模式。这种模式的形成与华人在加拿大的
境遇密切相关。加拿大社会的文化同化否定华人的双重身份。“个人牲社会上的成功和发展意味 着必须离开杜区,同化进自由白人中产阶级之中。”o这种文化上的霸权主义把人当作种族群体对

待,强迫他们作为群体来体验自己。由于被迫形成一种否定、整体性的主体——地位,所以被压迫
的个人便通过把那种地位转变成一种肯定的、集体的主体地位来回答。如果没有公认的社区历
史,华裔个人都无法期待真正的平等与尊重。因此,华裔作家以打破社区的集体沉默、书写社区的
集体经验来回应华人在主流文化中的边缘性,并通过肯定“集体自我”的共同价值,达到解构种族
主义与霸权主义的目的。第一部文学选集《不可剥夺的大米Hnallenable Rice的标题便是象独具
特色和悠久传统的东文文明。标题源自美国《独立宣言》:“人人生而平等,造物者赋予他们不可剥
夺的权利(Unlaienable rights)”,表达了为争取中华文化在加牵大社会中拥有一份权利的强烈

愿望。书封面上醒目地用中英文标明“新品种”和Extra Fancy正是反拨欧美文化一统天下的先

声。《多嘴的鸟——当代加拿大华裔文学选集》更加鲜明地表示,华裔文学”要打破长期以来自我
压抑的沉默,从心底发出呼喊。”
加皋大华裔作家在批判种族歧视、探寻人社区历史、建构华人身份模式的同时,以客观、理性
的态度审视了故国的文化传统,并在中、西文化的冲突中找到了新的契合点,从而使华裔文学不
仅丰寓了加拿大文学的内涵,而且成为当代加拿大多元文化中相互沟通的重要手段。
①@Lien

Chao:Beyond Si拓nce:Chinese Candlan Literature In English,TSAR Toronto,Canada,1997.

(作者单位:四川大学文学与新闻学院中文系

邮编:610064)

责任编辑:苏晖

・1 32・

万方数据

加拿大华裔英语文学的兴起
作者:
作者单位:
刊名:
英文刊名:
年,卷(期):
被引用次数:

罗婷
四川大学文学与新闻学院中文系,610064
外国文学研究
FOREIGN LITERATURE STUDIES
2001(3)
1次

参考文献(1条)
1.Lien Chao Beyond Silence :Chinese Candian Literature In English 1997

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引用本文格式:罗婷 加拿大华裔英语文学的兴起[期刊论文]-外国文学研究 2001(3)…...

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