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Tuberkuloza (in Czech Language)

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Tuberkulóza
Co je to tuberkulóza?
Tuberkulóza je bakteriální onemocnění způsobené bakterií tuberculosis neboli Kochův bacil, který může napadnout kterýkoliv orgán – ve většině případů plíce. Je statisticky dokázáno, že zabíjí víc osob než AIDS, malárie a všechny tropické choroby dohromady, tudíž se řadí mezi nejzávažnější a nejčastější příčiny smrti bakteriálního původu na světě.

Bližší charakteristika bakterie
Jedná se o bakterii s velmi pomalým metabolismem a vysokou odolností. Také její rozmnožování je velmi pomalé (dělení jedné bakterie probíhá jednou za 48 hodin) a k nakažení zdravého dospělého člověka potřebuje být zhruba v počtu 100 000.

Jak se šíří?
Bakterie nejčastěji vstupuje do našeho těla dýchacími cestami (z 90% všech případů), kdy ji vykašlává nemocný člověk do vzduchu. Pro tento způsob přenosu je však nutný dlouhodobější blízký kontakt s touto osobou. Dále také velmi vzácně potravou jako je požití mléka infikované krávy nebo stykem s tkáněmi nemocného (např. při chirurgickém zákroku).

Průběh a následek nemoci
Když tyto bakterie vdechneme do plic, automaticky se spustí náš imunní systém ve formě speciálních bílých krvinek, které bakterie pohltí. Tím se vytvoří dojem, že naše tělo situaci zvládlo. Ale může se stát, že uvnitř krvinky bakterie přežijí a začnou se množit. Poté se bílá krvinka rozpadne a uvolněné bakterie znovu pohltí další krvinky. Jejich následným rozpadem vznikají zánětlivá ložiska, z kterých se přesunou do nejbližších lymfatických uzlin, kde vytvoří zánět. Z důsledku zánětu uzlina zkornatí (v tomto stádiu jde vidět na rentgenu) a po prasknutí se bakterie dostanou do celého těla. Následkem je úplné vyčerpání imunitního systému a smrt.

Jaké jsou její příznaky?
Tuberkulóza nemá zcela specifické příznaky a u některých nemocných může probíhat alespoň v počátečních stadiích dokonce i bezpříznakově. Nejčetnější je dlouhodobý kašel trvající déle než 3 týdny doprovázený celodenním vykašláváním hlenu, teplota, nadměrné pocení při spánku, zvýšená únava a ztráta hmotnosti.

Prevence a léčba
Prevencí je očkování speciálním kmenem bakterie, které se provádí do kůže levého ramene v nejbližší době po narození u každého z nás. Po očkování získáme proti tuberkulóze protilátky a na místě očkování se vytvoří malé zajizvení. Existují ale případy, kdy si řada lidí i přes očkování obranné látky nevytvořilo. Při prokázané tuberkulóze se provádí léčba speciálními antibiotiky. Trvá několik měsíců a je poměrně náročná, neboť alespoň nějaký čas musí probíhat v izolaci od okolí.

Zdroje http://www.stefajir.cz http://www.lekari-bez-hranic.cz http://www.zdrav.cz http://www.nemoci.vitalion.cz http://www.rozalio.cz http://www.wikipedie.cz…...

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